October 24, 2017

Brain Size, Race, and IQ

Summary: There are four methods of measuring brain size, and studies utilizing all four methods have found that Whites have larger brains than Asians who have larger brains than Blacks. If you adjust for body size, the position of Whites and Asians flips. There are at least six lines of evidence to suggest that genes explain part of these racial differences: the differences are present at birth, around the world, the Black/White brain size gap is not smaller today than it was 100 years ago, mixed race individuals have brain sizes in-between their parent’s races, and, finally, traits that typically co-evolve with brain size differ racially in a way that mirrors brain size differences. Moreover, there is reason to think that climate was an important evolutionary factor driving these changes. Finally, racial brain size differences can account for some, but not all, of the racial IQ gaps. 

  1. Four Methods; One Finding

In 1994 Harvey et al preformed the first study comparing the brain size of different racial groups using MRI technology to measure brain size. They confirmed previous findings: Blacks have smaller brains than Whites. The same finding was reproduced by Jones et al (1994), though the difference wasn’t statistically significant. Chee et al (2010) found that Whites have larger brains than East Asians.  Finally, Tang et al (2010) found that Whites have longer brains than East Asians while East Asians have wider and  taller brains than Whites. Unfortunately, all of these studies have very limited sample sizes and, with the exception of Tang et al, failed to control for differences in the sexual composition of racial samples. Thus, if, for instance, the Black samples had a higher female to male ratio than the White samples then, because men have larger brains than women, Black’s brain size will be depressed relative to Whites.

These findings correspond well with what older studies measuring endocranial volume found. Endocranial volume is measured by filling the skull of a deceased person with some substance, often mustard seed, and then measuring the amount of said substance that fit into the skull. Beals (1984) aggregated data on roughly 20,000 subjects from past studies which showed East Asians having the largest skulls followed by Whites followed by Blacks. LKLKLI

A famous critique of this line of work was launched by Gould (1981) who argued that researchers involved in this work, most famously the 19th century anthropologist Samuel Morton, unconsciously allowed their racist views to cause them to back material more tightly into White skulls than into Black skulls and thus inflate the racial difference. Gould also accused Morton of excluding data from his tables that increased the racial disparity in brain size in favor of Whites. Both of these accusations have been shown to be false. Morton’s skulls were re-examined by modern researchers who reproduced Morton’s results, and the data that Gould accused Morton of omitting was actually included by Morton in the same book that Gould cited, just on different pages (Lewis et al. 2011). Gould was thus exposed as nothing more than a petty propagandist who believed that his clout in academia would prevent people from noticing his deceit.

Of course, a third way to measure brain size is to rip a brain out of a skull during an autopsy and measure its volume. Autopsy work done in the late 2000’s found that Whites averaged the largest brains, followed by, East Asians, followed by Blacks (Rushton and Ankney, 2009).  This same method has been used to confirm the Back/White/Asian brain size disparity for well over a century:

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Source: Rushton (1995)

Tobias (1970) offered a highly influential critique of this literature which in turn was cited and popularized by Gould. In it, Tobias argued that comparisons of the brain size of racial groups based on autopsies were invalid because they failed to control for a wide variety of variables that could impact brain size. Said variables included, but were not limited to, age of death, nutritional intake early in life, occupational status, cause of death, time of death, temperature the brain was kept in after death, and the exact place the brain was cut from the spinal cord.

Some of these controls would obviously be misleading because of the correlation between things Tobias wanted held constant and intelligence (occupational status for instance) and so holding them constant would involve holding a part of the racial IQ gap constant. That being said, of these criticisms are valid. However, there is no reason to think that any of these problems would bias the results in favor of one race or another. And random error introduced can be overcome via aggregation. Thus, Rushton (1995) combined all the data from the studies Tobias critiqued and found the now familiar pattern of Whites having the largest brains, followed by Asians, followed by Blacks.

The fourth way to measure brain size is to estimate it based on external head size. The major advantage to this study is that researchers can cheaply measure the brain sizes of large and representative samples of living people. One of the largest of these studies was Rushton (1994) which had a sample in the tens of thousands and found that Whites had the largest brains, followed by East Asians, followed by Blacks. Similar results were found by Rushton (1992) in an analysis of 6,325 military personnel, and by Rushton (1997) in an analysis of nearly 40,000 Americans.

As we’ve seen, some of these methods are controversial. However, many of these criticisms are invalid and the criticisms which are valid would not bias the results with respect to race. Moreover, all four methods result in the same findings regarding the racial ordering of brain size. Given this, we can take it as well established that Whites have larger brains than Asians who in turn have larger brains than Blacks.

  1. Brain Size and Body Size

The racial ordering by brain size changes if you adjust for racial differences in body size. When done, East Asians have the largest brains, followed by Whites, followed by Blacks (For instance: Rushton, 1992 and Rushton, 1994). Adjustments for body size became much more common in the late 20th century, causing the racial ordering reported in papers to change. Lieberman (2001) invented some creative science fiction about how this change reflected Japan’s economic success during this time period which caused the evil racist professors, who want to justify whatever the economic statues quo is, to change the racial brain size ordering. But body size adjustments are what actually happened.

This brings up an interesting question: which matters more for intelligence absolute brain size or brain size relative to body size? It is plausible to think that larger bodies require more brains to “manage”. But how strong is that relationship? Do organisms with bodies 10% larger need brains that are 10% larger, 5% larger, or 1 % larger, in-order to manage their extra body size? The fact is that we don’t know, and, because of this, we don’t really know whether East Asians or Whites get a larger boost to their IQ as a result of their brain size. (We do, however, know that both groups have larger brains than Blacks.)

  1. The Cause of Racial Brain Size Differences 

So, the races differ in brain size. But why? Well, there are at least six lines of evidence suggesting that genes explain at least some, though not necessarily all, of the racial brain size disparities.

The first thing to note is that brain size in the general population has a heritability of 87%. Thus, almost all the differences between individuals in brain size are caused by genes.

Secondly, we should note that racial brain size differences are present at, and even before, birth. Thus, Schultz (1922) found that White fetuses had larger brain cases than Black fetuses in a sample of 623 fetuses. Similarly, Rushton (1997) found that, at birth, Asians had larger brains than White who in turn had larger brains than Blacks in a sample of 35,859 American infants. Lastly, Ho et al (1980) found that White newborns had larger brains than Black newborns in a sample of 782 infants. The use of Ho et al’s data is controversial, because the racial difference in this sample is due to more Blacks than Whites being born prematurely. It isn’t clear what we should make of this fact, because the norms for what a healthy length of gestation is are based on Whites who physically mature more slowly than Blacks.

The third piece of evidence is that the racial gaps have existed for a long time. In fact, based on the data from the tables above, the White/Black brain size gap doesn’t seem to have gotten any smaller during the 20th century.

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The Asian/White gap has, suggesting that it may be more environmental in origin. (The female data paints the same picture, but there wasn’t enough data to meaningfully break it down into 20 year periods.)

This is in-spite of the fact that the environmental differences between Blacks and Whites have significantly lessened. For instance, racial differences in education and income have fallen, and explicit racism against Blacks is now rare.

Fourthly, racial brain size differences have been found all around the world. For instance, the Beals and Smith data set previously referred to features skulls from over 100 populations world wide. Many of the autopsy studies previously cited were done in East Asia, as were two of the MRI studies. This makes any gene independent cultural explanation less likely.

Fifthly, several studies have shown that mulattoes have an average brain size in between that of Blacks and Whites (Pearl, 1934Bean, 1906). This finding has been established on multiple occasions and is what a hereditarian hypothesis would predict since mulattoes are half White and half Black genetically speaking.

Sixth, many traits which tend to co-evolve with larger brains also differ racially in a way that mirrors the body size adjusted brain size pattern. Rushton and Rushton (2003) looked at 37 anatomical features which 3 textbooks on human evolution identified as tending to co-evolve in the hominid line with larger brains. For instance, larger pelvic size tends to co-evolve with brain size so that mothers can give birth to larger brained infants.  Rushton then utilized 5 forensic anthropology textbooks to look at racial differences in these traits. These traits followed the East Asian>White>Black pattern in 25 out of 31 cases. The probability of this happening at random is .000000001.

Similarly, Rushton (2004) showed that, across 234 mammalian species, brain size correlates with longevity, gestation time, birth weight, litter size, age of first mating, body weight, and body length. Various studies have shown that each of these variables also differ between the races in a way that, based on what we find across the animal kingdom, would predict the body size corrected brain size differences we observe (Rushton, 1995Templer 2006Rushton and Templer, 2009;).

Thus, we have six lines of evidence all of which would be predicted by a hereditarian view on racial differences in brain size. While each line of evidence on its own may not be compelling, the combination of all six seems to strongly imply that racial brain size gaps are partly heritable.

It is worth noting that the racial brain size gaps are probably not entirely attributable to genes. Some authors, including Richard Nisbett, have plausibly argued that nutrition also plays a role. However, there explanations are not mutually exclusive, no environmental variables has been shown to account for the majority of the gap, and,  as we have seen, there are many separate lines of evidence indicating that genes also play a role

The Evolution of Brain Size Differences

There is good evidence that the races evolved different brain sizes in response to climate. Specifically, various studies have found that a population’s brain size correlates with climate related variables. For instance, Pearce and Dunbar (2011) ‘s data set produces a correlation of .74 between a population’s brain size and its latitude. Similarly, Ash and Gallup (2007) found a correlation of .48 between the size of 109 fossilized human skulls and the latitude at which they were found. Further still, Bailey and Geary (2009) analyzed 175 skulls ranging in age from 10,000 years old to 1.9 million years old and found a correlation of -.41 between brain size and winter temperature and -.61 between size and latitude (larger brains were found in areas more distant from the equator).

This also, by the way, constitutes a seventh arguments for a genetic explanation of racial brain size differences. After all, this data shows that, broadly speaking, the same geographic variables that predict brain size today also did so 10,000+ years ago, suggesting that population brain size differences have been with us for a very long time. This data also gives us reason to think that distance from the equator, and the cold climates that come with it, had something to do with the evolutionary pressures that lead to racial differences in brain size.

Race, IQ, and Brain Size

To end this post, let’s look at how much of the racial IQ gaps can be accounted for by racial brain size differences.

Lynn (2015) used Smith and Beals data set of 20,000 skulls from 122 populations to estimate that roughly 30% of the African-European IQ gap can be statistically accounted for by brain size differences. By contrast, brain size differences would actually predict an Asian-European IQ gap 35% larger than the one that actually exists. Thus, brain size is probably one of many factors, both biological and environmental, which account for racial intelligence differences.

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  • Frank Jamger

    Good article, covered a lot of bases. Seven years ago, I wrote a summary on this subject and took apart opposing arguments that were getting copy-pasted around at the time.

    Whites have larger brains than Blacks, consistent with their higher intelligence.
    https://www.stormfront.org/forum/t607585/

  • Rob

    General intelligence is inherited and not equally distributed among human races. IQ tests are designed to measure the general innate and immutable mental capability that involves abstract and cognitive thinking, spatial-relations skills, and logical reasoning. They are designed to measure the ability to:

         •   solve novel problems
         •   retain knowledge and apply skills
         •   comprehend complex ideas
         •   plan and learn quickly and from experience
       
    IQ tests are not designed to measure how much a person has learned, but rather whether a person is capable of learning.

    Intelligence, so defined, can be measured, and intelligence tests measure it well. They are among the most accurate (in technical terms, reliable and valid) of all psychological tests and assessments.

    It was discovered that people who did well on one mental test did well on others, regardless of their content. It was reasoned that different tests must draw on the same global capacity, and dubbed that capacity g, for general intelligence.

    There is a mean difference in Black and White scores on mental tests, historically about one standard deviation in magnitude on IQ tests (IQ tests are normed so that the mean is 100 points and the standard deviation is 15). This difference is not the result of test bias, but reflects differences in cognitive functioning. The predictive validity of IQ scores for educational and socioeconomic outcomes is about the same for Blacks and Whites.

    Individual differences in general cognitive ability are reliably measured by IQ tests. IQ is strongly related, probably more than any other single measurable trait, to many important educational, occupational, economic and social variables. IQ is also correlated with a number of variables of the brain, including its size, electrical potentials, and rate of glucose metabolism during cognitive activity. Individual differences in adult IQ are largely genetic, with heritability of about 70 percent. So far, attempts to raise IQ by educational or psychological means have failed to show appreciable lasting effects on cognitive ability and scholastic achievement. The IQ distribution between Blacks and Whites is represented by two largely overlapping bell curves with their means separated by about 15 points, a difference not due to test bias. IQ has the same meaning and practical predictive validity for both groups. Tests do not create differences; they merely reflect them.

    The average score is set at 100, and everyone is rated accordingly. Expressed this way, IQs for a whole population can be arrayed on a single graph. Roughly two-thirds of all Americans fall between 85 and 115, in the fat midsection of the bell-shaped curve, and 95 percent score between 70 and 130.

    By computing a value known as the correlation coefficient, a scientist can measure the degree of association between any two phenomena that are plausibly linked. The correlation between unrelated variables is 0, while phenomena that vary in perfect lock step have a correlation of 1. A correlation of .4 would tell you that 40 percent of the variation in one thing is matched by variation in another, while 60 percent of it is not.

    Current estimates for heritability of IQ ranges up to 0.8 (where 1.0 indicates that monozygotic twins have no variance in IQ and 0 indicates that their IQs are completely uncorrelated). See the Minnesota Twin Family Study, conducted from 1979 to 1999, which followed identical and fraternal twins who were separated at an early age for some fascinating revelations about the powerful influence of genes.

    Studies find no IQ correlation among grown adoptive siblings. But the typical correlations are roughly .35 for half siblings (who share a quarter of their genes), .47 for full siblings (who share half of their genes) and .86 for identical twins (who share all their genes).

    Millions of IQ tests and psychometric experiments conducted world-wide over 100 years have been normed for every conceivable variable and bias, yet demonstrate an intractable intellegence divide between Blacks and the other races. Blacks score lowest on every intelligence test ever devised, including “life”. There has never been an IQ test administered anywhere in the world where the racial rankings didn’t follow the same pattern; Asians, Whites, non-White Hispanics, and then finally Blacks.

    Compared to Blacks, Whites’ brains:

         •   are 7% larger (1438cc versus 1343cc)
         •   are 100 grams heavier
         •   have deeper fissuration in the frontal and occipital regions
         •   have more complex convolutions and larger frontal lobes
         •   have more pyramidal neurons
         •   have 16% thicker supra-grandular layer
         •   react faster on mental chronometry tests
         •   have 600 million more neurons (each carries about 600 billion synapses, which each carry one bit of cortical information)

    Genes contribute to about 90% of the individual variation of brain size.

    Blacks are the only racial group with no DNA from the large-brained Neanderthals, and also the only race without the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which produces increased brain volume.

    Racial activist groups have tried to create their own tests to demonstrate intellectual parity of the races and also attack the integrity of the existing tests and have hired anti-bias experts, but the rankings are always the same; African Blacks average a 70 IQ (only 2% of Whites score this low), but American Blacks average 85 due to mixing with Whites (28% on average), non-White Hispanics 87, Whites 100, Asians 106 and Ashkenazi Jews 115. Interestingly, mixed-race students in South Africa have an IQ of 85 — the same as Blacks in the United States, Britain, and the Caribbean. This is a standard deviation above pure Blacks, but also a standard deviation below Whites.

    Blacks have by far the lowest IQs of any race; 80% score at or below the “low functioning” category. In fact, only the top 16% of Blacks score as high as the top 50% of Whites. Blacks are socially functional at 70 IQ because that is only one standard deviation below their mean; that equates to a White at 85 IQ.

    Even using tests created by Black psychologists and non-verbal tests designed to be culture-free and unbiased, no amount of testing or wishful thinking shows any improvement in Black IQ. Tests that only require the subject to push buttons in response to flashing lights or memorizing sequences of colored squares projected on a screen Blacks perform worse than Whites, and the gap increases as the patterns become more complicated. The test involves rows of colored squares where one from each row has to be matched with another. More complex images which have distinctive features linked by that feature to other images in an increasing number of rows.

    Another test is a list of numbers read aloud and the subject has to repeat them back in forward and reverse order. The subject is given a relevant fact that has to be considered when making otherwise simple manipulations of numbers and identify designated figures or characters in a given amount of time. The “backward digit span” test is not reinforced by any socialization and is not a taught skill for either race; Whites score better at recalling digits presented in order, but recalling the digits in reverse order requires mental transformation and is a good predictor of IQ. The race gap for the backward digit span is twice as great as for the forward test.

    Some tests are completely non-verbal, such as Raven’s Progressive Matrices, Leiter Scale and Kohs Block Design to test pattern recognition, spatial thinking, and reasoning and contain no culturally-specific information.

    Genetics limits an individuals’ upper limit to IQ, and environment determines how much of that innate genetic potential will be reached. No amount of nurturing can make one exceed innate genetic potential.

    The IQ race gap doesn’t begin to correlate firmly with adult IQ until about age five, but studies reveal a one standard deviation race gap present by age three.

    In the United States, self-identified Blacks and Whites have been the subjects of the greatest number of studies. The tests show a Black-White IQ difference of about 15 to 18 points (or about one standard deviation) which implies that between 11 and 16 percent of the black population have an IQ above 100 (the general population median). Consistent results were found for college and university application tests such as the Scholastic Aptitude Test and Graduate Record Examination as well as for tests of job applicants in the corporate sector and in the military.

    The least intelligent ten percent of Whites have IQs below 81; forty percent of Blacks have IQs that low. Only one Black in six is more intelligent than the average White; five Whites out of six are more intelligent than the average Black. These differences show in every test of general cognitive ability that anyone, of any race or nationality, has yet been able to devise. And they are reflected in countless everyday situations, “Life is an IQ test.”

    Further, only one-in-3.5 million (.00003%) African Blacks have an IQ of 140 or higher (genius level). But one-in-83 (1.2%) U.S. Whites is a genius. Therefore the per capita genius rate for U.S.-resident Whites is 41,000 times higher than it is for African Blacks.

    The IQ distribution for US-resident Blacks having an average IQ of 85 and a standard deviation of 12.4 doesn’t mean that there are no Blacks at all with IQs above 140; it means that only one Black in about 218,000 will have an IQ above 140. Meanwhile one-in-83 Whites have an IQ above 140. So given equal sized populations there will be about 2,600 times more White geniuses than Black geniuses. Since there are about 5.5 times more Whites than Blacks in the United States, White geniuses will outnumber Black geniuses by a ratio of about one-to-14,300. Therefore, if all the White people in the USA were replaced by Blacks having the IQ distribution of US-resident Blacks the number of geniuses in the country would fall from about 2.4 million to only about 1,000.

    For every one gifted Black there are 8 gifted Whites, 80% of gifted Blacks are mixed race.

    Incidentally, though the average IQ of East Asians is 6 points higher than the average non-Jewish White, the percentage distribution of East Asians with IQs above 140 is slightly lower. The reason for this is that the range of cognitive variation among Whites is greater than among East Asians. Specifically, Asians’ IQs are more clustered around the mean; therefore, Whites produce more geniuses, but also more morons.

    Psychometricians regard IQ tests as having high statistical reliability. A high reliability implies that although test-takers may have varying scores when taking the same test on differing occasions, and they may have varying scores when taking different IQ tests at the same age, the scores generally agree with one another and across time.

    Standardized intelligence testing has been called one of psychology’s greatest successes and is the field’s most widely-used invention. Since standardized tests were first used to identify learning-impaired children in the early 1900s they have become one of the primary tools for identifying children with learning disabilities, they assist the military place new recruits, job screening and for evaluating professional athletes.

    Some occupations seek candidates within specific IQ ranges. There was a recent case where a police officer candidate was rejected after he scored too high on an intelligence test.

    The NFL famously uses the Wonderlic test in their scouting combines and the racial disparity is evident. Out of a perfect score of 50; offensive tackles=26, centers=25, quarterback=24; versus safeties=19, cornerbacks=18 and receivers=17.

    Black-White IQ Distribution (Google: racial IQ bell curve):

    Blacks:
                     5% above 110 IQ
                     16% above 100 IQ
                     40% above 90 IQ
                     70% above 80 IQ
                     30% below 80 IQ
                     18% below 75 IQ
                     10% below 70 IQ

    Whites:
                     10% above 120 IQ
                     18% above 115 IQ
                     27% above 110 IQ
                     40% above 105 IQ
                     50% above 100 IQ
                     60% below 105 IQ
                     35% below 95 IQ
                     15% below 85 IQ

    So, the top 16% of Black intellectual elites are only as intelligent as the top 50% of Whites.

    As the New York Times put it, “…the difference in I.Q. points between the groups is quite significant. It means that the top sixth of Blacks score only as well on I.Q. tests as do the top half of Whites.”

    IQ scores are used as predictors of educational achievement, special needs, job performance and income. They are also used to study IQ distributions in populations and the correlations between IQ and other variables. The same is true for other cognitive tests such as No Child Left Behind mandated state tests and NAEP tests. All of these cognitive tests show the same racial patterns in test score distribution with Ashkenazi Jews, East Asians (Chinese, Japanese, and Koreans), and Whites showing higher scores than Pacific Islanders, Native Americans, Hispanics, and Blacks showing lower scores.

    The scores on the SAT (especially the SAT-math) and the ACT are for all practical purposes interchangeable with IQ test scores. In 2005, 153,132 Black Americans took the SAT test. They made up 10.4 percent of all SAT test takers. But only 1,132 Black college-bound students scored 700 or above on the math SAT and only 1,205 scored at least 700 on the verbal SAT. On the math SAT, only 0.7 percent of all Black test takers scored at least 700 compared to 6.3 percent of all White test takers. Thus, Whites were nine times as likely as Blacks to score 700 or above on the math SAT. Only 0.16 percent of all Black test takers scored 750 or above compared to 1.8 percent of White test takers. Thus, Whites were more than 11 times as likely as Blacks to score 750 or above on the math SAT.

    This gap is so significant that colleges give a “race bonus” of 230 points to Blacks, 185 to non-White Hispanics and penalize Asians by 50 points, all in an effort to help the low-IQ races gain admittance.

    Studies also show there are some significant differences in what is called the structure of mental abilities. For example, if you took a sample of Black and White children, all of whom had scored around 100 on the WISC-R (the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children) meaning the Black kids in the sample were well above the Black average — you would find significant Black-White differences on six of the thirteen subtests. The average Black child would do better on arithmetic and digit span; where the average White child would do better on comprehension, block design, object assembly, and mazes.

    A person’s level of moral reasoning is correlated with intelligence. Studies sequencing the stages of moral development support what we all know; you have to be cognitively mature to reason morally. IQ tests correlate with moral maturity.

    There is also a strong correlation between IQ and success. Economists have started taking an interest in the value of human capital, particularly the factor that psychologists call cognitive ability. In other words, it’s the ability of a person to solve a problem most efficiently. Not with violence, but by thinking. It is worth noting here that Blacks possess 9.4 times more of the dysfunctional MAOA gene (“warrior gene”) and have mean testosterone levels 19% higher than in Whites, both strongly correlated with impulsive, aggressive and violent behavior.

    Researchers collected information on 90 countries, including far-off lands from the U.S. to New Zealand and Colombia to Kazakhstan. They also collected data on the country’s excellence in science and technology, including the number of patents granted per person and how many Nobel science laureates the country’s people had won in science (there has never been a Black Nobel science laureate).

    They found that intelligence made a difference in gross domestic product. For example, some of the highest National IQs:

              •   108      Singapore
              •   106      South Korea
              •   105      Japan
              •   105      China
              •   102      Italy
              •   101      Iceland
              •   101      Mongolia
              •   101      Switzerland
              •   100      Austria
              •   100      Luxembourg
              •   100      Netherlands
              •   100      Norway
              •   100      United Kingdom

    And the lowest:

              •   69        Malawi
              •   69        Niger
              •   68        Chad
              •   68        Somalia
              •   68        Swaziland
              •   67        Guinea
              •   67        Haiti
              •   67        Liberia
              •   66        Gambia
              •   64        Cameroon
              •   64        Gabon
              •   64        Sierra Leone
              •   64        Mozambique
              •   59        Equatorial Guinea

    Blacks are archaic proto-humans, a different species from Whites and Asians;

    Blacks are the only racial group with no DNA from the large-brained Neanderthals who lived in Europe. The trans-Saharan African migrants mated with the Neanderthals and Denisovans to create a composite hybrid that is modern man. Therefore, we do not share a common ancestor.

    The farther north the populations migrated out of Africa, the more they encountered the cognitively demanding problems of gathering and storing food, gaining shelter, making clothes, and raising children during prolonged winters. Consequently, as the original African populations evolved into present-day Whites and Asians, they did so by hybridizing with Neanderthals which created larger brains and greater intelligence, but also slower rates of maturation, lower levels of sex hormones, and concomitant reductions in sexual potency and aggressiveness, and increases in family stability and social conformity.

    Neanderthals are a different species than Whites, and yet produced fertile offspring (as do many interspecies hybrids). In fact all modern humans (Whites and Asians) are products of that hybridization.

    Blacks have a genetic distance closer to archaic human than to modern human. That genetic distance is farther apart than it is for many species.

    Genetic distance is a measure of the genetic divergence between species or between populations within a species. Populations with many similar genes have small genetic distances. This indicates that they are closely related and have a recent common ancestor.

    The genetic distance between H.Sapien and H.Erectus is only 0.17, while the genetic distance between Blacks and Eurasians is 0.23. Therefore Blacks are more genetically proximate to archaic humans than to modern man (Whites and Asians).

    For comparison, the genetic distance between Blacks and modern man is greater than the genetic distance between the common chimpanzee and the bonobo (0.103, or half the Black-White distance) and between the Gorilla gorilla and the Gorilla beringei (0.04, or 1/6 the Black-White distance). Thus, Whites and Blacks are more genetically distant than two different chimpanzee species, two different gorilla species, Eurasians and Neanderthals, and Eurasians and H.Erectus.

    To be taxonomically consistent Blacks and Whites should be classified into separate species, or at the very least into different subspecies.

    When humans evolved from Blacks they hybridized with the large-brained Neanderthals 40,000 years ago in southern Europe. 37,000 years ago the gene that creates an increase in cranium capacity and a heavier, denser, and more developed brain appeared in humans, called MCPH1 microcephalin. Blacks are the only race without MCPH1 microcephalin.

    The microcephalin and ASPM genes (which appeared about 8,500 years ago) are known to be involved in determining brain size and so far have no other known function.

    Non-Black humans average 4% Neanderthal DNA. This is significant because there is only 1.5% difference between human and chimpanzee DNA. It is equivalent to having one Neanderthal great-great-great-grandparent. Blacks are the only race with no Neanderthal genes. Blacks also coexisted and interbred with archaic sapiens (H.heidelbergensis) for longer than those who left Africa. At least 30% of the Neanderthal genome made its way into non-Black humans.

    Blacks are Humans 1.0; modern man evolved from Blacks and are Humans 2.0, the improved version. They were formed by hybridization with the large-brained Neanderthals which created larger, denser, more complex brains:

         •   Blacks = 2% Archaic admixture
         •   Whites = 4% Neanderthal admixture
         •   Asians = 5% Neanderthal + Denisovan

    Pure H.Sapiens are Blacks; modern man (Whites and Asians) is hybridized with Neanderthal and is the improved version.

    Blacks belong in the Stone Age, where they were found just 400 years ago.

    Sub-Saharan Blacks did not receive Neanderthal or Denisovan gene introgression, which is why Blacks are the most genetically distant of all the human races.

    However, Blacks received significant gene introgression from other early (and unknown) hominid species, which the other races do not have because they left sub-Sahara before the introgression occurred. These early hominids remain “unknown” due to the simple fact that their DNA has not been retrieved nor sequenced, Only Neandertal and Denisovan DNA have been, thus far.

    Forensic scientists can determine race by cranium shape; Blacks have a small frontal lobe and sloping frontal plane and a smaller cranium-to-mandible ratio. Whites have the largest craniums, an almost vertical frontal slope and a massive frontal lobe. The Asian is very similar and also more evolved. It is the frontal lobe that separates our behavior most from the animals and is responsible for language and rational thought.

    Blacks show primitive traits associated with lower primates, such as prognathism, which is the slope of the face from the forehead to the jaws. A protruding jaw is associated with a sloping forehead which indicates a smaller prefrontal cortex, the area of the brain that handles planning, inhibition and self-control.

    Blacks have more robust cranial bones, simpler cranial sutures, a higher rate of unclosed sutures, a lower cephalic index, a higher rate of saggital keel, more post-orbital constriction, a more sloped forehead, more rectangular eye sockets, a wider nasal index, less nasal prominence, a higher rate of joined nasal bones, a higher rate of sub-nasal prognathism, a lower facial angle, the presence of the “Simian shelf”, a more rectangular palate, larger and wider-apart teeth, fur instead of hair, less spinal curvature, shorter spinal length, a lower sacral index, and longer arms and legs.

    At birth Africans have fewer cranial bones than Eurasians. The skull and other bones in Blacks are thicker and denser, even in the fetus, making them more difficult to break. The Black skull is smaller, with less space in the forehead, but proportionately more at the back.

    Blacks are the only racial group with no DNA from the large-brained Neanderthals, and also the only race without MCPH1 microcephalin which produces increased brain volume and density. This is why their brains are smaller, and less complex.

    Eurasian women have a wider pelvic inlet, and shallower anteroposterior outlet than Black women due to the difference in brain size.

    Larger brains contain more neurons and synapses and process information faster. By adulthood, East Asians average 1 cubic inch more cranial capacity than Whites who average 5 cubic inches more than Blacks.

    The average White brain is 1438cc while the average Black brain is 1343cc, or 93% of the average White brain. The heritability of brain size is extremely strong at 0.90 and not one study to date has shown larger brain size for Blacks. The White and Asians brain also has a higher degree of fissuring (higher complexity) in the cerebral cortex of their brains, where abstract and conceptual thought is performed.

    Based on studies of brain weight at autopsy, endocranial volume of empty skulls, head size measurements by the U.S. military and NASA, and two dozen MRI volumetric studies Blacks’ brain size is 7% smaller than Whites’, and 8% smaller than Asians’. There is a correlation of brain size with IQ of about 0.40 and that these racial differences in brain size are present at birth. Genes contribute to about 90% of the individual variation of brain size.

    In addition to brain size are differences in brain shape, fissuration, number of pyramidal neurons and supra-grandular layer thickness. The depth of fissuration is related to superior intelligence and the brains of Whites have deeper fissures in the frontal and occipital regions. The supra-grandular layer of Blacks’ brains is 16% smaller than it is for Whites’ brains.

    The average human brain contains 86 billion neurons. Whites, on average, have 600 million more neurons than Blacks. Each neuron carries about 600 billion synapses, each of which carries, as a minimum, one bit of cortical information.

    Further, this reflects what we observe in real life (including the large and persistent so-called “Achievement Gap”). People have made long-term observations of the different races and reached rational conclusions; the more White a society is the more prosperous, inventive and safe it is. 19 of the 20 poorest countries are sub-Saharan African (Haiti). In sub-Saharan Africa the only countries that could be considered successful were White-governed, (Rhodesia and S. Africa). To this day they still can’t even feed themselves even though they lived alone in Africa, a vast continent with temperate climates and abundant resources, for 60,000 years. So they cannot blame racism, poverty, imperialism or anything else for their failures.

    No pre-contact sub-Saharan African society ever created a written language, or weaved cloth, or forged steel, invented the wheel or plow, or devised a calendar, or code of laws, or any social organization, or formal religion, or system of measurement, or math, or built a multi-story structure or bridge or sewer, or infrastructure of any kind, and they never harnessed a river, or even drilled well or irrigated, or built a road or railway or sea-worthy vessel, they never domesticated animals, or exploited underground natural resources, or produced anything that could be considered a mechanical device.

    IQ distribution by race/ethnicity:

         •   Ashkenazi Jews = 115
         •   East Asians = 106
         •   Whites = 100
         •   South East Asians = 87
         •   Non-White Hispanics = 86
         •   American Blacks = 85 (average 24% White admixture)
         •   Middle East and North Africans = 84
         •   Sub-Saharan Blacks = 67 (Only 2% of Whites score this low)
         •   Australian Aborigines = 62

    Sub-Saharan Africans never even created a written language. It was the White colonialists who gave the gift of literacy to them.

    No pre-contact sub-Saharan African society ever created a written language, or weaved cloth, or forged steel, invented the wheel or plow, or devised a calendar, or code of laws, or any social organization, or formal religion, or system of measurement, or math, or built a multi-story structure or bridge or sewer, or infrastructure of any kind, and they never harnessed a river, or even drilled well or irrigated, or built a road or railway or sea-worthy vessel, they never domesticated animals, or exploited underground natural resources, or produced anything that could be considered a mechanical device.

    Blacks are the oldest race, so they should be the most advanced race; but they they never developed at all and had to be domesticated by Whites.

    Civilization didn’t occur until early humans hybridized with Neanderthals. Only after the hybridization were advanced societies created. Blacks, who never hybridized with Neanderthals, never created a civilization and were still living in the Stone Age when Whites discovered them just 400 years ago.

    Hybridizing with the large-brained Neanderthals produced a modern human (Whites and Asians) with an increase in cranium capacity and a heavier, more developed brain. Blacks are also the only race without the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which produces increased brain volume and density.

    Blacks lived alone in sub-Saharan Africa, a vast continent with temperate climates and abundant resources for 60,000 years; so they cannot blame racism, poverty, imperialism or anything else for their failures.

    How could they live with all that shoreline and never think about putting a sail on a ship like every other culture did? Columbus sailed across the ocean 500 years ago — Blacks STILL are incapable of such a feat.

    19 of the 20 poorest countries are sub-Saharan African (Haiti). There has never been a successful Black country. No modern creations or civilization exists in sub-Saharan Africa that was not brought there by Whites. There are no White Third-World nations, but all Black ones are.

    Blacks are the only race incapable of caring for themselves. Whites still have to provide food, medical, financial and engineering aid to Africans. They couldn’t survive without White charity. Blacks became an out-of-control invasive species after Whites domesticated them.

    The 41 nations of sub-Saharan Africa produce no more wealth than the tiny country of Belgium, which has only 1/45 the population. Of all of the region’s economic production, White-run South Africa accounts for three-quarters. That Whites are only 8% of South Africa’s population, it demonstrates how productive and industrious Whites are that so relative few can carry the load for so many unproductive Blacks. But a constantly A constantly dwindling number of Whites are at the mercy of a predatory welfare class and it’s possible they can’t and won’t carry the rest of the population. If things get worse for them, they will simply flee the country.

    Sub-Saharan Africans have never made a contribution to the world. Blacks can only achieve either because they are mixed with White genes or because they reside in White societies. Blacks are unable to achieve within their own race because not enough of them are smart enough to build a sufficient infrastructure. If allowed to become too numerous they destroy previously-thriving and safe White cities.

    This is why Blacks seethe with jealousy and hatred of Whites yet can’t seem to stay away because they want what we create and maintain, no matter if they deserve it or not. They want our peaceful and clean neighborhoods, our law and order, our technology and science, our school systems, our inventions, the jobs we create, the food we grow, the transportation we invent, the entertainment we provide….. Blacks hate us but can’t live without us. That’s why they demand that we take care of them and give them special rights and privileges that we don’t grant ourselves, just to compensate for their inability at living in a modern and technologically-advanced civilization.

    Some groups succeed all the time, everywhere. Some have never succeeded anywhere.

    Blacks are the oldest race, so they should be the most advanced race; but they they never developed at all and had to be domesticated by Whites.

    Civilization didn’t occur until early humans hybridized with Neanderthals. Only after the hybridization were advanced societies created. Blacks, who never hybridized with Neanderthals, never created a civilization and were still living in the Stone Age when Whites discovered them just 400 years ago.

    Hybridizing with the large-brained Neanderthals produced a modern human (Whites and Asians) with an increase in cranium capacity and a heavier, more developed brain. Blacks are also the only race without the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which produces increased brain volume and density.

    Blacks lived alone in sub-Saharan Africa, a vast continent with temperate climates and abundant resources for 60,000 years; so they cannot blame racism, poverty, imperialism or anything else for their failures.
    Google: “race and IQ”, “national IQ”, “race and MAOA gene”, “Neanderthal DNA”, “smaller black brains”, “correlation brain size and IQ”, “achievement gap”, “IQ correlation to achievement”, “NIH Blacks 21% greater testosterone”, Cumoe, D. & Thorne, A. – 2003. Number of Ancestral Human Species: a Molecular Perspective, Rushton, J. Philippe; Jensen, Arthur R (2005). “Thirty Years of Research on Race Differences in Cognitive Ability”, Psychology, Public Policy and Law 11 (2): 246–8, Current Biology, Vol. 13, R134–R136, February 18, 2003, ©2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. PII S0960-9822(03)00074-5; Categorization of humans in biomedical research: genes, race and disease — Genome Biology 2002.

    Racial brain size differences: Whole Brain Size and General Mental Ability: A Review, Int J Neurosci. 2009 Apr; 119(5): 692–732, PMCID: PMC2668913. Rutgers Anthropologist Sets Record Straight on Brain Size and Race. A NYT article that shows claims of racism in measuring skulls was false: Scientists Measure the Accuracy of a Racism Claim. Mismeasuring Skulls: New Research Resolves Historical Controversy, Shows Science Resists Bias; Stanford Department of Anthropology. Brain size, IQ, and racial-group differences: Evidence from musculoskeletal traits, J.Philippe Rushton, Intelligence Volume 31, Issue 2, March–April 2003, Pages 139–155. Thirty Years of Research on Race Differences in Cognitive Ability, Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 2005, Vol. 11, No. 2, 235–294, Copyright 2005 by the American Psychological Association, DOI: 10.1037/1076-8971.11.2.235

    Genetic Distance:
    ESTIMATION OF THE COANCESTRY COEFFICIENT: BASIS FOR A SHORT-TERM GENETIC DISTANCE
    John Reynolds, B. S. Weir, C. Clark Cockerham
    Genetics November 1, 1983 vol. 105 no. 3 767-779

    Number of ancestral human species: a molecular perspective
    D. Curnoe, A. Thorne
    doi:10.1078/0018-442X-00051

    The latest and best evidence, using high-density genotype data, shows that the proportion of European ancestry in the Black American population is as high as 24% (Bryc, Durand, Macpherson, Reich, & Mountain, 2015).

    Heritibility of intelligence: Molecular Psychiatry (2015) 20, 98–108; doi:10.1038/mp.2014.105; published online 16 September 2014, Genetics and intelligence differences: five special findings; Common DNA Markers Can Account for More Than Half of the Genetic Influence on Cognitive Abilities, Genetic contributions to variation in general cognitive function: a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in the CHARGE consortium (N=53949).

    One standard deviation racial IQ gap by age three: (Broman et al, Montie and Fagan, Brooks-Gunn, Klebanov and Duncan)

    • Rob

      Where is the evidence of Black intelligence?

      Blacks have by far the lowest IQs of any race; 80% score at or below the “low functioning” category.

      The least intelligent 10% of Whites have IQs below 80; 40% of Blacks do.

      Only one-in-six Blacks is more intelligent than the average White; five-in-six Whites are more intelligent than the average Black.

      Only the top 16% of Blacks score as high as the top 50% of Whites. Or as the New York Times put it, “…the difference in I.Q. points between the groups is quite significant. It means that the top sixth of Blacks score only as well on I.Q. tests as do the top half of Whites.”

      Only one-in-3.5 million (.00003%) African Blacks have an IQ of 140 or higher (genius level). But one-in-83 (1.2%) U.S. Whites is a genius. Therefore the per capita genius rate for U.S.-resident Whites is 41,000 times higher than it is for African Blacks.

      US-resident Blacks have higher intelligence than African Blacks due to the approximately 28% average White admixture.

      IQ distribution by race/ethnicity:

           •   Ashkenazi Jews = 115
           •   East Asians = 106
           •   Whites = 100
           •   South East Asians = 87
           •   Non-White Hispanics = 86
           •   American Blacks = 85 (average 24% White admixture)
           •   Middle East and North Africans = 84
           •   Sub-Saharan Blacks = 67 (Only 2% of Whites score this low)
           •   Australian Aborigines = 62

      Therefore, the IQ distribution for US-resident Blacks having an average IQ of 85 and a standard deviation of 12.4 doesn’t mean that there are no US-resident Blacks at all with IQs above 140; it means that only one US-resident Black in about 218,000 will have an IQ above 140.

      So given equal sized populations there will be about 2,600 times more White geniuses than Black geniuses. Since there are about 5.5 times more Whites than Blacks in the United States, White geniuses outnumber Black geniuses by a ratio of about one-to-14,300. Therefore, if all the White people in the USA were replaced by Blacks having the IQ distribution of US-resident Blacks the number of geniuses in the country would fall from about 2.4 million to only about 1,000.

      That is why Blacks are incapable of creating a civilization; there simply are not enough smart Blacks to create an infrastructure for the Black intellectual elite to achieve.

      Racial intelligence differences show in every test of general cognitive ability that anyone, of any race or nationality, has yet been able to devise. And they are reflected in countless everyday situations, “Life is an IQ test.”

      While some tirelessly criticize studies that show Black intelligence to be lower than White they can cite no Black performance that indicates high mean intelligence and instead insist that Black ability is present but hidden by bias. But everyday observation together with no evidence that the races are equal disconfirms racial parity.

      The positive relationship between IQ tests, academic tests and real-world observances demonstrates the existence of a general mental ability. How can there be group or individual differences in intelligence if there is no such trait?

      If the races are equal in intelligence then there should be evidence that they are; absence of such evidence is itself evidence that the races are not equal.

      Compared to Blacks, Whites’ brains:

           •   are 7% larger (1438cc versus 1343cc)
           •   are 100 grams heavier
           •   have deeper fissuration in the frontal and occipital regions
           •   have more complex convolutions and larger frontal lobes
           •   have more pyramidal neurons
           •   have 16% thicker supra-grandular layer
           •   react faster on mental chronometry tests
           •   have 600 million more neurons (each carries about 600 billion synapses, which each carry one bit of cortical information)

      Genes contribute to about 90% of the individual variation of brain size.

      Blacks are the only racial group with no DNA from the large-brained Neanderthals, and also the only race without MCPH1 microcephalin which produces increased brain volume.

      When similarly-performing Black, White and Asian children are compared for age Black children match White children two years younger, and Asian children three years younger.

      Studies also show there are some significant differences in what is called the structure of mental abilities. For example, if you took a sample of Black and White children, all of whom had scored around 100 on the WISC-R (the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children) meaning the Black kids in the sample were well above the Black average — you would find significant Black-White differences on six of the thirteen subtests. The average Black child would do better on arithmetic and digit span; where the average White child would do better on comprehension, block design, object assembly, and mazes.

      It is an ethological rule that the earlier and more regularly a phenomenon appears in a population the more likely it is genetically controlled. Genetics limits an individuals’ upper limit to IQ, and environment determines how much of that innate genetic potential will be reached. No amount of nurturing can make one exceed innate genetic potential.

      Blacks are a separate species from Whites and Asians; Blacks are the only race with no DNA from the large-brained Neanderthals, and therefore do not share a common ancestor with modern man. Blacks have 2% archaic admixture, Whites are hybridized with Neanderthal, and Asians have both Neanderthal and Denisovan DNA.

      Humans didn’t create a civilization until this hybridization. Blacks were still living in the Stone Age when Whites discovered them just 400 years ago.

      Sub-Saharan Blacks did not receive Neanderthal or Denisovan gene introgression, which is why Blacks are the most genetically distant of all the human races.

      Blacks received significant gene introgression from other early hominid species, which the other races do not have because they left sub-Sahara before the introgression occurred. These early hominids remain unknown due to the simple fact that their DNA has not been retrieved nor sequenced; only Neandertal and Denisovan DNA have been, thus far.

      Genetic distance is a measure of the genetic divergence between species or between populations within a species. Populations with many similar genes have small genetic distances. This indicates that they are closely related and have a recent common ancestor.

      Blacks have a genetic distance of 0.23 from Whites and Asians, but only 0.17 from Erectus. That means Blacks are more genetically proximate to archaic hominids than to modern man.

      For comparison, the genetic distance between Blacks and modern man is greater than the genetic distance between the common chimpanzee and the bonobo (0.103, or half the Black-White distance) and between Gorilla gorilla and the Gorilla beringei (0.04, or 1/6 the Black/White distance) which are classified as separate species.

      So to be consistent and objective with taxonomic classification systems Blacks and Whites should be classified into separate species, or at least into different subspecies.

      The genetic distance between the races of man is also much greater than that between the breeds of dog, and anyone who has experience with dogs knows what a huge difference breed makes, not only in physical appearance but also in behavior and intelligence.

      We share 98.4 percent of our genes with chimpanzees, 95 percent with dogs, and 74 percent with microscopic roundworms. Only one chromosome determines if one is born male or female. There is no discernible difference in the DNA of a wolf and a Labrador retriever, yet their inbred behavioral differences are immense. Clearly, what’s meaningful is which genes differ and how they are patterned, not the percent of genes. A tiny number of genes can translate into huge functional differences.

      – From Forward.com

      Modern man (Whites and Asians) has on average 5% Neanderthal DNA, therefore he would be an F4 (4th filial generation from full purebred Neanderthal). That is about the same as most claiming Cherokee ancestors today.

      It is equivalent to having one Neanderthal great-great-great-grandparent. Blacks also coexisted and interbred with archaic hominids (heidelbergensis) for longer than those who left Africa.

      Genetics determines the upper limit to IQ, but the environment dictates what percentage of your potential you will reach.

      Larger brains contain more neurons and synapses and process information faster. By adulthood, East Asians average 1 cubic inch more cranial capacity than Whites who average 5 cubic inches more than Blacks.

      The average White brain is 1438cc while the average Black brain is 1343cc, or 93% of the average White brain. The heritability of brain size is extremely strong at 0.90 and not one study to date has shown larger brain size for Blacks. The White and Asians brain also has a higher degree of fissuring (higher complexity) in the cerebral cortex of their brains, where abstract and conceptual thought is performed.

      Based on studies of brain weight at autopsy, endocranial volume of empty skulls, head size measurements by the U.S. military and NASA, and two dozen MRI volumetric studies Blacks’ brain size is 7% smaller than Whites’, and 8% smaller than Asians’. There is a correlation of brain size with IQ of about 0.40 and that these racial differences in brain size are present at birth. Genes contribute to about 90% of the individual variation of brain size.

      In addition to brain size are differences in brain shape, fissuration, number of pyramidal neurons and supra-grandular layer thickness. The depth of fissuration is related to superior intelligence and the brains of Whites have deeper fissures in the frontal and occipital regions. The supra-grandular layer of Blacks’ brains is 16% smaller than it is for Whites’ brains.

      The average human brain contains 86 billion neurons. Whites, on average, have 600 million more neurons than Blacks. Each neuron carries about 600 billion synapses, each of which carries, as a minimum, one bit of cortical information.

      Whites are only 10% of the world’s population, yet are the most industrious, ingenious, and innovative race the world has known. Whites have formed nations, built civilizations, assumed and administrated power, created the Renaissance, the Age of Discovery, the Industrial Revolution, automation, technology, the space program which landed men on the moon and launched probes exploring beyond the solar system, discovered electricity, created wonder drugs and architecture and have harnessed nuclear power, have unlocked the secrets of DNA and relativity, created computer science and the internet age…… sub-Saharan Africans still cannot even feed themselves.

      No pre-contact sub-Saharan African society ever created a written language, or weaved cloth, or forged steel, invented the wheel or plow, or devised a calendar, or code of laws, or any social organization, or formal religion, or system of measurement, or math, or built a multi-story structure or bridge or sewer, or infrastructure of any kind, and they never harnessed a river, or even drilled well or irrigated, or built a road or railway or sea-worthy vessel, they never domesticated animals, or exploited underground natural resources, or produced anything that could be considered a mechanical device.

      Blacks are the only race incapable of caring for themselves. Whites still have to provide food, medical, financial and engineering aid to Africans. They couldn’t survive without White charity. Blacks became an out-of-control invasive species after Whites domesticated them.

      Blacks lived alone in sub-Saharan Africa, a vast continent with temperate climates and abundant resources for 60,000 years; so they cannot blame racism, poverty, imperialism or anything else for their failures. How could they live with all that shoreline and never contemplate putting a sail on a ship like every other culture did?

      Blacks are the oldest race, they had a huge head-start so they should be the most advanced race; but they are the least advanced race. And in fact they never did develop until they were domesticated by Whites.

      19 of the 20 poorest countries are sub-Saharan African (Haiti). There has never been a successful Black country. No modern creations or civilization exists in sub-Saharan Africa that was not brought there by Whites.

      There are no White Third-World nations, but all Black ones are.

      Put Whites on an island and you get England; put Asians on an island and you get Japan; put Blacks on an island and you get Haiti.

      Nowhere Blacks live are they considered achievers. In fact they are universally viewed as unproductive and disruptive to society.

      Simply, life is an IQ test.

      Sub-Saharan Africans have never made a contribution to the world. Blacks can only achieve either because they are mixed with White genes or because they reside in White societies. For every one gifted Black there are eight gifted Whites. 80% of gifted Blacks are mixed-race.

      Today there are 738 million Europeans and 1.2 billion Africans. In 2050, according to the latest U.N. projections, Europe’s population will have dipped to 707 million, while Africa’s population will be 2.4 billion. By 2100, half of all children on earth will be African. On current trends, within 35 years, 1 in every 4 people will be sub-Saharan African. By 2100, there will be 4.4 billion Africans – two of every five human beings overall — and Europe’s population will be just 646 million.

      The 41 nations of sub-Saharan Africa produce no more wealth than the tiny country of Belgium, which has only 1/45 the population. The entire continent of Africa produces less than 1% of the world’s manufactured goods. Of all of the region’s economic production, White-run South Africa accounts for three-quarters of it. That Whites are only 8% of South Africa’s population demonstrates how productive and industrious Whites are that so relative few can carry the load for so many unproductive Blacks.

      Blacks are unable to achieve within their own race because not enough of them are smart enough to even build a sufficient infrastructure to allow for the Black intellectual elite to achieve. If allowed to become too numerous they destroy previously thriving and safe White cities.

      Blacks cannot achieve on their own without the intervention of Whites giving them all the things they could never produce or maintain themselves. Without the continuous intervention of charity into Black Africa they could not even maintain what they have been given.

      All current Black civilization is in fact transplanted White civilization. There is no Black society on Earth that has independently developed and maintained its own technological way of life. All of the Black nations with the highest GDPs benefited from White-created enterprise to exploit their natural resources.

      Some groups succeed all the time, everywhere. Some have never succeeded anywhere. Blacks are the oldest race so they should be the most advanced, but they have never been successful anywhere. But civilization didn’t begin until humans evolved from Blacks by hybridizing with the large-brained Neanderthals which produced a modern human with an increase in cranium capacity and a heavier, more developed brain. Blacks are also the only race without MCPH1 microcephalin which produces increased brain volume density.

      This is why Blacks seethe with jealousy and hatred of Whites yet can’t seem to stay away because they want what we create and maintain, no matter if they deserve it or not. They want our peaceful and clean neighborhoods, our law and order, our technology and science, our school systems, our inventions, the jobs we create, the food we grow, the transportation we invent, the entertainment we provide….. Blacks hate us but can’t live without us. That’s why they demand that we take care of them and give them special rights and privileges that we don’t grant ourselves, just to compensate for their inability at living in a modern and technologically-advanced civilization.

      Slavery was the best thing to happen to Blacks. After defeating George Foreman for the heavyweight title in Zaire (now Congo), Muhammad Ali returned to the United States where he was asked by a reporter, “Champ, what did you think of Africa?” Ali replied, “Thank God my granddaddy got on that boat.”

      There hasn’t been a single contribution from sub-Saharan Africans to the world. Show me any community, city or state that is predominantly inhabited and run by Blacks anywhere in the world that is equal or superior to a comparable White one. By their fruits ye shall know them. Show me the fruits of that intelligence.

      “There is no firm reason to anticipate that the intellectual capacities of peoples geographically separated in their evolution should prove to have evolved identically. Our wanting to reserve equal powers of reason as some universal heritage of humanity will not be enough to make it so.” Dr James Watson

    • Rob

      Black-White IQ Distribution:

      For a graphical representation of the racial IQ gap Google: racial IQ bell curve

      Percentages below are from a cumulative percentages graph for readability:

      Blacks:
                       5% above 110 IQ
                       16% above 100 IQ
                       40% above 90 IQ
                       70% above 80 IQ
                       30% below 80 IQ
                       18% below 75 IQ
                       10% below 70 IQ

      Whites:
                       10% above 120 IQ
                       18% above 115 IQ
                       27% above 110 IQ
                       40% above 105 IQ
                       50% above 100 IQ
                       60% below 105 IQ
                       35% below 95 IQ
                       15% below 85 IQ

      So, the smartest 16% of Blacks are as intelligent as smartest 50% of Whites. 80% of Blacks score at or below the “low functioning” category.

      The least intelligent ten percent of Whites have IQs below 80; forty percent of Blacks have IQs that low.

      Only one Black in six is more intelligent than the average White; five Whites out of six are more intelligent than the average Black.

      These differences show in every test of general cognitive ability that anyone, of any race or nationality, has yet been able to devise. And they are reflected in countless everyday situations, “Life is an IQ test.”

      Further, only one-in-3.5 million (.00003%) African Blacks have an IQ of 140 or higher (genius level). But one-in-83 (1.2%) U.S. Whites is a genius. Therefore the per capita genius rate for U.S.-resident Whites is 41,000 times higher than it is for African Blacks.

      As the New York Times put it, “…the difference in I.Q. points between the groups is quite significant. It means that the top sixth of Blacks score only as well on I.Q. tests as do the top half of Whites.”

      Black females have higher IQs than Black males. Black female IQ is 2.4 points higher than Black male IQ. There are twice as many Black females as Black males with IQs over 120 and five times as many Black females as Black males with IQs over 140.

      Professer Jensen, of Berkeley, looked at the social competency of people with low IQs and found that Blacks at low IQ were more socially competent than Whites. When you analyze a White person with a 70 IQ, then you’re looking at someone who is two SD below the White mean IQ, while a Black with an IQ of 70 is only one SD below the Black IQ mean.

      Blacks with a 70 IQ are more socially competent than Whites with the same IQ. A Black can be clinically retarded without this retardation being fully socially expressed because Black children of 70 IQ are normal. American Black’s have a mean IQ of 85, so 70 IQ is only one standard deviation below the Black mean. 16% of Black kids in the U.S. are below one standard deviation for the Black population. They are normal Black kids in terms of normality, though not in terms of ability; they were rather like white kids of IQ 85 who are one standard deviation below the white IQ mean of 100. A full 16% of white kids are below one standard deviation of the white intelligence mean. Only about 2% of white kids are below two standard deviations, IQ 70, whereas 16% of black kids are.

      In sum, a higher percentage of Whites at 70 IQ (two standard deviations below the White mean) have something wrong with their brains due to injury or genetic disorder, and a larger percentage of Blacks at 70 IQ are normal for Blacks (one standard deviation below the American Black mean IQ).

      ~~~~~

      Changes over time in the black–white difference on mental tests: Evidence from the children of the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth

      -Charles Murray, 2008

      Data for three Peabody achievement tests and for the Peabody picture vocabulary test administered to children of women in the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth show that the black–white difference did not diminish for this sample of children born from the mid 1970s through the mid 1990s. This finding persists after entering covariates for the child’s age and family background variables. It is robust across alternative samples and specifications of the model. The analysis supplements other evidence that shows no narrowing of the black–white difference in academic achievement tests since the late 1980s and is inconsistent with recent evidence that narrowing occurred in IQ standardizations during the same period.

      It is worth noting that the actual black-white IQ gap is probably larger than 15 IQ points. Studies are based on school samples, thus omitting high school dropouts while there are more blacks than whites who drop out of high school. Studies also omit the prisoners since incarcerated offenders have lower IQ than the public at large (The Bell Curve, p. 242) while there are more blacks than whites incarcerated in prisons. Rushton made the assumption that “educational researchers seldom get to examine the very lowest scoring segments of the Black population in inner cities” and that the actual black-white IQ gap could be underestimated given that “An IQ of 71 was found for the Black children in an entire school district from a rural county in Georgia in the U. S. Deep South; the White IQ in the same county was 101.

      ~~~~~

      Digit Span Tests

      In digit span tests, the respondents are asked to repeat a string of digits. There are two variants of the test, forward digit span (FDS) and backward digit span (BDS). In FDS, the digits are repeated in the order of their presentation, while in BDS they must be repeated in the reverse order. The largest number of digits that a person can repeat without error is his or her forward or backward digit span.

      That the Black-White gap on FDS is substantially smaller than on BDS is a robust finding confirmed in new analysis. This poses a challenge to the argument that racial differences in exposure to the kinds of information that are needed in cognitive tests cause the Black-White test score gap. The informational demands of the digit span tests are minimal, as only the knowledge of numbers from 1 to 9 is required. FDS is a simple memory test assessing the ability to store information and immediately recall it. The informational demands of BDS are the same as those of FDS, but the requirement that the digits be repeated in the reverse order means that it is not simply a memory test, but one that also requires mental transformation or manipulation of the information presented.

      Black-White Digit Span:

      Forward Digit Span Difference

      Age 7              Age 9               Age 11
        0.01                 0.04                   0.16

      Backward Digit Span Difference

      Age 7              Age 9               Age 11
       0.43                 0.31                  0.36

      It was predicted that forward digit span (FDS) should correlate less with IQ than backward digit span (BDS), and age and race should interact with FDS-BDS, with the FDS-BDS difference decreasing as a junction of age and a greater White-Black difference in BDS than in FDS. The predictions were substantiated at a high level of significance in large representative samples of 669 White and 622 Black 5-12 yr olds who were given the revised WISC. Socioeconomic differences accounted for less of the predicted effects than race. (25 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

      The “backward digit span” test is not reinforced by any socialization and is not a taught skill for either race; Whites score better at recalling digits presented in order, but recalling the digits in reverse order requires mental transformation and is a good predictor of IQ. The race gap for the backward digit span is twice as great as for the forward test.

      In sum, race differences are most pronounced on tests that best measure the General Intelligence Factor (g). Black-White differences, for example, are larger on the Backward Digit Span test than on the less g loaded Forward Digit Span test.

      ~~~~~~~~~

      Mental Chronometry or Reaction Time Tests

      Mental chronometry measures the elapsed time between the presentation of a sensory stimulus and the subsequent behavioral response by the participant.

      The races differ on average cognitive speed. Even the speed with which one neuron in the brain fires correlates with IQ.

      Reaction time is one of the simplest culture-free cognitive measures. Most reaction time tasks are so easy that children can perform them in less than one second. But even on these very simple tests, children with higher IQ scores perform faster than do children with lower scores, perhaps because reaction time measures the neurophysiological efficiency of the brain’s capacity to process information accurately—the same ability measured by intelligence tests (Deary, 2000; Jensen, 1998b). Children are not trained to perform well on reaction time tasks (as they are on certain paper-and-pencil tests), so the advantage of those with higher IQ scores on these tasks cannot arise from practice, familiarity, education, or training.

      For three reaction time tasks (the simple, choice, and odd-man-out tasks), individuals with higher IQ scores average faster and less variable reaction times. For any one task, the correlation between reaction time and IQ normally lies between .20 and .40. A review of several studies concluded that the six measures combined (i.e., the average time and the variability for the three reaction time tasks) produce a multiple correlation of .67 (Deary, 2000). This is about the same magnitude as the correlation between two conventional intelligence tests of reasoning ability and vocabulary.

      Lynn and his colleagues carried out a series of reaction time studies on over 1,000 nine-year-old East Asian children in Japan and Hong Kong, White children in Britain and Ireland, and Black children in South Africa (summarized by Lynn & Vanhannen, 2002, pp. 66–67). The Progressive Matrices were given as a nonverbal test of intelligence, along with the simple, choice, and odd-man-out tasks. Reaction times and variabilities were measured by computer and hence were not subject to any human error in recording.

      Measured IQ scores of the reaction time test participants:
      Hong Kong: 113
      Japan: 110
      Briton: 100
      Ireland: 89
      South Africa: 67

      Odd-man Out Reaction Time Test (milliseconds):
      Hong Kong: 787
      Japan: 818
      Briton: 898
      Ireland: 902
      South Africa: 924

      ~~~~~~~

      Black-White SAT Score Gap by Year:

             Year              White             Black               Gap
             1986              1038               839                 199
             1990              1031               849                 185
             1996              1052               857                 195
             2000              1060               859                 201
             2005              1061               863                 197
             2010              1063               855                 208

      Source: U.S. Dept. of Education, Digest of Education Statistics, 2012

      Note that there is no closing of the large and persistent so-called “achievement gap”.

      In the 20 year period from 1994-2014 the Black-White difference increased on both the verbal and math SATs. On the reading test, it rose from .91 to .96 standard deviations. On the math test, it rose from .95 to 1.03 standard deviations.

      In 2015 only 16% of Blacks scored 1550 or higher, the threshold the College Board calls the “college and career readiness” level.

      This racial achievement gap is so significant that colleges give a “race bonus” of 230 points to Blacks and penalize Asians by 50 points to try to keep it even.

      Frey and Detterman (2003) analyzed the correlation of SAT scores with intelligence test scores. They found SAT scores to be highly correlated with general mental ability, or g (r=.82 in their sample).

      Abstract

      This research established the relationship between SAT and g, as well as the appropriateness of the SAT as a measure of g, and examined the SAT as a premorbid measure of intelligence. In Study 1, we used the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979. Measures of g were extracted from the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery and correlated with SAT scores of 917 participants. The resulting correlation was.82 (.86 corrected for nonlinearity). Study 2 investigated the correlation between revised and recentered SAT scores and scores on the Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices among 104 undergraduates. The resulting correlation was.483 (.72 corrected for restricted range). These studies indicate that the SAT is mainly a test of g. We provide equations for converting SAT scores to estimated IQs; such conversion could be useful for estimating premorbid IQ or conducting individual difference research with college students.

      Frey MC, Detterman DK.

      PMID: 15147489 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

      ~~~~~

      New York Times, 2003:

      The SAT captures more than a narrow range of skills, important only in the first year or two of college. Large-scale meta-analyses by researchers at the University of Minnesota have found that SAT performance is as good of a predictor of overall college grade point average as it is of freshman grade point average, and Vanderbilt researchers David Lubinski and Camilla Benbow have documented that the SAT predicts life outcomes well beyond the college years, including income and occupational achievements.

      Furthermore, the SAT is largely a measure of general intelligence. Scores on the SAT correlate very highly with scores on standardized tests of intelligence, and like IQ scores, are stable across time and not easily increased through training, coaching or practice. SAT preparation courses appear to work, but the gains are small — on average, no more than about 20 points per section.

      ~~~~~~~

      ACT Scores by Race:

             Year              White             Black               Asian
             2009              22.2               16.9                 23.2
             2010              22.3               16.9                 23.4
             2011              22.4               17.0                 23.6
             2012              22.4               17.0                 23.6
             2013              22.2               16.9                 23.5
            
      Source: ACT, Inc.

      ~~~~~

      Percent by Race Reaching the SAT College and Career Readiness Benchmark:

                       15% = Black
                       24% = Non-White Hispanic
                       35% = Native American
                       53% = White
                       56% = Asian               

      Source: The College Board, 2014

      ~~~~~

      Black-White SAT Score Gap by Income:

             Year              White              Black               Gap
             -$20k              978                 798                 180
             $40k               995                 836                 159
             $60k               1017               864                 153
             $80k               1032               889                 143
             $100k             1052               908                 144
             $120k             1066               922                 144
             $140k             1073               926                 147
             $160k             1087               942                 145
             $200k             1091               943                 148
             +200k             1130               981                 149

      Source: The College Board, 2008

      So, Blacks from families earning more than $200k only scored 3 points higher than Whites from families earning less than $20k.

      We will continue with racial preferences in college admissions and job hiring. We will continue to blame black underachievement on racism. We will continue to dumb down education and occupational standards in order to achieve higher proportions of Blacks.

      Differences in intelligence between income groups are not larger than intelligence differences between racial groups in the US, nor do differences in income or wealth account for the racial differences. Whites from households in the lowest income bracket have higher IQ scores than blacks from households in the highest income bracket.

      Black students coming from families earning over $70,000 USD are doing worse on their SATs on average than White students from families in the lowest income group.

      One of the largest modern sociology studies of American students found that ethnicity was the single most important predictor of academic achievement:

      “Beyond the Classroom,” by Laurence Steinberg, B. Bradford Brown and Sanford M. Dornbusch, concludes “Of all the demographic factors we studied in relation to school performance, ethnicity was the most important. In terms of school achievement, it is more advantageous to be Asian than to be wealthy, or to have non-divorced parents, or to have a mother who is able to stay at home full time.”

      A number of experiments are able to test all of these environmental theories. Transracial adoption experiments control for all the shared aspects of the environment that differ between Whites and Blacks (parenting, income, nutrition, neighborhood), while structural equation models test for possible uncommon factors between Whites and Blacks that could be acting on IQ (which would include things like racism). These experiments do not lend support to any existing or plausible environmental theories for the remaining lower intelligence scores of people of African descent in Western societies. The Minnesota Transracial Adoption Study found that, by adulthood, the difference in IQ scores between adopted black and adopted White children raised side by side in the same high income households in mostly homogeneous Northern US upper class neighborhoods was 18 IQ points.

      ~~~~~~~

      The large and persistent so-called “achievement gap” has remain steady since it was first observed.

      Evidence of the racial achievement gap has been manifested through standardized test scores, high school dropout rates, high school completion rates, college acceptance and retention rates, and longitudinal trends.

      It has been found to exist before students enter kindergarten for their first year of schooling. At the start of kindergarten, Black students have math and reading scores substantially lower than those of White students. In a study published in 2009, Reardon and Galindo (2009) specifically examine test scores by race. The data comes from the ECLS-K, sponsored by the National Center for Education Statistics. The ECLS-K contains data on a nationally representative sample of approximately 21,400 students from the kindergarten class of 1998–1999. Students in the sample were assessed in reading and mathematics skills six times from 1998 to 2004. The content areas of the tests are based on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) fourth-grade content areas, adapted to be age appropriate at each grade level. The assessments were scored using a three-parameter Item Response Theory (IRT) model. Reardon and Galindo found that average Black students begin kindergarten with math scores three quarters of a standard deviation lower than those of White students. Six years later the gap widens by about a third.

      The racial group differences across admissions tests, such as the SAT, ACT, GRE, GMAT, MCAT, LSAT, Advanced Placement Program examinations and other measures of educational achievement, have been consistent. Since the 1960s, the population of students taking these assessments has become increasingly diverse. Consequently, the examination of ethnic score differences have been more rigorous. Specifically, the largest gaps exist between White and Black students. On average, Blacks score about .82 to 1.18 standard deviations lower than White students in composite test scores.

      The National Assessment of Educational Progress reports the national Black-White gap in math and reading assessments, measured at the 4th and 8th grade level. The trends show the achievement gaps staying the same.

      ~~~~~~~

      Racial Scoring Gap on Standardized Graduate Tests

      — Black Student Score Results on the Medical College Admission Test

      In 2005 the mean combined score for Black students who took the Medical College Admission Test was 21.2. (Each of the three sections of the MCAT test is scored on a scale of 1 to 15.) For Whites, the mean score on the combined three portions of the MCAT test was 28.5. Therefore, the White score was about 18 percent higher than the mean score for Blacks.

      — The Racial Scoring Gap on the Test for Admission to Business School

      The mean Black score on the GMAT was 425. (The test is scored on the familiar 200 to 800 scale used for each section of the SAT test.) For Whites, the mean GMAT score was 532. This is 107 points or 18 percent higher than the mean score for Blacks.

      The average GMAT score for admitted students at the nation’s leading business schools is over 700. Perhaps only 1 or 2 percent of all Black GMAT test takers score at this level. Therefore, without continuing affirmative action admissions programs at Harvard, Penn, Stanford, Northwestern, MIT, and other top MBA programs, the nation’s leading business schools will have very few Black students.

      The latest JBHE survey shows that Blacks make up about 5 percent of the students at the nation’s leading business schools. If affirmative action admissions programs were to be discontinued, Black enrollments at these schools might drop by 75 percent.

      — Very Few Blacks Score at the Highest Levels of the Law School Admission Test

      In 1998 the mean score of White students taking the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) was 151.96. (The LSAT is graded on a scoring scale of 120 to 180.) The mean score for Black students taking the test that year was 141.80, about 17 percent lower than the mean score of Whites.

      The latest data shows a slight improvement for both Blacks and Whites, but there was no progress in closing the racial scoring gap. In 2004 the mean score for Whites on the LSAT was 152.47. For Blacks, the mean score was 142.43. The 10 point, or 17 percent, scoring gap has remained constant throughout the period with only very minor fluctuations.

      Students seeking admission to the nation’s highest-ranked law schools such as Yale, Harvard, and Stanford have a mean LSAT score of about 170. Data obtained by JBHE from the Law School Admission Council shows that very few Blacks nationwide score at this level.

      In 2004, 10,370 Blacks took the LSAT examination. Only 29 Blacks, or 0.3 percent of all LSAT test takers, scored 170 or above. In contrast, more than 1,900 White test takers scored 170 or above on the LSAT. They made up 3.1 percent of all White test takers. Thus Whites were more than 10 times as likely as Blacks to score 170 or above on the LSAT. There were 66 times as many Whites as Blacks who scored 170 or above on the test.

      Even if we drop the scoring level to 165, a level equal to the mean score of students enrolling at law schools ranked in the top 10 nationwide but not at the very top, we still find very few Blacks. There were 108 Blacks scoring 165 or better on the LSAT in 2004. They made up 1 percent of all Black test takers. For Whites, there were 6,689 test takers who scored 165 or above. They made up 10.6 percent of all White students who took the LSAT examination.

      The nation’s top law schools could fill their classes exclusively with students who scored 165 or above on the LSAT. But if they were to do so, these law schools would have almost no Black students.

      — The Racial Scoring Gap on the Graduate Record Examination

      The vast majority of Black graduate students do not attend professional schools of law, business, or medicine. Most Black students are enrolled in graduate programs in other academic disciplines including education, natural sciences, mathematics, foreign languages, the humanities, the arts, history, psychology, and the social sciences. For these students the important test is the Graduate Record Examination (GRE).

      This test begins with two analytical writing sections, one where the student is given a choice of topics. The analytical writing section is scored on a scale of 0 to 6. Then there is a 30-minute verbal reasoning test and a 45-minute quantitative section. The test is given on a computer terminal and the test is adaptive, meaning that the test questions are selected based on correct or incorrect responses to previous questions. These two sections are scored on the familiar 200 to 800 scale used for the SAT test.

      Each year about 300,000 college students seeking admission to graduate programs in fields such as education, the humanities, the natural sciences, and the social sciences sit for the GRE. In 2003, the latest year for which there is complete data available, 27,267 Blacks took the GRE test. Therefore, Blacks made up 8.8 percent of all students who took the GRE.

      In 2003 the mean score for Blacks on the combined verbal and quantitative sections of the GRE was 821. For Whites, the mean combined score was 1062. Thus the mean White score was 241 points, or 20 percent, higher than the mean score for Blacks. This racial scoring gap is even wider than the persistent and growing gap on the SAT test.

      In 2003 the mean Black score on the analytical writing section was 3.7 on a scale of 0 to 6. For Whites, the mean score was 4.5, a difference of about 13 percent. There is no way to compare the trend in the gap on this portion of the GRE because the 0 to 6 scale was recently instituted. Previously the analytical section of the test was scored on the 200 to 800 scale.

      The GRE scoring gap between Blacks and Whites varies to a large degree depending on the field of proposed study in graduate school. Black students planning to study in the field of engineering scored on average 187 points below whites who plan to pursue a graduate degree in engineering. In the physical sciences, Black students on average scored 247 points below Whites.

      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

      Effects of Affirmative Action

      Quota admittees drop out more often, avoid college science and math, and flunk post-graduation professional tests.

      The SAT scores of White applicants to U.S. colleges and universities have been, on average, about 200 points higher than those of their Black counterparts. Nonetheless, Black students have been admitted to virtually all academically competitive schools at much higher rates than Whites. At Amherst College in 1995, for instance, 51 percent of Black applicants were admitted vs. just 19 percent of White applicants. At Rice University that same year, the corresponding numbers were 52 percent and 25 percent for Blacks and Whites, respectively. At Bowdoin College, the figures were 70 percent and 30 percent.

      At the five most elite American, Black applicants whose SAT scores fell within the 1200 to 1249 range had a 60 percent chance of admission, whereas Whites with similar scores had just a 19 percent chance.

      At medical schools the situation is much the same. The Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT) scores of Blacks who are accepted are actually lower than those of Whites who are rejected. At the University of Maryland Medical School in 2000, Blacks with college GPAs of B or B+ and MCAT scores in the bottom half of all test-takers had a 70 percent chance of admission; for Whites and Asians of similar credentials, the chance was 2 percent.

      At America’s top law schools, Blacks are admitted at fully 17 times the rate that a colorblind process would allow. At UCLA Law School in 1994, a Black applicant with a college GPA between 2.5 and 3.5, and an LSAT score between 60 and 90, had a 61 percent chance of admission. The corresponding rates for similarly qualified Asians and Whites were 7 percent and 1 percent, respectively. Consider also Texas Law School, which in 1992 rejected 668 White applicants before rejecting a single Black. Fully 100 percent of Blacks who scored between 189 and 192 in the school’s academic rating system were admitted, as compared to just 6 percent of Whites.

      So-called “diversity degrees” were created with soft curricula to allow Blacks an easier opportunity to earn a degree than is possible in the hard sciences.

      College majors with the highest percentage of Whites (63% of U.S. population):

             Forestry: 93% White
             Natural Resources Management: 92% White
             Agriculture Production and Management: 92% White
             Plant Science and Agronomy: 92% White
             Nuclear Engineering: 91% White
             Animal Sciences: 91% White
             Soil Science: 91% White
             Miscellaneous Agriculture: 90% White
             Agricultural Economics: 90% White
             Art and Music Education: 90% White

      College majors with the highest percentage of Asians (6% of U.S. population):

             Computer Engineering: 33% Asian
             Statistics and Decision Science: 30% Asian
             Neuroscience: 27% Asian
             Biomedical Engineering: 26% Asian
             Other Foreign Languages: 26% Asian
             Electrical Engineering: 22% Asian
             Military Technologies: 22% Asian
             Biochemical Sciences: 20% Asian
             Applied Mathematics: 20% Asian
             Pharmacy Pharmaceutical Sciences and Administration: 20% Asian

      College majors with the highest percentage of Blacks (14% of U.S. population):

             School Student Counseling: 38% Black
             Human Services and Community Organization: 21% Black
             Counseling Psychology: 20% Black
             Health and Medical Administrative Services: 18% Black
             Public Administration: 18% Black
             Social Work: 16% Black
             Miscellaneous Social Sciences: 16% Black
             General Medical and Health Services: 15% Black
             Public Policy: 15% Black

    • Rob

      Blacks have small brains

      Would you expect a population of small-brain people to have a higher, lower or equal IQ as compared to a population of large-brain people?

      Compared to Blacks, Whites’ brains:

           •   are 7% larger (1438cc versus 1343cc)
           •   are 100 grams heavier
           •   have deeper fissuration in the frontal and occipital regions
           •   have more complex convolutions and larger frontal lobes
           •   have more pyramidal neurons
           •   have 16% thicker supra-grandular layer
           •   react faster on mental chronometry tests
           •   have 600 million more neurons (each carries about 600 billion synapses, which each carry one bit of cortical information)

      Genes contribute to about 90% of the individual variation of brain size.

      Asian, White, and Black brains can be reliably differentiated by examining the surface configuration.

      Blacks are the only racial group with no DNA from the large-brained Neanderthals, and also the only race without the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which produces increased brain volume.

      The correlation between brain size and IQ across 25 primate species is 0.77 (where 1.0 indicates that monozygotic twins have no variance in IQ and 0 indicates that their IQs are completely uncorrelated).

      Larger brains contain more neurons and synapses and process information faster. By adulthood, East Asians average 1 cubic inch more cranial capacity than Whites who average 5 cubic inches more than Blacks.

      The average White brain is 1438cc while the average Black brain is 1343cc, or 93% of the average White brain. The heritability of brain size is extremely strong at 0.90 and not one study to date has shown larger brain size for Blacks. The White and Asians brain also has a higher degree of fissuring (higher complexity) in the cerebral cortex of their brains, where abstract and conceptual thought is performed.

      There are also racial differences in brain shape, fissuration, number of pyramidal neurons and supra-grandular layer thickness. The depth of fissuration is related to superior intelligence and the brains of Whites have deeper fissures in the frontal and occipital regions. The supra-grandular layer of Blacks’ brains is 16% smaller than it is for Whites’ brains.

      Based on studies of brain weight at autopsy, endocranial volume of empty skulls, head size measurements by the U.S. military and NASA, and two dozen MRI volumetric studies Blacks’ brain size is 7% smaller than Whites’, and 8% smaller than Asians’. There is a correlation of brain size with IQ of about 0.40 and that these racial differences in brain size are present at birth. Genes contribute to about 90% of the individual variation of brain size.

      In addition to brain size are differences in brain shape, fissuration, number of pyramidal neurons and supra-grandular layer thickness. The depth of fissuration is related to superior intelligence and the brains of Whites have deeper fissures in the frontal and occipital regions. The supra-grandular layer of Blacks’ brains is 16% smaller than it is for Whites’ brains.

      The average human brain contains 86 billion neurons. Whites, on average, have 600 million more neurons than Blacks. Each neuron carries about 600 billion synapses, each of which carries, as a minimum, one bit of cortical information.

      Blacks are the only racial group with no DNA from the large-brained Neanderthals, and also the only race without the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which produces increased brain volume.

      Even before birth, population group differences in average brain size are found from the ninth week of intrauterine life with White fetuses averaging larger brain cases and smaller faces Black fetuses, with the differences becoming more prominent over the course of fetal development.

      Weighing brains at autopsy, Whites averaged heavier brains than Blacks and had more complex convolutions and larger frontal lobes. Subsequent studies have found an average Black–White difference of about 100 g. Studies have found that the more White admixture (judged independently from skin color), the greater the average brain weight in Blacks. In a study of 1,261 American adults, Ho et al. (1980) found that 811 White Americans averaged 1,323 g and 450 Black Americans averaged 1,223 g. Since the Blacks and Whites were similar in body size, differences in body size cannot explain away the differences in brain weight.

      The same three-way pattern of race differences has been found using the simplest culture-free cognitive measures such as reaction time tasks, which 9- to 12-year-old children perform in less than 1 s. Lynn (2006) found that East Asian children from Hong Kong and Japan were faster than European children from Britain and Ireland, who in turn were faster than African children from South Africa. Using similar tasks, this pattern of racial differences was also found in California (Jensen, 1998; Rushton & Jensen, 2005). Within each group, the children with higher IQ scores perform faster those with lower scores.

      Race differences start in the womb. Blacks are born earlier and grow quicker than Whites and Asians. The three-way race pattern occurs in milestones such as sexual maturity, family stability, crime rates, and population growth.

      Black babies mature more quickly than White babies, while Asian babies mature more slowly. Black babies in a sitting position are more able to keep their heads up and backs straight from the start. White babies often need six to eight weeks to do these things. It is unlikely that social factors could produce these differences. A basic law of biology shows that longer infancy is related to greater brain growth.

      Black babies spend the least time in the womb. In America, 51% of Black children have been born by week 39 of pregnancy compared with 33% of White children. In Europe, Black babies of even professional mothers are born earlier than White babies.

      Black children sit, crawl, walk, and put on their own clothes earlier than Whites or Asians. The findings are measured by such tests as Bayley’s Scales of Mental and Motor Development and the Cambridge Neonatal Scales.

      Asian children, on the other hand, mature more slowly than do White children. Asian children often do not walk until 13 months. Walking starts at 12 months for white children and 11 months for Black children.

      ~~~~~~~~~~

      Meta-analysis of associations between human brain volume and intelligence differences

      AUTHORS: Pietschnig, Penke, Wicherts, Zeiler, Voracek

      ABSTRACT: “By means of a systematic review of published studies and unpublished results obtained by personal communications with researchers, we identified 88 studies examining effect sizes of 148 healthy and clinical mixed-sex samples. Our results showed significant positive associations of brain volume and IQ.”

      2015, October

      PMID: 26449760

      ~~~~~~~~

      Brain mass differences between racial groups in the US

      Jensen (1998) summarizes the brain mass findings from the Case-Western Reserve (1980) study (N= 811 W, 450 B). An age matched and height adjusted B-W differences of ~100g (~.78SD) was found, which is commensurate with the findings of Bean (1906), Mall (1909), Pearl (1934), and Vint (1934) as described in Rushton and Ankney (2009). Holloway (2002) found a B-W difference of 63 grams (N = 1,391 W; 615 Black). Similar findings have been found based in imaging studies (see 5). In their study, Isamah, et al. (2010) found that African Americans have 1 SD less total cerebrum volume than European Americans.

      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

      Contrary to most purely environmental theories, racial differences in brain size show up early in life. Data from the U.S. National Collaborative Perinatal Project on 19,000 Black children and 17,000 White children showed that Black children had a smaller head perimeter at birth and, although Black children were born shorter in stature and lighter in weight than White children, by age 7 ‘catch-up growth’ led Black children to be larger in body size than White children. However, Blacks remained smaller in head perimeter (Broman et al., 1987). Further, head perimeter at birth, 1 year, 4 years, and 7 years correlated with IQ scores at age 7 in both Black and White children (r = 0.13 to 0.24).

      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

      Brain Size Differences. Studies using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) find a correlation of brain size with IQ of about 0.40. Larger brains contain more neurons and synapses and process information faster. Race differences in brain size are present at birth. By adulthood, East Asians average 1 cubic inch more cranial capacity than Whites who average 5 cubic inches more than Blacks.

      “Neither the existence nor the size of race differences in IQ are a matter of dispute, only their cause,” write the authors. The Black-White difference has been found consistently from the time of the massive World War I Army testing of 90 years ago to a massive study of over 6 million corporate, military, and higher-education test-takers in 2001.

      “Race differences show up by 3 years of age, even after matching on maternal education and other variables,” said Rushton. “Therefore they cannot be due to poor education since this has not yet begun to exert an effect. That’s why Jensen and I looked at the genetic hypothesis in detail. We examined 10 categories of evidence.”

      1. The Worldwide Pattern of IQ Scores; East Asians average higher on IQ tests than Whites, both in the U. S. and in Asia, even though IQ tests were developed for use in the Euro-American culture. Around the world, the average IQ for East Asians centers around 106; for Whites, about 100; and for Blacks about 85 in the U.S. and 70 in sub-Saharan Africa.

      2. Race Differences are Most Pronounced on Tests that Best Measure the General Intelligence Factor (g); Black-White differences, for example, are larger on the Backward Digit Span test than on the less g loaded Forward Digit Span test.

      3. The Gene-Environment Architecture of IQ is the Same in all Races, and Race Differences are Most Pronounced on More Heritable Abilities; Studies of Black, White, and East Asian twins, for example, show the heritability of IQ is 50% or higher in all races.

      4. Brain Size Differences; Studies using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) find a correlation of brain size with IQ of about 0.40. Larger brains contain more neurons and synapses and process information faster. Race differences in brain size are present at birth. By adulthood, East Asians average 1 cubic inch more cranial capacity than Whites who average 5 cubic inches more than Blacks.

      5. Trans-Racial Adoption Studies; Race differences in IQ remain following adoption by White middle class parents. East Asians grow to average higher IQs than Whites while Blacks score lower. The Minnesota Trans-Racial Adoption Study followed children to age 17 and found race differences were even greater than at age 7: White children, 106; Mixed-Race children, 99; and Black children, 89.

      6. Racial Admixture Studies; Black children with lighter skin, for example, average higher IQ scores. In South Africa, the IQ of the mixed-race “Colored” population averages 85, intermediate to the African 70 and White 100.

      -June 2005, Psychology, Public Policy and Law, a journal of the American Psychological Association

      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

      According to a new study, just published in the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) newsroom, scientists have definitively found the genes which control brain size and intelligence.

      Dozens of studies have found race differences in brain size, whether measured by MRI, endocranial volume, brain weight at autopsy or external head size (with or without corrections for body size).

      Most were carried out on the three major races of East Asians, Europeans, and Africans. Averaging all the data, the following figures have emerged: Brain size average for East Asians = 1364cm; Whites = 1347cm; and Blacks = 1267cm.

      The overall mean for East Asians was 17cm more than for Whites and 97cm more than for Blacks.

      Since every cubic centimeter of brain tissue contains millions of brain cells and billions of synapses, the race differences in brain size help to explain the race differences in IQ.

      The latest overview, billed as the “world’s largest brain study to date,” saw a team of more than 200 scientists from 100 institutions worldwide collaborate to map the human genes that boost or sabotage the brain’s resistance to a variety of mental illnesses and Alzheimer’s disease.

      Additionally, the study (also published in the journal Nature Genetics), found new genes which control “differences in brain size and intelligence.”

      “We searched for two things in this study,” said senior author Paul Thompson, professor of neurology at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA and a member of the UCLA Laboratory of Neuro Imaging.

      “We hunted for genes that increase your risk for a single disease that your children can inherit. We also looked for factors that cause tissue atrophy and reduce brain size, which is a biological marker for disorders like schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, Alzheimer’s disease and dementia.”

      Three years ago, Thompson’s lab partnered with geneticists Nick Martin and Margaret Wright at the Queensland Institute for Medical Research in Brisbane, Australia, and with geneticist Barbara Franke of Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre in the Netherlands.

      The four investigators recruited brain-imaging labs around the world to pool their brain scans and genomic data, and Project ENIGMA (Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis) was born.

      “Our individual centers couldn’t review enough brain scans to obtain definitive results,” said Thompson, who is also a professor of psychiatry at the Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior at UCLA.

      “By sharing our data with Project ENIGMA, we created a sample large enough to reveal clear patterns in genetic variation and show how these changes physically alter the brain.”

      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

      Recent reviews (by Nisbett et al. (2012b) and Mackintosh (2011)) confirm current data does show an average difference in brain size and head-circumference between American Blacks and Whites.

      Brain size is found to have a correlation of about .35 with intelligence and cites studies showing that genes may account for as much as 90% of individual variation in brain size, concluding that race differences in average brain size could be an important argument for genetic contribution to racial IQ gaps.

      – Considerations Relating to the Study of Group Differences in Intelligence, Earl Hunt1 and Jerry Carlson, The University of Washington
      – American Psychologist, Vol 67(6), Sep 2012, 503-504

      On the outside, there’s not a lot of difference between Black heads and White ones. There is a slight difference, however, with Whites having the larger heads. But the big difference is in the size of the brain. Blacks have thicker skulls, which means that a higher percentage of their head is bone instead of brain.

      Blacks are the only race without the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which appeared about 37,000 years ago and is associated with increased brain volume.

      Empirical data obtained from brain weight at autopsy, endocranial volume of empty skulls, head size measurements by the U.S. military and NASA, and two dozen MRI volumetric studies have shown that brain volumes average 1427 cubic centimeters for Whites, but only 1361 cubic centimeters for Blacks.

      In weight measurements, the brains of African Blacks were found to weigh an average of 1157 grams, whereas those of pure Whites weighed an average of 1323 grams. The brains of US-resident Blacks, who have a bit of White mixture in their genetic makeup, average 1223 grams in weight.

      That 100-gram weight difference, between White Americans and US-resident Blacks, corresponds to an approximate 600 million neuron advantage for Whites. In 600 million neurons, there are about 600 billion synapses, each of which carries, as a minimum, one bit of cortical information.

      Also, Whites have a larger genus to splenium ratio (front to back part of corpus callosum), which indicates that Whites probably have more activity in the frontal lobes which are thought to be the seat of intelligence. One study found that White cerebrums exhibited 14% more sulsification, or fissuring, as compared with those of Blacks. So, not only are White brains larger, they are also significantly more complex.

      Blacks also have considerably smaller frontal lobes. Frontal lobes are responsible for planning complex cognitive behavior, personality expression, decision making and moderating social behavior.

      This is a genetic trait because even malnourished Asians from poor countries have a larger brain on average than well fed blacks from western countries.

      Sources:

      Willerman et al. (1991) Using MRI obtained r’s ranging from .26 to .56 between IQ and the size of specific brain structures and an overall r of .38 between full-scale IQ and gray matter volume when body size is controlled for. Replications by Raz et al. (1993) and Wickett, Vernon and Lee (1994) found correlations between IQ and brain size of .41 and .47-49. Egan et al. (1994) found an r of .32 between IQ and brain size in a sample whose SD for IQ was 9.3.

      Beals, K. L., Smith, C. L., & Dodd, S. M. (1984). Brain size, cranial morphology, climate, and time machines. Current Anthropology 25, 301–330.

      Jensen, A. R. (1998). The g Factor. Westport, CT: Praeger.

      Rushton, J. P. & Ankney, C. D. (1996). Brain size and cognitive ability: Correlations with age, sex, social class, and race. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 3, 21-36.

      Ho, K. C., Roessmann, U., Straumfjord, J. V., & Monroe, G. (1980). Analysis of brain weight: I and II. Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine 104, 635–645.

      Johnson F. W. & Jensen (1994). Race and sex differences in head size and IQ. Intelligence 18: 309–33

      Rushton JP. (1997). Cranial size and IQ in Asian Americans from birth to age seven. Intelligence 25: 7–20.

      Rushton JP (1991). Mongoloid-Caucasoid differences in brain size from military samples [and NASA]. Intelligence 15: 351–9.

      Cranial Capacities:

      Study                    Black               White                Asian             Black/White

      Ho et al., 1980          1267                1370                                   .92

      Gould, 1981              1356                1426                 1426              .95

      Beals, 1984             1276                1362                 1380              .93

      Herskovits, 1993         1295                1421                 1451              .91

      Ruston (Army) 92         1346                1361                 1403              .98

      Ruston (ILO), 1994       1228                1284                 1312              .95
                  

      ————–

      Abstract:

      Genome-wide association studies establish that human intelligence is highly heritable and polygenic.

      General intelligence is an important human quantitative trait that accounts for much of the variation in diverse cognitive abilities. Individual differences in intelligence are strongly associated with many important life outcomes, including educational and occupational attainments, income, health and lifespan. Data from twin and family studies are consistent with a high heritability of intelligence, but this inference has been controversial. We conducted a genome-wide analysis of 3511 unrelated adults with data on 549 692 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and detailed phenotypes on cognitive traits. We estimate that 40% of the variation in crystallized-type intelligence and 51% of the variation in fluid-type intelligence between individuals is accounted for by linkage disequilibrium between genotyped common SNP markers and unknown causal variants. These estimates provide lower bounds for the narrow-sense heritability of the traits. We partitioned genetic variation on individual chromosomes and found that, on average, longer chromosomes explain more variation. Finally, using just SNP data we predicted ~1% of the variance of crystallized and fluid cognitive phenotypes in an independent sample (P=0.009 and 0.028, respectively). Our results unequivocally confirm that a substantial proportion of individual differences in human intelligence is due to genetic variation, and are consistent with many genes of small effects underlying the additive genetic influences on intelligence.

      Molecular Psychiatry, 2011: 996-1005.

      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~

      Intelligence

      Volume 18, Issue 3, May–June 1994, Pages 309–333

      Race and sex differences in head size and IQ
      Arthur R. Jensen, Fred W. Johnson

      Abstract

      An analysis of IQ in relation to head size (and by inference, brain size) was performed on some 14,000 children and their full siblings, almost evenly divided by race (white and black) and sex, on whom data were obtained at ages 4 and 7 years in the National Collaborative Perinatal Project. Within each race × sex group, IQ is significantly correlated with head size, age and body size having been partialed out. A significant positive correlation between IQ × head size exists not only within subjects (at ages 4 and 7) but also within families and between families (at age 7 only). The within-families correlation (at age 7) is consistent with an intrinsic or pleiotropic correlation between the mental and physical variables. No significant positive correlation within families appeared at age 4, despite a significant within-subjects correlation at that age. As yet, there are only speculative explanations of the disparity between the age 4 and 7 within-family correlations of head size with IQ. Although general body size is also correlated with IQ within subjects and between families, the correlation does not exist within families in either age group, which rules out a pleiotropic correlation between body size and IQ. There are both race and sex differences in head size, although the sex difference in IQ is nil. White and black children who are matched on IQ show, on average, virtually zero difference in head size.

      Correspondence and requests for reprints should be sent to Arthur R. Jensen, School of Education, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.

    • Rob

      Blacks are violent

      Blacks have mean testosterone levels 19% higher than in whites. This is why 1-in-4 Black men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer but only 1-in-8 White men and 1-in-13 Asian men will. Testosterone is associated with impulsive, aggressive and violent behavior.

      The Black homicide rate is 17 per 100,000, a rate over 9x that of the White rate, and comparable to some of those most murderous countries in the world.

      If the homicide rate for the country as a whole were the White-only rate, the homicide rate would drop 84%, making the U.S. rate comparable to European countries.

      Black males age 18-35 are only 4% of the U.S. population, yet commit 50% of homicides. Black males (all ages) are only 6% of the U.S. population, yet commit 46% of all violent crimes, and 50% of the gun homicides. If Blacks were removed from the equation, the U.S. gun homicide rate would be equal to Great Britain’s, who have some of the most restrictive gun control laws in the world.

      Therefore, the U.S. has a Black problem, not a gun or violent crime problem.

      In 2013, according to FBI statistics, Blacks committed an average of 486,945 violent crimes against Whites, whereas Whites committed only 99,403 violent crimes against Blacks. This means Blacks were the attackers in 84.5 percent of the violent crimes involving Blacks and Whites. By age 23, half of Blacks males have been arrested.

      Blacks have a very high percentage carrying the dysfunctional form of the MAOA gene which does not produce a protein needed to break down old serotonin in their brains. This causes them to be agitated, aggressive and impulsive. The popular term for this is the “warrior gene” which could be considered propaganda to put a positive spin on those who possess this dysfunctional gene which is highly-correlated to criminality.

      Comprehensive Psychiatry published a large study on the rates at which black and white Americans carry shortened, or dysfunctional, MAOA genes.

      The gene can come in the form of 2, 3, 3.5, 4, or 5 allele. A 3-repeat allele is considered dysfunctional and is what is referred to as the “warrior gene”. A 2-repeat allele is considered very dysfunctional. People with a 2-repeat allele MAOA gene have a permanent chemical imbalance in their brain making the person more likely to be agitated, aggressive, and impulsive.

      According to the study published in Comprehensive Psychiatry, 34.6% of Whites and 53.4% of Blacks have 2-repeat allele or less. However, only .5% of whites have the 2-repeat (2R) allele version compared to 4.7% of blacks.

      That means Blacks are 9.4 times more likely to have the extremely dysfunctional version of the gene than Whites. Considering that Black Americans are 9 times more likely to commit murder, this is very significant.

      Other studies have shown even higher rates of occurrence of the 2-repeat (2R) allele version of the gene in Blacks.

      It was discovered that Black males carrying 2R were more likely to be involved in extreme violence (shooting and stabbing) than Black men with other MAOA variants. The relationship between the rare MAOA version and antisocial behaviors has raised eyebrows because, quite simply, this gene is not distributed equally across ethnic groups. In the Add Health database, 5.5% of African American men, 0.9% of Caucasian men, and 0.00067% of Asian men have 2R.

      The association between 2R and committing a shooting or stabbing crime was statistically significant. The MAOA-2R has become a symbol of a new era in behavioral genetics research — an era that has reintroduced race into the nature versus nurture debate over the source of ethnic behavioral differences

      Notes: There are other genes associated with violent and/or impulsive behavior. The MAOA gene is only one of them. However, the effects of a shortened MAOA gene are well documented. The chemical imbalance its creates can be observed in a laboratory.

      Blacks possess 10x more of the dysfunctional MAOA (or “warrior gene”) that is associated with violent and/or impulsive behavior.

      ~~~~~~~~~~~

      Abstract:

      A line of research has revealed that a polymorphism in the promoter region of the MAOA gene is related to antisocial phenotypes. Most of these studies examine the effects of low MAOA activity alleles (2-repeat and 3-repeat alleles) against the effects of high MAOA activity alleles (3.5-repeat, 4-repeat, and sometimes 5-repeat alleles), with research indicating that the low MAOA activity alleles confer an increased risk to antisocial phenotypes. The current study examined whether the 2-repeat allele, which has been shown to be functionally different from the 3-repeat allele, was associated with a range of antisocial phenotypes in a sample of males drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Analyses revealed that African-American males who carried the 2-repeat allele were, in comparison with other African-American male genotypes, significantly more likely to be arrested and incarcerated. Additional analyses revealed that African-American male carriers of the 2-repeat allele scored significantly higher on an antisocial phenotype index and on measures assessing involvement in violent behaviors over the life course. There was not any association between the 2-repeat allele and a continuously measured psychopathic personality traits scale. The effects of the 2-repeat allele could not be examined in Caucasian males because only 0.1% carried it.

      Authors: Kevin M. Beavera, John Paul Wright, Brian B. Boutwell, J.C. Barnesd, Matt DeLisie, Michael G. Vaughnf

      ~~~

      Monoamine oxidase A genotype is associated with gang membership and weapon use.

      Beaver KM1, DeLisi M, Vaughn MG, Barnes JC.

      ABSTRACT:

      A functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene has been found to be associated with a broad range of antisocial phenotypes, including physical violence. At the same time, it is well known that gang members represent some of the most serious violent offenders. Even so, no research has ever examined the association between MAOA and gang membership.

      RESULTS:

      The low MAOA activity alleles conferred an increased risk of joining a gang and using a weapon in a fight for males but not for females. Moreover, among male gang members, those who used weapons in a fight were more likely to have a low MAOA activity allele when compared with male gang members who do not use weapons in a fight.

      CONCLUSIONS:

      Male carriers of low MAOA activity alleles are at risk for becoming a gang member and, once a gang member, are at risk for using weapons in a fight.

      Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

      PMID: 20152292

      ~~~

      Serum testosterone levels in healthy young black and white men.

      Blacks in the United States have the highest prostate cancer rate in the world and nearly twice that of whites in the United States. The 2:1 black-to-white ratio in prostate cancer rates is already apparent at age 45 years, the age at which the earliest prostate cancer cases occur. This finding suggests that the factor(s) responsible for the difference in rates occurs, or first occurs, early in life. Testosterone has been hypothesized to play a role in the etiology of prostate cancer, because testosterone and its metabolite, dihydrotestosterone, are the principal trophic hormones that regulate growth and function of epithelial prostate tissue. Mean testosterone levels in blacks were 19% higher than in whites, and free testosterone levels were 21% higher. Both these differences were statistically significant. A 15% difference in circulating testosterone levels could readily explain a twofold difference in prostate cancer risk.

      J Natl Cancer Inst. 1986 Jan;76(1):45-8.

      PMID: 3455741

      ~~~~~~~~

      The 2-repeat allele of the MAOA gene confers an increased risk for shooting and stabbing behaviors.

      Beaver KM1, Barnes JC, Boutwell BB.

      Abstract

      There has been a great deal of research examining the link between a polymorphism in the promoter region of the MAOA gene and antisocial phenotypes. The results of these studies have consistently revealed that low activity MAOA alleles are related to antisocial behaviors for males who were maltreated as children. Recently, though, some evidence has emerged indicating that a rare allele of the MAOA gene-that is, the 2-repeat allele-may have effects on violence that are independent of the environment. The current study builds on this research and examines the association between the 2-repeat allele and shooting and stabbing behaviors in a sample of males drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Analyses revealed that African-American males who carry the 2-repeat allele are significantly more likely than all other genotypes to engage in shooting and stabbing behaviors and to report having multiple shooting and stabbing victims. The limitations of the study are discussed and suggestions for future research are offered.

      PMID: 24326626

      ~~~~~~~~

      Barnes, B. Genes, agents and the institution of responsible action. New Genetics and Society 21(3), 291-302 (2003).

      Beaver, K. M. et al. Monoamine oxidase A genotype is associated with gang membership and weapon use. Compr. Psychiatry 51(2), 130-134 (2009).

      Brunner, H. G. et al. Abnormal behavior associated with a point mutation in the structural gene for monoamine oxidase A. Science 262, 578-580. (1993).

      Buchen, L. In their nature. Nature 467, 146-148 (2010).

      Caspi, A. et al. Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children. Science 297(5582), 851-854 (2002a).

      Caspi, A. et al. Supplementary material. Description of methods and measurements used in the Dunedin multidisciplinary health and development study. Science 297 (2002b).

      Denno, D. W. “Behavioral Genetics Evidence in Criminal Cases: 1994–2007” in Farahany N. A. (ed) The impact of behavioral sciences on criminal law (Oxford University Press, chapter 10, 2009).

      Lea, R. & Chambers, G. Monamine oxidase, addiction and the ‘warrior’ gene hypothesis. New Zealand Medical Journal 120, 1250 (2007).

      Levitt, M. Genes, environment and responsibility for violent behaviour: “Whatever genes one has it is preferable that you are prevented from going around stabbing people”. New Genetics and Society 32(1), 4-17 (2013).

      Shih, J. C et al. Monoamine oxidase: from genes to behaviour. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 22,197-217 (1999).

      ~~~~~~~~

      MAOA is an enzyme that degrades neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine in the brain — is coded for by the MAOA gene. Neurotransmitters play a pivotal role in mood, arousal, and emotions, even affecting impulse control. Since the 1990s scientists have identified several versions of the MAOA, which are usually categorized as low-activity or high-activity variants. MAOA genes are classified based on how many times a short sequence — a functional strip of DNA — repeats itself within a variable region of the gene. The most common variant, MAOA-4R, has four repeats and is associated with high-activity breakdown of neurotransmitters. Alternate forms of the MAOA, including the 2-repeat (2R) and 3-repeat (3R) versions, contain fewer repeat sequences.

      The 2R and 3R variants are often lumped together in studies of the low-activity MAOA gene. (Although the 5R version has a large number of repeats, it too is less active than the 4R version.) The two classes of MAOA versions correlate with different behavioral tendencies. Low-activity variants are thought to lead to reduced levels of MAOA in the brain, possibly shifting mood by changing serotonin levels.

      But it was 2R — the “extreme warrior gene” — that captivated researchers searching for a genetic basis of criminal predispositions. Guo’s team analyzed data on male youth from Add Health — a national sample of adolescents in grades 7-12. Their findings showed that the rare variant, 2R, was correlated with higher levels of self-reported serious and violent delinquency.

      More recently, Beaver’s team has focused only on the 2R variant rather than the low-expression variants combined. He and his colleagues have discovered that African American males carrying 2R were more likely to be involved in extreme violence — shooting and stabbing — than African American men with other MAOA variants. The relationship between the rare MAOA version and antisocial behaviors has raised eyebrows because, quite simply, this gene is not distributed equally across ethnic groups. In the Add Health database, 5.5% of African American men, 0.9% of Caucasian men, and 0.00067% of Asian men have 2R. Since the rare MAOA variant is virtually non-existent in whites, all of the males in Beaver’s study were black Americans.

      Beaver’s sample of 133 African American men from the Add Health database included 6% that carried 2R. Overall, 5.6% of the men in the sample reported shooting or stabbing someone at some point in their lifetime. The association between 2R and committing a shooting or stabbing crime was statistically significant. Based on Beaver’s evidence, 2R appears to increase the risk of shooting or stabbing a victim during adolescence or adulthood. For some commentators in the public arena, MAOA-2R has become a symbol of a new era in behavioral genetics research — an era that has reintroduced race into the nature versus nurture debate over the source of ethnic behavioral differences.

      Beaver’s studies have shown that the 2R variant has a robust association with violent behaviors, arrest, and incarceration. His research is applauded by supporters of behavioral genetics, but it has also drawn criticism. It focuses on an antisocial-linked gene that reportedly occurs more frequently in African American men than in males of other ethnic groups. This has led some popular writers to speculate that MAOA-2R might account for — or at least play a significant role in — the relatively higher rates of violent crime in African Americans.

      ~~~~~

      Mass and Serial Killers

      Mass Killers:

      There have been 70 mass shooters since 1982.

      45 by whites, 11 by blacks, 6 by Asians, 4 by Latinos, 3 by Native American.

      Per capita:

      Whites make up 77.7% of the populations and 64% of the shootings -13.7
      Latinos make up 17.1% of the populations and 5.7% of the shootings -11.4
      Blacks make up 13.2% of the populations and 15% of the shootings +1.8
      Asians make up 5.3% of the populations and 8.5% of the shootings +3.2
      Native Americans make up 1.2% of the populations and 4% of the shootings +2.8

      Serial Killers:

      According to the FBI 90 percent of serial killers are male, and 46 percent of those are white.

      Black serial killers have comprised over half of documented serial killers since the dawn of the 21st century at 56 percent, making up a total of 40 percent in years dating back to 1900.

      As Blacks are only 13% of the U.S. population they are heavily over-represented as serial killers.

      Criminal profiler Pat Brown says serial killers are usually reported as white because the media typically focuses on “All-American” white and pretty female victims who were the targets of white male offenders, that crimes among minority offenders in urban communities, where crime rates are higher, are under-investigated, and that minority serial killers likely exist at the same ratios as white serial killers for the population. She believes that the myth that serial killers are always white might have become “truth” in some research fields due to the over-reporting of white serial killers in the media.

      According to some sources, the percentage of serial killers who are African American is estimated to be between 13 and 22 percent. Another study has shown that 16 percent of serial killers are African American, what author Maurice Godwin describes as a “sizeable portion”. However, the 2013 Radford/FGCU Serial Killer Database annual statistics show, for the decades 1900–2010, that the percentage of African American serial killers is 40.7%. Popular racial stereotypes about the lower intelligence of African-Americans, and the stereotype that serial killers are white males with “bodies stacked up in the basement and strewn all over the countryside” may explain the media focus on serial killers that are white and the failure to adequately report on those that are black.

      Child Molesters:

      Myth: Whites Are More Likely to be Pedophiles and Child Molesters

      There is a long-standing myth that Whites are more likely to molest children than any other race. This goes back to some stereotype of the creepy, nerdy, weirdo White guy who can’t get laid so he molests kids.

      % of total child abusers:

      White                            51%
      African American                 25%
      Hispanic                         15%
      American Indian/Alaska Natives    2%
      Asian/Pacific Islanders           1%

      Relative to their population, likelihood of child abuse compared to background population rate:
      American Indian    +100%
      Blacks             +92%
      Hispanics          no difference
      Whites             -35%
      Asian              -67%

      ~~~~~

      FBI Table 43 (2013)

      Blacks are 13 percent of the population and commit 32.5% of all crimes against family and children. That is 2.5 times their population.

      Whites are 66 percent of the population and commit 65% of all crimes against family and children. That is 1 times their population.

      Therefore, a Black is 2.5 times more likely to be a pedophile than a White.

    • Rob

      Google: National IQ Congo

      ….then: IQ Koko the gorilla

      LOL

      IQ correlates strongly to job performance, increased wealth, increased income, economic growth, livability in a U.S. state, cooperation, life expectancy and infant mortality.

      It is estimated that a minimum IQ of 90 is required just to maintain a technological society.

      The more White a society is the more successful (safe and prosperous) it is.

      The following intelligence scores came from work carried out earlier this decade by Richard Lynn, a British psychologist, and Tatu Vanhanen, a Finnish political scientist, who analysed IQ studies from 113 countries, and from subsequent work by Jelte Wicherts, a Dutch psychologist. Lynn and Vanhanen benchmarked their IQ results so that Britain is 100. America scores 98 on this scale, and the world average is 90. IQ`s are assumed to form a normal probability distribution (“bell curve”) with the standard deviation set at 15.

      National IQ correlates at 0.73 with living standard.

      Each 10 point increase in IQ generally doubles economic growth, assuming the country has a market economy:

                •   108      Singapore
                •   106      South Korea
                •   105      Japan
                •   105      China
                •   102      Italy
                •   101      Iceland
                •   101      Mongolia
                •   101      Switzerland
                •   100      Austria
                •   100      Luxembourg
                •   100      Netherlands
                •   100      Norway
                •   100      United Kingdom
                •   99        Belgium
                •   99        Canada
                •   99        Estonia
                •   99        Finland
                •   99        Germany
                •   99        New Zealand
                •   99        Poland
                •   99        Sweden
                •   98        Andorra
                •   98        Australia
                •   98        Czech Republic
                •   98        Denmark
                •   98        France
                •   98        Hungary
                •   98        Latvia
                •   98        Spain
                •   98        United States
                •   97        Belarus
                •   97        Malta
                •   97        Russia
                •   97        Ukraine
                •   96        Moldova
                •   96        Slovakia
                •   96        Slovenia
                •   96        Uruguay
                •   95        Israel
                •   95        Portugal
                •   94        Armenia
                •   94        Georgia
                •   94        Kazakhstan
                •   94        Romania
                •   94        Vietnam
                •   93        Argentina
                •   93        Bulgaria
                •   92        Greece
                •   92        Ireland
                •   92        Malaysia
                •   91        Brunei
                •   91        Cambodia
                •   91        Cyprus
                •   91        Lithuania
                •   91        Thailand
                •   90        Albania
                •   90        Bosnia
                •   90        Chile
                •   90        Croatia
                •   90        Kyrgyzstan
                •   90        Turkey
                •   89        Cook Islands
                •   89        Costa Rica
                •   89        Laos
                •   89        Mauritius
                •   89        Serbia
                •   89        Suriname
                •   88        Ecuador
                •   88        Mexico
                •   88        Samoa
                •   87        Azerbaijan
                •   87        Bolivia
                •   87        Brazil
                •   87        Guyana
                •   87        Indonesia
                •   87        Iraq
                •   87        Myanmar
                •   87        Tajikistan
                •   87        Turkmenistan
                •   87        Uzbekistan
                •   86        Kuwait
                •   86        Philippines
                •   86        Seychelles
                •   86        Tonga
                •   85        Cuba
                •   85        Eritrea
                •   85        Fiji
                •   85        Kiribati
                •   85        Peru
                •   85        Trinidad and Tobago
                •   85        Yemen
                •   84        Afghanistan
                •   84        Bahamas
                •   84        Belize
                •   84        Colombia
                •   84        Iran
                •   84        Jordan
                •   84        Marshall Islands
                •   84        Micronesia
                •   84        Morocco
                •   84        Nigeria
                •   84        Pakistan
                •   84        Panama
                •   84        Paraguay
                •   84        Saudi Arabia
                •   84        Solomon Islands
                •   84        Uganda
                •   84        United Arab Emirates
                •   84        Vanuatu
                •   84        Venezuela
                •   83        Algeria
                •   83        Bahrain
                •   83        Libya
                •   83        Oman
                •   83        New Guinea
                •   83        Syria
                •   83        Tunisia
                •   82        Bangladesh
                •   82        Dominican Republic
                •   82        India
                •   82        Lebanon
                •   82        Madagascar
                •   82        Zimbabwe
                •   81        Egypt
                •   81        Honduras
                •   81        Maldives
                •   81        Nicaragua
                •   80        Barbados
                •   80        Bhutan
                •   80        El Salvador
                •   80        Kenya
                •   79        Guatemala
                •   79        Sri Lanka
                •   79        Zambia
                •   78        Congo
                •   78        Nepal
                •   78        Qatar
                •   77        South Africa
                •   76        Cape Verde
                •   76        Congo
                •   76        Mauritania
                •   76        Senegal
                •   74        Mali
                •   74        Namibia
                •   73        Ghana
                •   72        Tanzania
                •   71        Central African Republic
                •   71        Grenada
                •   71        Jamaica
                •   71        St Vincent, Grenadines
                •   71        Sudan
                •   70        Antigua, Barbuda
                •   70        Benin
                •   70        Botswana
                •   70        Rwanda
                •   70        Togo
                •   69        Burundi
                •   69        Cote d’Ivoire
                •   69        Ethiopia
                •   69        Malawi
                •   69        Niger
                •   68        Angola
                •   68        Burkina Faso
                •   68        Chad
                •   68        Djibouti
                •   68        Somalia
                •   68        Swaziland
                •   67        Dominica
                •   67        Guinea
                •   67        Guinea-Bissau
                •   67        Haiti
                •   67        Lesotho
                •   67        Liberia
                •   67        Saint Kitts
                •   67        Sao Tome
                •   66        Gambia
                •   64        Cameroon
                •   64        Gabon
                •   64        Sierra Leone
                •   64        Mozambique
                •   62        Saint Lucia
                •   59        Equatorial Guinea

      A least developed country (LDC) is a country that, according to the United Nations, exhibits the lowest indicators of socioeconomic development, with the lowest Human Development Index ratings of all countries in the world. A country is classified as a Least Developed Country if it meets three criteria:

      Poverty (adjustable criterion: three-year average GNI per capita of less than US $992, which must exceed $1,190 to leave the list as of 2012)

      Human resource weakness (based on indicators of nutrition, health, education and adult literacy) and

      Economic vulnerability (based on instability of agricultural production, instability of exports of goods and services, economic importance of non-traditional activities, merchandise export concentration, handicap of economic smallness, and the percentage of population displaced by natural disasters)

      34 of the 47 LDCs are sub-Saharan African. There are a combined 48 sub-Saharan countries with a total population of one billion earning an annual per capita GDP of $1,720 in 2014 USD and a life expectancy of 57 years.

      Some groups succeed all the time, everywhere. Some have never succeeded anywhere. Blacks are the oldest race so they should be the most advanced, but they have never been successful anywhere. Civilization didn’t advance until humans evolved from Blacks by hybridizing with the large-brained Neanderthals which produced a modern human with an increase in cranium capacity and a heavier, more developed brain. Blacks are also the only race without the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which produces increased brain volume and density.

    • Rob

      Primitive Traits

      Blacks are a separate species from Whites and Asians

      In addition to brain size are differences in brain shape, fissuration, number of pyramidal neurons and supra-grandular layer thickness. The depth of fissuration is related to superior intelligence and the brains of Whites have deeper fissures in the frontal and occipital regions. The supra-grandular layer of Blacks’ brains is 16% smaller than it is for Whites’ brains.

      Blacks are the only racial group with no DNA from the large-brained Neanderthals, and also the only race without the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which produces increased brain volume.

      Even before birth, population group differences in average brain size are found from the ninth week of intrauterine life with White fetuses averaging larger brain cases and smaller faces than Black fetuses, with the differences becoming more prominent over the course of fetal development.

      Weighing brains at autopsy, Whites averaged heavier brains than Blacks and had more complex convolutions and larger frontal lobes. Subsequent studies have found an average Black–White difference of about 100 g. Studies have found that the more White admixture (judged independently from skin color), the greater the average brain weight in Blacks. In a study of 1,261 American adults, Ho et al. (1980) found that 811 White Americans averaged 1,323 g and 450 Black Americans averaged 1,223 g. Since the Blacks and Whites were similar in body size, differences in body size cannot explain away the differences in brain weight.

      The same three-way pattern of race differences has been found using the simplest culture-free cognitive measures such as reaction time tasks, which 9- to 12-year-old children perform in less than 1 s. Lynn (2006) found that East Asian children from Hong Kong and Japan were faster than European children from Britain and Ireland, who in turn were faster than African children from South Africa. Using similar tasks, this pattern of racial differences was also found in California (Jensen, 1998; Rushton & Jensen, 2005). Within each group, the children with higher IQ scores perform faster those with lower scores.

      Race differences start in the womb. Blacks are born earlier and grow quicker than Whites and Asians. The three-way race pattern occurs in milestones such as sexual maturity, family stability, crime rates, and population growth.

      Black babies mature more quickly than White babies, while Asian babies mature more slowly. Black babies in a sitting position are more able to keep their heads up and backs straight from the start. White babies often need six to eight weeks to do these things. It is unlikely that social factors could produce these differences. A basic law of biology shows that longer infancy is related to greater brain growth.

      Black babies spend the least time in the womb. In America, 51% of Black children have been born by week 39 of pregnancy compared with 33% of White children. In Europe, Black babies of even professional mothers are born earlier than White babies.

      Black children sit, crawl, walk, and put on their own clothes earlier than Whites or Asians. The findings are measured by such tests as Bayley’s Scales of Mental and Motor Development and the Cambridge Neonatal Scales.

      Asian children, on the other hand, mature more slowly than do White children. Asian children often do not walk until 13 months. Walking starts at 12 months for white children and 11 months for Black children.

      In a combination of 19 studies on Black and White brain sizes, every single one shows Whites with a significantly larger brain size than Blacks. The calculated average White brain is 1398g and 1438cc while the average Black brain is 1275g and 1343cc – 91% and 93% of the average White brain. The heritability of brain size is extremely strong at 0.90 and not one study to date has shown larger brain size for Blacks, nor has any study shown anywhere close to equal brain size or structure for Blacks and Whites.

      The White brain has a high degree of fissuring (higher complexity) and the Black brain has a lower degree of fissuring (lower complexity) in the cerebral cortex of their brains, where abstract and conceptual thought is performed.

      Blacks have smaller skulls than Whites and a lower brain capacity. The long, narrow skull of Blacks is superior at dissipating heat and the more spherical skulls of Whites better retains heat which is explainable by the fact that Blacks evolved in a hot climate (Africa) and Whites evolved in a cold climate (Europe).

      Prognathism, the absence of “Facial flatness”, is significantly higher in Blacks than Whites and even higher in apes. The facial angle for Whites is 82°, 70° for Blacks as well as H.Habilis and H.Erectus, and 60° for gorillas. Prognathism is associated with a sloping forehead, which corresponds to a smaller frontal lobe, which is the part of the brain responsible for abstract and conceptual thinking.

      Blacks have higher rates of primitive traits compared to Whites. Blacks have more robust cranial bones, simpler cranial sutures, a higher rate of unclosed sutures, a lower cephalic index, a higher rate of saggital keel, more post-orbital constriction, a more sloped forehead, more rectangular eye sockets, a wider nasal index, less nasal prominence, a higher rate of joined nasal bones, a higher rate of sub-nasal prognathism, a lower facial angle, the presence of the “Simian shelf”, a more rectangular palate, larger and wider-apart teeth, less spinal curvature, shorter spinal length, a lower sacral index, and longer arms and legs.

      One can undeniably attribute the vast majority of these traits more strongly to chimpanzees, gorillas, H.Erectus, and archaic H.Sapiens compared to modern anatomical humans, hence justifying the label “Primitive.”

      The dome of the Asian skull is round and the face is flat. Although the Caucasian skull is a bit longer, it is very similar to the Asian skull, indicating that the Asians and Caucasians did not separate into two races all that long ago, or that there was interbreeding between their lineages.

      The African skull is quite different from the Asian and Caucasian skulls, indicating a much greater genetic distance between Eurasians and Africans than between Europeans and Asians. Compared to Asian and Caucasian skulls, the African skull is narrower. The bones of the skull (and the rest of the body) are denser and thicker. The eye sockets are rounder and proportionately larger and the distance between them is greater. The slight bump at the top of the head suggests a “saggital keel,” a ridge along the top of the head from the forehead to the back of the skull for attaching chewing muscles and strengthening the skull from blows received in fighting. The opening for the nose is wider, the nose bones protrude less, and the teeth more massive, with the incisors meeting at an angle.

      The most noticeable difference is the protruding jaw, a condition known as “prognathism,” a trait found in apes and in ancient human fossil skulls, even those not from Africa. The considerable gap between the cheekbones (“zygomatic arches”) and the indentation on the sides behind the eye sockets (“post-orbital constriction”) indicate that the more massive jaw was serviced by powerful chewing muscles that passed through the gap.

      At birth, Africans have fewer cranial bones than Eurasians. The skull bones (and other bones) in Africans are thicker and denser, even in the fetus, making them more difficult to break, which is an aid in head butting and fighting as blows to the head can easily be fatal. Some anthropologists believe skulls got thicker about 1.6 to 1.8 million years ago when erectus developed clubs as weapons, resulting in more cracked skulls. Denser bones (and less fat) make Africans less buoyant and less capable swimmers, but reduce their susceptibility to osteoporosis.

      The long, narrow skull of the Africans (dolichocephalic) loses heat the fastest and the more spherical skull of the Asians (brachycephalic) better retains heat. Comparing black, white, and Northeast Asian (Mongol) skulls, the black skull is more simian as it is long and narrow. The white and Mongol skulls are rounder and about the same size, but the cheek bones flair out more on the Mongol skull. There is a correlation of 0.37 between cranial capacity and the cephalic index, i.e., the long, narrow skulls of Africans have a smaller cranial capacity.

      The African skulls are very different from the skulls of all the other populations, even the Australian aborigines. The Black skull is smaller, with less space in the forehead, but proportionately more at the back.

      The difference between Eurasians and Africans in their nasal spines is dramatic. The anterior nasal spine is a small bone that extends outward from the middle of the base of the nasal cavity; it supports a nose that protrudes. The nasal spine is prominent in Caucasians, less so in Asians and small or absent in Africans. The race of a skull can be determined by placing a pen across the base of the nasal cavity. If the pen is held in place by the nasal spine, the skull is Caucasian; if it rolls off, the skull is African; chimpanzees and gorillas also lack a true anterior nasal spine.

      Simian prognathism (a protruding jaw with a recessed nose) is a very primitive trait that is characteristic of apes. A jutting jaw is needed if the teeth are large, plus it is an advantage in fighting as it permits a bigger bite and makes the eyes less vulnerable.

      Prognathism, the absence of “facial flatness” can be measured by means of the facial angle, the slope of the face from the forehead to the jaws. The facial angle is 70° for the “Black” (i.e., Congoids); H. habilis and H. erectus also have a facial angle of about 70°. An angle of 60° has been given for the Hottentots and Bushmen, and 66.6° for the Australian aborigines below the nose. Orangutans have a facial angle of 58°. A facial angle of 100° as the epitome of beauty. Africans have “remarkable prognathism.”

      A protruding jaw is usually associated with a sloping forehead which indicates a smaller prefrontal cortex, the area of the brain that handles planning, inhibition, and self control. Thus, the absence of prognathism is seen as less bestial and an indication of higher intelligence.

      In Eurasians, the upper teeth usually overlap the lower incisors, but in Africans the upper incisors are mounted in the jaw at an angle and project forward so that they meet the lower at an angle. The gorilla’s teeth meet at an even greater angle. African teeth are more primitive than Eurasian teeth and there are many other differences in their structures.

      A larger diameter pelvis will be selected for if baby head size, and therefore brain size, increases. Africans, with the smallest skulls, also have the smallest pelvis and give birth more easily. Pelvic measurements can be used not only to distinguish males from females, but even American white males from American black males, with about 75% accuracy.

      The sacral index is the breadth of the sacrum (the five fused vertebrae that are connected to the pelvis) as a percentage of its length. Walking upright increased the sacral index, enabling the sacrum to better support the internal organs, so a low sacral index is more primitive and a high sacral index is more modern. As usual, Blacks are closest to the apes. Note that the Blacks and the Andamenese are close together, especially for the females. The hips of blacks are also narrower, which makes walking and running more efficient for them. Overall Europeans have the highest sexual dimorphism, even before birth, and Asians the lowest.

      Vertebrae can also be used to help determine race. A “simian notch,” a much narrower second sacral vertebra, that is much narrower laterally than the first or third vertebrae, is characteristic of pongids [apes] and is frequent in Africans, among whom it appears to be a primary character.

      The heel bone projects more in Africans and differs in length, breadth, shape, and position, giving Africans a greater ability to sprint and jump. This is one reason why Africans excel in sports that require jumping. African feet are flatter and there is more separation between the first and second toes.

      Blacks have arms which are longer, relative to body height, than those of Whites. This feature, together with their much thicker cranial bones, gives Black athletes an advantage over Whites. The skeletal and muscular peculiarities of Blacks’ lower limbs have given them considerable success as sprinters, but have left them relative undistinguished as distance runners.

      The hair of a Black is black, crispy, and “woolly” in texture, it is flat and elliptical with no central canal or duct like the hair of Whites.

      The nose is thick, broad and flat, often turned up nostrils exposing the red inner lining of the mucous membrane similar to an ape.

      The arms and legs of the Black are relatively longer than the White. The humerus is shorter and the forearm longer thereby approximating the simian form.

      The eyes are prominent, iris black and the orbits large. The eye often has a yellowish sclerotic coat over it like that of a gorilla.

      The Black has a shorter trunk the cross-section of the chest is more circular than Whites. The pelvis is narrower and longer as it is in an ape.

      The mouth is wide with very thick, large and protruding lips.

      Black skin has a thick superficial layer which resists scratching and impedes the penetration of germs.

      The Black has a larger and shorter neck akin to that of anthropoids.

      The cranial sutures are more simple than in the white type and close together earlier.

      The ears of Blacks are roundish, rather small, standing somewhat high and detached thus approaching the simian form.

      The Black is more powerfully developed from the pelvis down and the White more powerfully developed in the chest.

      The jaw is larger and stronger and protrudes outward which, along with lower retreating forehead, gives a facial angle of 68 to 70 degrees as opposed to a facial angle of 80 to 82 degrees for Whites.

      The hands and fingers are proportionally narrower and longer. The wrist and ankles are shorter and more robust.

      The frontal and paricial bones of the cranium are less excavated and less capacious. The skull is thicker especially on the sides.

      The brain of the Black on the average is 9% smaller than Whites.

      The teeth are larger and are wider apart than in the White race.

      The three curvatures of the spine are less pronounced in the Black than in the White and thus more characteristic of an ape.

      The femur of the Black is less oblique, the tibia (shin bone) more curved and bent forward, the calf of the leg high and but little developed.

      The heel is broad and projecting, the foot long and broad but slightly arched causing flat soles, the great toe is shorter than in the White.

      The two bones proper of the nose are occasionally united, as in apes.

      Genetic distance is a measure of the genetic divergence between species or between populations within a species. Populations with many similar genes have small genetic distances. This indicates that they are closely related and have a recent common ancestor.

      Blacks have a genetic distance of 0.23 from Whites and Asians, but only 0.17 from Erectus. That means Blacks are more closely related to archaic hominids than to modern man.

      This is intuitive because we understand that humans evolved from Blacks in Africa.

      For comparison, the genetic distance between Blacks and modern man is greater than the genetic distance between the common chimpanzee and the bonobo (0.103, or half the Black-White distance) and between Gorilla gorilla and the Gorilla beringei (0.04, or 1/6 the Black/White distance) which are classified as separate species.

      So to be consistent and objective with taxonomic classification systems Blacks and Whites should be classified into separate species, or at least into different subspecies.

      The genetic distance between the races of man is also much greater than that between the breeds of dog, and anyone who has experience with dogs knows what a huge difference breed makes, not only in physical appearance but also in behavior and intelligence.

      Blacks are the only race with no DNA from the large-brain Neanderthal (Blacks have 2% archaic admixture). Whites are hybridized with Neanderthal, and Asians have both Neanderthal and Denisovan DNA.

      Modern man has on average 5% Neanderthal DNA, therefore he would be an F4 (4th filial generation from full purebred Neanderthal). That is about the same as most claiming Cherokee ancestors today.

      It is equivalent to having one Neanderthal great-great-great-grandparent. Blacks also coexisted and interbred with archaic hominids (heidelbergensis) for longer than those who left Africa.

      Blacks also the only race without the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which produces increased brain volume.

    • Antin Hauntng

      Rob, that was a simply awesome post. I came here on this page to get data on the actual brain-sizes of the different ethnicities. In the article I did not find as one of the causes for the relative differences, the idea that this is also due to Europeans having a significant genetic component of the Neanderthals -who had rather massive brains. In fact I’m dead-sure that I came fully independently to this -at the time weird & contentious- conclusion, in 2010. Initially I forwarded it as a jocularly put “hypothesis” in ye olde race-IQ debate, but then it began to make actual cogent sense to me. And did my jaw ever drop when I found others much later come to a similar (on hindsight obvious) idea, in dead-serious publications. Kudos again for your outstanding- and outstandingly counter-PC comment.

      • Rob Smith

        Blacks have small brains-

        Brain size and cognitive ability: Correlations with age, sex, social class, and race

        East Asians and their descendants = 1,364; Europeans and their descendants = 1,347; and Africans and their descendants = 1,267).

        Racial differences in head size appear early in life. Head circumference of White children are greater than that of Black children in each age category by a mean of 0.36 cm³ or approximately 0.2 SD. The greater head size of White children, however, is not a function of greater body size because Black children are taller than White children at both 4 and 7 years (Broman et al., 1987). From 7 to 17 years, the White advantage in cranial capacity is 16 cm³.

        https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.3758%2FBF03210739.pdf

        Blacks are the only race not hybridized with the large-brain Neanderthals.

        Brain size by race-

        In the commonly used Smith-Beals data set of 20,000 skulls worldwide, East Asians averaged 1415 cubic centimeters of brain volume. Ethnic Europeans averaged 1362 cubic centimeters, and sub-Saharan Africans averaged 1268 cubic centimeters.

        https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2668913/

        A study by Rushton (1992) estimated brain sizes based on head measurments of 6,325 military personnel (1,590 White and 1,381 Black men) taken by the U.S. Army in 1988.

        Results:

        Asian: 1416 cm³
        White: 1380 cm³
        Black: 1359 cm³

        Officers: 1393 cm³
        Enlisted: 1375 cm³

        Source: Cranial capacity related to sex, rank, and race in a stratified random sample of 6325 US military personnel (1992), by Rushton.

        http://philipperushton.net/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/iq-brain-size-rushton-intelligence-1992.pdf

        The 1.1 SD (16 IQ points) Black-White IQ gap is present by age three. The IQ gap between African Blacks and Whites is 2 SD.

        Race differences show up by 3 years of age, even after matching on maternal education and other variables. Therefore, they cannot be due to poor education since this has not yet begun to exert an effect.

        https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/fryer/files/testing_for_racial_differences_in_the_mental_ability_of_young_children.pdf

        Racial-group differences in IQ appear early. For example, the Black and the White 3 year-old children in the standardization sample of the Stanford–Binet IV show a 1 standard deviation mean difference after being matched on gender, birth order, and maternal education (Peoples, Fagan, & Drotar, 1995). Similarly, the Black and the White 2 1⁄2- to 6-year-old children in the U.S. standardization sample of the Differential Aptitude Scale have a 1 standard deviation mean difference (Lynn, 1996). The size of the average Black–White difference does not change significantly over the developmental period from 3 years of age and beyond (see Jensen, 1974, 1998b).” (Rushton & Jensen, 2005, pp. 240-241.)

        Farkas & Beron (2004) reported that blacks score 17.2 points below whites on the PPVT in this dataset at age 36 months (p. 478). More recently, Bond & Lang (2012) reported a slightly smaller, 14.6 point gap for 3-year-olds in this dataset (p. 13).

        https://humanvarieties.org/2013/05/26/the-onset-and-development-of-b-w-ability-differences-early-infancy-to-age-3-part-1/

        THIRTY YEARS OF RESEARCH ON RACE DIFFERENCES IN COGNITIVE ABILITY

        https://www1.udel.edu/educ/gottfredson/30years/Rushton-Jensen30years.pdf

        Rushton, J. P. (1992). Cranial capacity related to sex, rank, and race in a stratified random sample of 6,325 U.S. military personnel. Intelligence, 16, 401-413.

        http://philipperushton.net/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/iq-brain-size-rushton-intelligence-1992.pdf

        Brain size and cognitive ability: Correlations with age, sex, social class, and race

        https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.3758%2FBF03210739.pdf

        ETHNIC GROUP DIFFERENCES IN COGNITIVE ABILITY IN EMPLOYMENT AND EDUCATIONAL SETTINGS: A META-ANALYSIS

        https://home.ubalt.edu/tmitch/645/articles/roth%20et%20al%20ethnic%20grp%20diff%20in%20cog%20abil%20ppsych%202001.pdf

        ~~~

        Race differences in intelligence: An evolutionary analysis.
        Lynn, Richard (2006)

        ABSTRACT
        It is widely accepted that race differences in intelligence exist, but no consensus has emerged on whether these have any genetic basis. The present book is the first fully comprehensive review that has ever been made of the evidence on race differences in intelligence worldwide. It reviews these for ten races rather than the three major races (Africans, Caucasians, and East Asians) analyzed by Rushton (2000). The races analyzed here are the Europeans, sub-Saharan Africans, Bushmen, South Asians and North Africans, Southeast Asians, Australian Aborigines, Pacific Islanders, East Asians, Arctic Peoples, and Native American Indians. Studies of these are presented in Chapters 3 through 12; Chapter 13 summarizes these studies and gives evidence on the reliability and validity of the IQs of the races. Chapter 14 discusses the extent to which race differences in intelligence are determined by environmental and genetic factors. Chapters 15, 16, and 17 discuss how race differences in intelligence have evolved over the course of approximately the last 100,000 years. These discussions are preceded by accounts of the nature of intelligence and the measurement of race differences given in the first chapter, and of the concept of race in Chapter 2. (PsycINFO Database Record, 2016 APA)

        http://www.niggermania.com/library/Race%20Differences%20In%20Intelligence.pdf

  • Awakened Saxon

    The link to the heritability of brain size is down. You should archive your links in future.

  • Wavyyy

    LMAO HOLY SHIT. I just seen that rob guy spewing his nonsense on another sight in the comments. I like how people who act like him and like to act all superior because they’re white ALWAYS forget that asians have higher sat and iq scores and bigger brains than whites, lol if anything, asians would be considered superior.

    • Ryan Faulk

      Actually white ppl have bigger brains.

      • Irritated and educated

        Okay. Ignore that part then.

    • Irritated and educated

      Site* I messed that up.