November 23, 2017

MAOA, Race, and Crime

One gene which plays a role in Black’s high crime rate is the monoamine oxidase -a gene (MAO-A). This gene produces an enzyme by the same name. The enzyme MAO-A breaks down a class of neurotransmitter called mono-amines in the brain. These neurotransmitters include ones which are well known to effect behavior such as dopamine and serotonin. Some versions of the MAO-A gene lead to lower levels of MAO-A the enzyme and, therefore, more mono-amine activity in the brain.

The molecular difference between different versions of the MAO-A gene lies in the number of times a certain section for its promoter region is repeated. Three repeat alleles lead to lower than average levels of the enzyme MAO-A. The two repeat allele leads to even lower levels of MAO-A.

Beginning in the 1990’s, researchers began to suspect that variation in MAO-A levels might be related to traits like aggression and criminal behavior. This suspicious arose following a study on the particular family which carried a rare mutation that lead to extremely low levels of the enzyme MAO-A. This family had rapists, arsonists, and other violent criminals (Brunner et al. 1993).

Later, geneticists raised rates with an artificial version of the MAO-A gene which lead to low MAO-A production. It was found to cause the rats to act far more aggressive than is typical (Cases et al. 1995, Scott et al. 2008Vishnivetskaya et al. 2007, and Mejia 2002).

The first direct link between common MAO-A alleles and violence in humans came from Caspi et al 2002. This study found that people with either the 2R or 3R version of the MAO-A gene tended to be more aggressive than average, but only if they had difficult upbringings. Based on these results,  it was hypothesized that low activity MAO-A genes might cause people to have stronger reactions to negative experiences than people high high activity versions of the gene. Since then, a meta-analyses has confirmed that this interaction between MAO-A genotype and childhood trauma has been well replicated in male subjects (Bryd and Manuch 2013).

Caspi

Source: Caspi et al. 2002

Since then, researchers have found that low activity MAO-A also predict higher levels of anti-social personality even among those who have not experienced child abuse (Ficks and Waldman 2014). These versions of the gene have also been linked to high levels of credit card debt and obesity (Camarena et al. 2004Neve and Flower 2009Need et al. 2005, and Feummeler 2008). Low activity versions of the gene have also been shown to significantly increase the risk that someone will end up in prison (Roux 2014Vaughn et al. 2009Beaver et al. 2009, and Beaver et al. 2013). Given this, it seems plausible that low activity versions of the MAO-A gene leads to increased impulsivity, likely due to increased dompanie activity, which in turn leads to an elevated risk for criminal activity, aggression, obesity, and credit card debt.

Racial differences in MAO-A genotypes are well established. Below you can see a review of the literature in the United States. The vast majority of the research shows that Blacks are more likely than Whites to carry both versions of the low repeat allele.

Study Sample Size Sample Type Sex Black 2R % White 2R %
Beaver et al. (2013) 2574 Whites

164 Blacks

Nationally Representative Sample (ADD Health) Male 5.2 0.1
Widom and Brzustowicz (2006) 180 Whites

98 Non-Whites

Abuse victims Male 6.12 0.6
Widom and Brzustowicz (2006) 196 Whites

143 Non Whites

Abuse Victims Female 2.6 7
Reti et al. (2011) 365 Whites232 Blacks Psychiatric Patients Both 4.7 .5
Choe et al. (2014) 106 Whites86 Blacks N/A Male 6.0 0

 

Study Sample Size Sample Type Sex Black 3R% White 3R%
Beaver et al. (2013) 2574 Whites164 Blacks Nationally representative sample (Add Health) Male 52.3 37
Widom and Brzustowicz (2006) 180 Whites98 Non-Whites Abuse victims Male 35.7 41.1
Widom and Brzustowicz (2006) 196 Whites143 Non-Whites Abuse victims Female 74.1 62.8
Rosenberg et al. (2006) 274 Whites37 Blacks N/A Male 54.1 36.1
Reti et al. (2011) 365 Whites232 Blacks Psychiatric patients Both 48.7 34.1
Choe et al. (2014) 106 Whites83 Blacks Low income Male 42.2 30
Sabol, Hu, and Hamer, (1998) 539 Whites52 Blacks Various combined samples Both 59.1 33.1

In summary, Blacks have higher levels of low repeat MAOA alleles than Whites do, and this in turn causes them to have higher crime rates, and that this explains part, though not all, of why Blacks have higher crime rates than Whites.

Facebook Comments
  • John Novak

    Surprised there aren’t a lot of comments.

    • notafraid

      Did you learn anything?

  • Mark Martinson

    The Debunking Denliast guy thinks its a bad argument, but the champion of reason won’t debate the issue.

  • Frank Jamger

    I added this and five other articles on this site as sources to my 14 points summaries, and made note of many others. You guys are super, thanks for the good work.

    14 Biological Race Differences.
    http://fjamger.blogspot.com/2015/11/14brd.html

    14 Reasons IQ Race Gap is Genetic.
    http://fjamger.blogspot.com/2015/11/14rir.html

  • Sample sizes for blacks, whites, and other races should be the same in any legitimate study, otherwise, the results run the risk of being skewed. I’m hard pressed to accept them as legitimate evidence.

    • Medieval Knievel

      It doesn’t need to be when the population of blacks and whites in America aren’t the same.

      • You fail to recognize the basics of scientific procedure. Let me make this simple for you. If a study were to be conducted on the jumping strength of a certain kind of cricket vs another, having one test sample taken from a large number of crickets and another from a small number of crickets has the possibility of producing inaccurate results. The small number sample may be affected by environmental factors that result in either enfeeblement or strengthening which would provide a more severe change in data per individual due to lower numbers having a larger effect on percentages as a whole. Do you understand?

        • Medieval Knievel

          Um no. Sample size is extremely weak Criticism. A sample size of 70 could still give an accurate number. As you can see it says nationally representative. As long as the blacks were chosen randomly, theres no need to worry about sample size. And again sample sizes doesn’t need to be the same when the population of blacks and whites in America aren’t the same.

          • You can’t account for randomization with a sample size of 70 against a comparatively large number of opposing samples, it’s basic mathematics. Even if chosen randomly, outliers would have a larger impact on the smaller sample than the larger sample. Just because our total population count are not the same doesn’t magically make numbers line up for such things. Try it three times with a random number generator yourself. Even with max and min values for one set raised or lowered, you are still highly likely to skew datasets with lower sample sizes due to the presence of outliers.

          • Medieval Knievel

            Actually you can with 70. Proportion of population is not an input to std error of the mean. You have no idea what you’re talking about kid. Variance is fine so sample size is fine. Rest of what you’re saying is nonsense.

          • Formulaic inputs don’t account for outlier values, this is why studies stress equal sample sizes. Read this: https://select-statistics.co.uk/blog/importance-effect-sample-size/

            I hope this helps you understand basic procedure.

          • Medieval Knievel

            On what grounds are you assuming that this sample type is not representative? Give actual criticism. No there does not need to be equal sample sizes for groups with different levels of population.Don’t just say sample size.

          • If you’re talking about the chemical composition of a group’s brain, then you do. If you’re talking about wages, then you do, if you’re talking about miles walked, then you do. If you’re talking about phenotypic expression, of the kind that would cause subjects to be categorized as black or white, then you don’t.

            You haven’t been giving any “factual criticism” only saying that something isn’t true because it isn’t true. To see the grounds that I’m basing my statement on, refer to the entirety of our correspondence, I don’t feel like repeating myself.

          • Medieval Knievel

            Say something more than sample size. What makes this particular sample type unrepresentative?

          • Sample. Size.

            Do not attempt the “moving the goalposts” fallacy. You will get no more replies from me until you defeat the sample size statement. Why would you ask me to cook with a laser when an oven will do?

          • Medieval Knievel

            According to the study methods, the sample size is very representative. It goes into all the details in there. If this is it, then you have some pretty weak and lazy criticisms.

          • You have one more chance. Disprove sample size, or we are done here. I’m tired of this.

          • Medieval Knievel

            You haven’t proved that just because the sample size is small, that its unrepresentative. Look at the study methods.

          • And now, I wonder if you’ve been paying attention, or reading the article I linked. I understand that this was an attempt at disproving sample size by calling my argument in this case to be invalid. You have not, however, proven how my argument is invalid, you simply said that it is, while I lent evidence as to how my argument was valid.

            You do get some more of my time for effort though, try again.

          • Medieval Knievel

            I understand the limitation of small sample sizes. Our case isn’t instantly proven but its something for now. It is likely this will try to be replicated in the future with larger samples. Just wait then.

          • It isn’t something for now, refer to the entire sample size argument. Again.

            Though I may be persuaded to agree with this article if solid proof of the “warrior gene” cause rather than correlation to violence is found, AND a sufficient number of studies with equal sample sizes as well as samples collected from the same sample venues (slums whites in the same economic bracket as slum blacks within the same slum) are made.

          • Medieval Knievel

            Ok

          • Then we are in agreement. It’s actually nice to have these talks without coming to verbal blows.

      • Libertas Aut Letum

        100% correct

  • Rob Smith

    General intelligence is inherited and not equally distributed among human races. IQ tests are designed to measure the general innate and immutable mental capability that involves abstract and cognitive thinking, spatial-relations skills, and logical reasoning. They are designed to measure the ability to:

         •   solve novel problems
         •   retain knowledge and apply skills
         •   comprehend complex ideas
         •   plan and learn quickly and from experience
       
    IQ tests are not designed to measure how much a person has learned, but rather whether a person is capable of learning.

    Intelligence, so defined, can be measured, and intelligence tests measure it well. They are among the most accurate (in technical terms, reliable and valid) of all psychological tests and assessments.

    To study something scientifically, you first have to measure it, and psychologists have developed tests for many mental traits. And contrary to popular opinion, the tests work pretty well; they give a similar measurement of a person every time they are administered, and they statistically predict life outcomes like school and job performance, psychiatric diagnoses and marital stability.

    It was discovered that people who did well on one mental test did well on others, regardless of their content. It was reasoned that different tests must draw on the same global capacity, and dubbed that capacity g, for general intelligence.

    There is a mean difference in Black and White scores on mental tests, historically about one standard deviation in magnitude on IQ tests (IQ tests are normed so that the mean is 100 points and the standard deviation is 15). This difference is not the result of test bias, but reflects differences in cognitive functioning. The predictive validity of IQ scores for educational and socioeconomic outcomes is about the same for Blacks and Whites.

    Individual differences in general cognitive ability are reliably measured by IQ tests. IQ is strongly related, probably more than any other single measurable trait, to many important educational, occupational, economic and social variables. IQ is also correlated with a number of variables of the brain, including its size, electrical potentials, and rate of glucose metabolism during cognitive activity. Individual differences in adult IQ are largely genetic, with heritability of about 70 percent. So far, attempts to raise IQ by educational or psychological means have failed to show appreciable lasting effects on cognitive ability and scholastic achievement. The IQ distribution between Blacks and Whites is represented by two largely overlapping bell curves with their means separated by about 15 points, a difference not due to test bias. IQ has the same meaning and practical predictive validity for both groups. Tests do not create differences; they merely reflect them.

    The average score is set at 100, and everyone is rated accordingly. Expressed this way, IQs for a whole population can be arrayed on a single graph. Roughly two-thirds of all Americans fall between 85 and 115, in the fat midsection of the bell-shaped curve, and 95 percent score between 70 and 130.

    By computing a value known as the correlation coefficient, a scientist can measure the degree of association between any two phenomena that are plausibly linked. The correlation between unrelated variables is 0, while phenomena that vary in perfect lock step have a correlation of 1. A correlation of .4 would tell you that 40 percent of the variation in one thing is matched by variation in another, while 60 percent of it is not.

    Current estimates for heritability of IQ ranges up to 0.8 (where 1.0 indicates that monozygotic twins have no variance in IQ and 0 indicates that their IQs are completely uncorrelated). See the Minnesota Twin Family Study, conducted from 1979 to 1999, which followed identical and fraternal twins who were separated at an early age for some fascinating revelations about the powerful influence of genes.

    Studies find no IQ correlation among grown adoptive siblings. But the typical correlations are roughly .35 for half siblings (who share a quarter of their genes), .47 for full siblings (who share half of their genes) and .86 for identical twins (who share all their genes).

    Millions of IQ tests and psychometric experiments conducted world-wide over 100 years have been normed for every conceivable variable and bias, yet demonstrate an intractable intellegence divide between Blacks and the other races. Blacks score lowest on every intelligence test ever devised, including “life”. There has never been an IQ test administered anywhere in the world where the racial rankings didn’t follow the same pattern; Asians, Whites, non-White Hispanics, and then finally Blacks.

    Compared to Blacks, Whites’ brains:

         •   are 7% larger (1438cc versus 1343cc)
         •   are 100 grams heavier
         •   have deeper fissuration in the frontal and occipital regions
         •   have more complex convolutions and larger frontal lobes
         •   have more pyramidal neurons
         •   have 16% thicker supra-grandular layer
         •   react faster on mental chronometry tests
         •   have 600 million more neurons (each carries about 600 billion synapses, which each carry one bit of cortical information)

    Genes contribute to about 90% of the individual variation of brain size.

    Blacks are the only racial group with no DNA from the large-brained Neanderthals, and also the only race without the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which produces increased brain volume.

    Racial activist groups have tried to create their own tests to demonstrate intellectual parity of the races and also attack the integrity of the existing tests and have hired anti-bias experts, but the rankings are always the same; African Blacks average a 70 IQ (only 2% of Whites score this low), but American Blacks average 85 due to mixing with Whites (24% on average), non-White Hispanics 87, Whites 100, Asians 106 and Ashkenazi Jews 115. Interestingly, mixed-race students in South Africa have an IQ of 85 — the same as Blacks in the United States, Britain, and the Caribbean. This is a standard deviation above pure Blacks, but also a standard deviation below Whites.

    Blacks have by far the lowest IQs of any race; 80% score at or below the “low functioning” category. In fact, only the top 16% of Blacks score as high as the top 50% of Whites. Blacks are socially functional at 70 IQ because that is only one standard deviation below their mean; that equates to a White at 85 IQ.

    Even using tests created by Black psychologists and non-verbal tests designed to be culture-free and unbiased, no amount of testing or wishful thinking shows any improvement in Black IQ. Tests that only require the subject to push buttons in response to flashing lights or memorizing sequences of colored squares projected on a screen Blacks perform worse than Whites, and the gap increases as the patterns become more complicated. The test involves rows of colored squares where one from each row has to be matched with another. More complex images which have distinctive features linked by that feature to other images in an increasing number of rows.

    Another test is a list of numbers read aloud and the subject has to repeat them back in forward and reverse order. The subject is given a relevant fact that has to be considered when making otherwise simple manipulations of numbers and identify designated figures or characters in a given amount of time. The “backward digit span” test is not reinforced by any socialization and is not a taught skill for either race; Whites score better at recalling digits presented in order, but recalling the digits in reverse order requires mental transformation and is a good predictor of IQ. The race gap for the backward digit span is twice as great as for the forward test.

    Some tests are completely non-verbal, such as Raven’s Progressive Matrices, Leiter Scale and Kohs Block Design to test pattern recognition, spatial thinking, and reasoning and contain no culturally-specific information.

    Genetics limits an individuals’ upper limit to IQ, and environment determines how much of that innate genetic potential will be reached. No amount of nurturing can make one exceed innate genetic potential. Genetics is the science of inheritance, not pre-determinism.

    The IQ race gap doesn’t begin to correlate firmly with adult IQ until about age five, but studies reveal a one standard deviation race gap present by age three.

    In the United States, self-identified Blacks and Whites have been the subjects of the greatest number of studies. The tests show a Black-White IQ difference of about 15 to 18 points (or about one standard deviation) which implies that between 11 and 16 percent of the black population have an IQ above 100 (the general population median). Consistent results were found for college and university application tests such as the Scholastic Aptitude Test and Graduate Record Examination as well as for tests of job applicants in the corporate sector and in the military.

    The least intelligent ten percent of Whites have IQs below 81; forty percent of Blacks have IQs that low. Only one Black in six is more intelligent than the average White; five Whites out of six are more intelligent than the average Black. These differences show in every test of general cognitive ability that anyone, of any race or nationality, has yet been able to devise. And they are reflected in countless everyday situations, “Life is an IQ test.”

    Further, only one-in-3.5 million (.00003%) African Blacks have an IQ of 140 or higher (genius level). But one-in-83 (1.2%) U.S. Whites is a genius. Therefore the per capita genius rate for U.S.-resident Whites is 41,000 times higher than it is for African Blacks.

    The IQ distribution for US-resident Blacks having an average IQ of 85 and a standard deviation of 12.4 doesn’t mean that there are no Blacks at all with IQs above 140; it means that only one Black in about 218,000 will have an IQ above 140. Meanwhile one-in-83 Whites have an IQ above 140. So given equal sized populations there will be about 2,600 times more White geniuses than Black geniuses. Since there are about 5.5 times more Whites than Blacks in the United States, White geniuses will outnumber Black geniuses by a ratio of about one-to-14,300. Therefore, if all the White people in the USA were replaced by Blacks having the IQ distribution of US-resident Blacks the number of geniuses in the country would fall from about 2.4 million to only about 1,000.

    For every one gifted Black there are 8 gifted Whites, 80% of gifted Blacks are mixed race.

    Incidentally, though the average IQ of East Asians is 6 points higher than the average non-Jewish White, the percentage distribution of East Asians with IQs above 140 is slightly lower. The reason for this is that the range of cognitive variation among Whites is greater than among East Asians. Specifically, Asians’ IQs are more clustered around the mean; therefore, Whites produce more geniuses, but also more morons.

    Psychometricians regard IQ tests as having high statistical reliability. A high reliability implies that although test-takers may have varying scores when taking the same test on differing occasions, and they may have varying scores when taking different IQ tests at the same age, the scores generally agree with one another and across time.

    Standardized intelligence testing has been called one of psychology’s greatest successes and is the field’s most widely-used invention. Since standardized tests were first used to identify learning-impaired children in the early 1900s they have become one of the primary tools for identifying children with learning disabilities, they assist the military place new recruits, job screening and for evaluating professional athletes.

    Some occupations seek candidates within specific IQ ranges. There was a recent case where a police officer candidate was rejected after he scored too high on an intelligence test.

    The NFL famously uses the Wonderlic test in their scouting combines and the racial disparity is evident. Out of a perfect score of 50; offensive tackles=26, centers=25, quarterback=24; versus safeties=19, cornerbacks=18 and receivers=17.

    Black-White IQ Distribution (Google: racial IQ bell curve):

    Blacks:
                     5% above 110 IQ
                     16% above 100 IQ
                     40% above 90 IQ
                     70% above 80 IQ
                     30% below 80 IQ
                     18% below 75 IQ
                     10% below 70 IQ

    Whites:
                     10% above 120 IQ
                     18% above 115 IQ
                     27% above 110 IQ
                     40% above 105 IQ
                     50% above 100 IQ
                     60% below 105 IQ
                     35% below 95 IQ
                     15% below 85 IQ

    So, the top 16% of Black intellectual elites are only as intelligent as the top 50% of Whites.

    As the New York Times put it, “…the difference in I.Q. points between the groups is quite significant. It means that the top sixth of Blacks score only as well on I.Q. tests as do the top half of Whites.”

    IQ scores are used as predictors of educational achievement, special needs, job performance and income. They are also used to study IQ distributions in populations and the correlations between IQ and other variables. The same is true for other cognitive tests such as No Child Left Behind mandated state tests and NAEP tests. All of these cognitive tests show the same racial patterns in test score distribution with Ashkenazi Jews, East Asians (Chinese, Japanese, and Koreans), and Whites showing higher scores than Pacific Islanders, Native Americans, Hispanics, and Blacks showing lower scores.

    The scores on the SAT (especially the SAT-math) and the ACT are for all practical purposes interchangeable with IQ test scores. In 2005, 153,132 Black Americans took the SAT test. They made up 10.4 percent of all SAT test takers. But only 1,132 Black college-bound students scored 700 or above on the math SAT and only 1,205 scored at least 700 on the verbal SAT. On the math SAT, only 0.7 percent of all Black test takers scored at least 700 compared to 6.3 percent of all White test takers. Thus, Whites were nine times as likely as Blacks to score 700 or above on the math SAT. Only 0.16 percent of all Black test takers scored 750 or above compared to 1.8 percent of White test takers. Thus, Whites were more than 11 times as likely as Blacks to score 750 or above on the math SAT.

    This gap is so significant that colleges give a “race bonus” of 230 points to Blacks, 185 to non-White Hispanics and penalize Asians by 50 points, all in an effort to help the low-IQ races gain admittance.

    Studies also show there are some significant differences in what is called the structure of mental abilities. For example, if you took a sample of Black and White children, all of whom had scored around 100 on the WISC-R (the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children) meaning the Black kids in the sample were well above the Black average — you would find significant Black-White differences on six of the thirteen subtests. The average Black child would do better on arithmetic and digit span; where the average White child would do better on comprehension, block design, object assembly, and mazes.

    A person’s level of moral reasoning is correlated with intelligence. Studies sequencing the stages of moral development support what we all know; you have to be cognitively mature to reason morally. IQ tests correlate with moral maturity.

    There is also a strong correlation between IQ and success. Economists have started taking an interest in the value of human capital, particularly the factor that psychologists call cognitive ability. In other words, it’s the ability of a person to solve a problem most efficiently. Not with violence, but by thinking. It is worth noting here that Blacks possess 9.4 times more of the dysfunctional MAOA gene (“warrior gene”) and have mean testosterone levels 19% higher than in Whites, both strongly correlated with impulsive, aggressive and violent behavior.

    Researchers collected information on 90 countries, including far-off lands from the U.S. to New Zealand and Colombia to Kazakhstan. They also collected data on the country’s excellence in science and technology, including the number of patents granted per person and how many Nobel science laureates the country’s people had won in science (there has never been a Black Nobel science laureate).

    They found that intelligence made a difference in gross domestic product. For example, some of the highest National IQs:

              •   108      Singapore
              •   106      South Korea
              •   105      Japan
              •   105      China
              •   102      Italy
              •   101      Iceland
              •   101      Mongolia
              •   101      Switzerland
              •   100      Austria
              •   100      Luxembourg
              •   100      Netherlands
              •   100      Norway
              •   100      United Kingdom

    And the lowest:

              •   69        Malawi
              •   69        Niger
              •   68        Chad
              •   68        Somalia
              •   68        Swaziland
              •   67        Guinea
              •   67        Haiti
              •   67        Liberia
              •   66        Gambia
              •   64        Cameroon
              •   64        Gabon
              •   64        Sierra Leone
              •   64        Mozambique
              •   59        Equatorial Guinea

    Blacks are archaic proto-humans, a different species from Whites and Asians;

    Blacks are the only racial group with no DNA from the large-brained Neanderthals who lived in Europe. The trans-Saharan African migrants mated with the Neanderthals and Denisovans to create a composite hybrid that is modern man. Therefore, we do not share a common ancestor.

    The farther north the populations migrated out of Africa, the more they encountered the cognitively demanding problems of gathering and storing food, gaining shelter, making clothes, and raising children during prolonged winters. Consequently, as the original African populations evolved into present-day Whites and Asians, they did so by hybridizing with Neanderthals which created larger brains and greater intelligence, but also slower rates of maturation, lower levels of sex hormones, and concomitant reductions in sexual potency and aggressiveness, and increases in family stability and social conformity.

    Neanderthals are a different species than Whites, and yet produced fertile offspring (as do many interspecies hybrids). In fact all modern humans (Whites and Asians) are products of that hybridization.

    Blacks have a genetic distance closer to archaic human than to modern human. That genetic distance is farther apart than it is for many species.

    Genetic distance is a measure of the genetic divergence between species or between populations within a species. Populations with many similar genes have small genetic distances. This indicates that they are closely related and have a recent common ancestor.

    The genetic distance between H.Sapien and H.Erectus is only 0.17, while the genetic distance between Blacks and Eurasians is 0.23. Therefore Blacks are more genetically proximate to archaic humans than to modern man (Whites and Asians).

    For comparison, the genetic distance between Blacks and modern man is greater than the genetic distance between the common chimpanzee and the bonobo (0.103, or half the Black-White distance) and between the Gorilla gorilla and the Gorilla beringei (0.04, or 1/6 the Black-White distance). Thus, Whites and Blacks are more genetically distant than two different chimpanzee species, two different gorilla species, Eurasians and Neanderthals, and Eurasians and H.Erectus.

    To be taxonomically consistent Blacks and Whites should be classified into separate species, or at the very least into different subspecies.

    When humans evolved from Blacks they hybridized with the large-brained Neanderthals 40,000 years ago in southern Europe. 37,000 years ago the gene that creates an increase in cranium capacity and a heavier, denser, and more developed brain appeared in humans, called MCPH1 microcephalin. Blacks are the only race without MCPH1 microcephalin.

    The microcephalin and ASPM alleles are known to be involved in determining brain size and so far have no other known function. The mean estimated age of the ASPM allele of 5,800 years ago, roughly correlates with the development of written language, spread of agriculture, and development of cities. It has a frequency of about 50% in populations of the Middle East and Europe, it is less frequent in East Asia, and has low frequencies among Sub-Saharan African populations.

    Non-Black humans average 4% Neanderthal DNA. This is significant because there is only 1.5% difference between human and chimpanzee DNA. It is equivalent to having one Neanderthal great-great-great-grandparent. Blacks are the only race with no Neanderthal genes. Blacks also coexisted and interbred with archaic sapiens (H.heidelbergensis) for longer than those who left Africa. At least 30% of the Neanderthal genome made its way into non-Black humans.

    Blacks are Humans 1.0; modern man evolved from Blacks and are Humans 2.0, the improved version. They were formed by hybridization with the large-brained Neanderthals which created larger, denser, more complex brains:

         •   Blacks = 2% Archaic admixture
         •   Whites = 4% Neanderthal admixture
         •   Asians = 5% Neanderthal + Denisovan

    Pure H.Sapiens are Blacks; modern man (Whites and Asians) is hybridized with Neanderthal and is the improved version.

    Blacks belong in the Stone Age, where they were found just 400 years ago.

    Sub-Saharan Blacks did not receive Neanderthal or Denisovan gene introgression, which is why Blacks are the most genetically distant of all the human races.

    However, Blacks received significant gene introgression from other early (and unknown) hominid species, which the other races do not have because they left sub-Sahara before the introgression occurred. These early hominids remain “unknown” due to the simple fact that their DNA has not been retrieved nor sequenced, Only Neandertal and Denisovan DNA have been, thus far.

    Forensic scientists can determine race by cranium shape; Blacks have a small frontal lobe and sloping frontal plane and a smaller cranium-to-mandible ratio. Whites have the largest craniums, an almost vertical frontal slope and a massive frontal lobe. The Asian is very similar and also more evolved. It is the frontal lobe that separates our behavior most from the animals and is responsible for language and rational thought.

    Blacks show primitive traits associated with lower primates, such as prognathism, which is the slope of the face from the forehead to the jaws. A protruding jaw is associated with a sloping forehead which indicates a smaller prefrontal cortex, the area of the brain that handles planning, inhibition and self-control.

    Blacks have more robust cranial bones, simpler cranial sutures, a higher rate of unclosed sutures, a lower cephalic index, a higher rate of saggital keel, more post-orbital constriction, a more sloped forehead, more rectangular eye sockets, a wider nasal index, less nasal prominence, a higher rate of joined nasal bones, a higher rate of sub-nasal prognathism, a lower facial angle, the presence of the “Simian shelf”, a more rectangular palate, larger and wider-apart teeth, fur instead of hair, less spinal curvature, shorter spinal length, a lower sacral index, and longer arms and legs.

    At birth Africans have fewer cranial bones than Eurasians. The skull and other bones in Blacks are thicker and denser, even in the fetus, making them more difficult to break. The Black skull is smaller, with less space in the forehead, but proportionately more at the back.

    Blacks are the only racial group with no DNA from the large-brained Neanderthals, and also the only race without MCPH1 microcephalin which produces increased brain volume and density. This is why their brains are smaller, and less complex.

    Eurasian women have a wider pelvic inlet, and shallower anteroposterior outlet than Black women due to the difference in brain size.

    Larger brains contain more neurons and synapses and process information faster. By adulthood, East Asians average 1 cubic inch more cranial capacity than Whites who average 5 cubic inches more than Blacks.

    The average White brain is 1438cc while the average Black brain is 1343cc, or 93% of the average White brain. The heritability of brain size is extremely strong at 0.90 and not one study to date has shown larger brain size for Blacks. The White and Asians brain also has a higher degree of fissuring (higher complexity) in the cerebral cortex of their brains, where abstract and conceptual thought is performed.

    Based on studies of brain weight at autopsy, endocranial volume of empty skulls, head size measurements by the U.S. military and NASA, and two dozen MRI volumetric studies Blacks’ brain size is 7% smaller than Whites’, and 8% smaller than Asians’. There is a correlation of brain size with IQ of about 0.40 and that these racial differences in brain size are present at birth. Genes contribute to about 90% of the individual variation of brain size.

    In addition to brain size are differences in brain shape, fissuration, number of pyramidal neurons and supra-grandular layer thickness. The depth of fissuration is related to superior intelligence and the brains of Whites have deeper fissures in the frontal and occipital regions. The supra-grandular layer of Blacks’ brains is 16% smaller than it is for Whites’ brains.

    The average human brain contains 86 billion neurons. Whites, on average, have 600 million more neurons than Blacks. Each neuron carries about 600 billion synapses, each of which carries, as a minimum, one bit of cortical information.

    Further, this reflects what we observe in real life (including the large and persistent so-called “Achievement Gap”). People have made long-term observations of the different races and reached rational conclusions; the more White a society is the more prosperous, inventive and safe it is. 19 of the 20 poorest countries are sub-Saharan African (Haiti). In sub-Saharan Africa the only countries that could be considered successful were White-governed, (Rhodesia and S. Africa). To this day they still can’t even feed themselves even though they lived alone in Africa, a vast continent with temperate climates and abundant resources, for 60,000 years. So they cannot blame racism, poverty, imperialism or anything else for their failures.

    No pre-contact sub-Saharan African society ever created a written language, or weaved cloth, or forged steel, invented the wheel or plow, or devised a calendar, or code of laws, or any social organization, or formal religion, or system of measurement, or math, or built a multi-story structure or bridge or sewer, or infrastructure of any kind, and they never harnessed a river, or even drilled well or irrigated, or built a road or railway or sea-worthy vessel, they never domesticated animals, or exploited underground natural resources, or produced anything that could be considered a mechanical device.

    IQ distribution by race/ethnicity:

         •   Ashkenazi Jews = 115
         •   East Asians = 106
         •   Whites = 100
         •   South East Asians = 87
         •   Non-White Hispanics = 86
         •   American Blacks = 85 (average 24% White admixture)
         •   Middle East and North Africans = 84
         •   Sub-Saharan Blacks = 67 (Only 2% of Whites score this low.
         •   Australian Aborigines = 62

    Sub-Saharan Africans never even created a written language. It was the White colonialists who gave the gift of literacy to them.

    No pre-contact sub-Saharan African society ever created a written language, or weaved cloth, or forged steel, invented the wheel or plow, or devised a calendar, or code of laws, or any social organization, or formal religion, or system of measurement, or math, or built a multi-story structure or bridge or sewer, or infrastructure of any kind, and they never harnessed a river, or even drilled well or irrigated, or built a road or railway or sea-worthy vessel, they never domesticated animals, or exploited underground natural resources, or produced anything that could be considered a mechanical device.

    Blacks are the oldest race, so they should be the most advanced race; but they they never developed at all and had to be domesticated by Whites.

    Civilization didn’t occur until early humans hybridized with Neanderthals. Only after the hybridization were advanced societies created. Blacks, who never hybridized with Neanderthals, never created a civilization and were still living in the Stone Age when Whites discovered them just 400 years ago.

    Hybridizing with the large-brained Neanderthals produced a modern human (Whites and Asians) with an increase in cranium capacity and a heavier, more developed brain. Blacks are also the only race without the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which produces increased brain volume and density.

    Blacks lived alone in sub-Saharan Africa, a vast continent with temperate climates and abundant resources for 60,000 years; so they cannot blame racism, poverty, imperialism or anything else for their failures.

    How could they live with all that shoreline and never think about putting a sail on a ship like every other culture did? Columbus sailed across the ocean 500 years ago — Blacks STILL are incapable of such a feat.

    19 of the 20 poorest countries are sub-Saharan African (Haiti). There has never been a successful Black country. No modern creations or civilization exists in sub-Saharan Africa that was not brought there by Whites. There are no White Third-World nations, but all Black ones are.

    Blacks are the only race incapable of caring for themselves. Whites still have to provide food, medical, financial and engineering aid to every Black nation. They couldn’t survive without White charity. Blacks became an out-of-control invasive species after Whites domesticated them.

    The 41 nations of sub-Saharan Africa produce no more wealth than the tiny country of Belgium, which has only 1/45 the population. Of all of the region’s economic production, White-run South Africa accounts for three-quarters. That Whites are only 8% of South Africa’s population, it demonstrates how productive and industrious Whites are that so relative few can carry the load for so many unproductive Blacks. But a constantly A constantly dwindling number of Whites are at the mercy of a predatory welfare class and it’s possible they can’t and won’t carry the rest of the population. If things get worse for them, they will simply flee the country.

    Sub-Saharan Africans have never made a contribution to the world. Blacks can only achieve either because they are mixed with White genes or because they reside in White societies. Blacks are unable to achieve within their own race because not enough of them are smart enough to build a sufficient infrastructure. If allowed to become too numerous they destroy previously-thriving and safe White cities.

    This is why Blacks seethe with jealousy and hatred of Whites yet can’t seem to stay away because they want what we create and maintain, no matter if they deserve it or not. They want our peaceful and clean neighborhoods, our law and order, our technology and science, our school systems, our inventions, the jobs we create, the food we grow, the transportation we invent, the entertainment we provide….. Blacks hate us but can’t live without us. That’s why they demand that we take care of them and give them special rights and privileges that we don’t grant ourselves, just to compensate for their inability at living in a modern and technologically-advanced civilization.

    Some groups succeed all the time, everywhere. Some have never succeeded anywhere.

    Blacks are the oldest race, so they should be the most advanced race; but they they never developed at all and had to be domesticated by Whites.

    Civilization didn’t occur until early humans hybridized with Neanderthals. Only after the hybridization were advanced societies created. Blacks, who never hybridized with Neanderthals, never created a civilization and were still living in the Stone Age when Whites discovered them just 400 years ago.

    Hybridizing with the large-brained Neanderthals produced a modern human (Whites and Asians) with an increase in cranium capacity and a heavier, more developed brain. Blacks are also the only race without the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which produces increased brain volume and density.

    Blacks lived alone in sub-Saharan Africa, a vast continent with temperate climates and abundant resources for 60,000 years; so they cannot blame racism, poverty, imperialism or anything else for their failures.

    Google: “race and IQ”, “national IQ”, “race and MAOA gene”, “Neanderthal DNA”, “smaller black brains”, “correlation brain size and IQ”, “achievement gap”, “IQ correlation to achievement”, “NIH Blacks 21% greater testosterone”, Cumoe, D. & Thorne, A. – 2003. Number of Ancestral Human Species: a Molecular Perspective, Rushton, J. Philippe; Jensen, Arthur R (2005). “Thirty Years of Research on Race Differences in Cognitive Ability”, Psychology, Public Policy and Law 11 (2): 246–8, Current Biology, Vol. 13, R134–R136, February 18, 2003, ©2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. PII S0960-9822(03)00074-5; Categorization of humans in biomedical research: genes, race and disease — Genome Biology 2002.

    Racial brain size differences: Whole Brain Size and General Mental Ability: A Review, Int J Neurosci. 2009 Apr; 119(5): 692–732, PMCID: PMC2668913. Rutgers Anthropologist Sets Record Straight on Brain Size and Race. A NYT article that shows claims of racism in measuring skulls was false: Scientists Measure the Accuracy of a Racism Claim. Mismeasuring Skulls: New Research Resolves Historical Controversy, Shows Science Resists Bias; Stanford Department of Anthropology. Brain size, IQ, and racial-group differences: Evidence from musculoskeletal traits, J.Philippe Rushton, Intelligence Volume 31, Issue 2, March–April 2003, Pages 139–155. Thirty Years of Research on Race Differences in Cognitive Ability, Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 2005, Vol. 11, No. 2, 235–294, Copyright 2005 by the American Psychological Association, DOI: 10.1037/1076-8971.11.2.235

    Genetic Distance:
    ESTIMATION OF THE COANCESTRY COEFFICIENT: BASIS FOR A SHORT-TERM GENETIC DISTANCE
    John Reynolds, B. S. Weir, C. Clark Cockerham
    Genetics November 1, 1983 vol. 105 no. 3 767-779

    Number of ancestral human species: a molecular perspective
    D. Curnoe, A. Thorne
    doi:10.1078/0018-442X-00051

    The latest and best evidence, using high-density genotype data, shows that the proportion of European ancestry in the Black American population is as high as 24% (Bryc, Durand, Macpherson, Reich, & Mountain, 2015).

    Heritibility of intelligence: Molecular Psychiatry (2015) 20, 98–108; doi:10.1038/mp.2014.105; published online 16 September 2014, Genetics and intelligence differences: five special findings; Common DNA Markers Can Account for More Than Half of the Genetic Influence on Cognitive Abilities, Genetic contributions to variation in general cognitive function: a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in the CHARGE consortium (N=53949).

    One standard deviation racial IQ gap by age three: (Broman et al, Montie and Fagan, Brooks-Gunn, Klebanov and Duncan)

    • Rob Smith

      Where is the evidence of Black intelligence?

      Racial intelligence differences show in every test of general cognitive ability that anyone, of any race or nationality, has yet been able to devise. And they are reflected in countless everyday situations, “Life is an IQ test.”

      While some tirelessly criticize studies that show Black intelligence to be lower than White they can cite no Black performance that indicates high mean intelligence and instead insist that Black ability is present but hidden by bias. But everyday observation together with no evidence that the races are equal disconfirms racial parity.

      The positive relationship between IQ tests, academic tests and real-world observances demonstrates the existence of a general mental ability. How can there be group or individual differences in intelligence if there is no such trait?

      If the races are equal in intelligence then there should be evidence that they are; absence of such evidence is itself evidence that the races are not equal.

      Do you observe a pattern?

      Some of the highest National IQs:

                •   108      Singapore
                •   106      South Korea
                •   105      Japan
                •   105      China
                •   102      Italy
                •   101      Iceland
                •   101      Mongolia
                •   101      Switzerland
                •   100      Austria
                •   100      Luxembourg
                •   100      Netherlands
                •   100      Norway
                •   100      United Kingdom

      And the lowest:

                •   69        Malawi
                •   69        Niger
                •   68        Chad
                •   68        Somalia
                •   68        Swaziland
                •   67        Guinea
                •   67        Haiti
                •   67        Liberia
                •   66        Gambia
                •   64        Cameroon
                •   64        Gabon
                •   64        Sierra Leone
                •   64        Mozambique
                •   59        Equatorial Guinea

      Blacks are a separate species from Whites and Asians; Blacks are the only race with no DNA from the large-brained Neanderthals (and also the only race without MCPH1 microcephalin which produces increased brain volume) and therefore do not share a common ancestor with modern man.

      Blacks are Humans 1.0; modern man evolved from Blacks and are Humans 2.0, the improved version. They were formed by hybridization with the large-brained Neanderthals which created larger, denser, more complex brains:

           •   Blacks = 2% Archaic admixture
           •   Whites = 4% Neanderthal admixture
           •   Asians = 5% Neanderthal + Denisovan

      Pure H.Sapiens are Blacks; modern man (Whites and Asians) is hybridized with Neanderthal and is the improved version.

      Humans didn’t create civilizations until this hybridization. Blacks were still living in the Stone Age when Whites discovered them just 400 years ago.

      Genetic distance is a measure of the genetic divergence between species or between populations within a species. Populations with many similar genes have small genetic distances. This indicates that they are closely related and have a recent common ancestor.

      Blacks have a genetic distance of 0.23 from Whites and Asians, but only 0.17 from Erectus. That means Blacks are more genetically proximate to archaic hominids than to modern man.

      Compared to Blacks, Whites’ brains:

           •   are 7% larger (1438cc versus 1343cc)
           •   are 100 grams heavier
           •   have deeper fissuration in the frontal and occipital regions
           •   have more complex convolutions and larger frontal lobes
           •   have more pyramidal neurons
           •   have 16% thicker supra-grandular layer
           •   react faster on mental chronometry tests
           •   have 600 million more neurons

      Whites are only 10% of the world’s population, yet are the most industrious, ingenious, and innovative race the world has known. Whites have formed nations, built civilizations, assumed and administrated power, created the Renaissance, the Age of Discovery, the Industrial Revolution, automation, technology, discovered electricity, nuclear energy, X-rays and invented automobiles, airplanes, jet engines, spacecraft, submarines, helicopters, radio, television, internet, computers, telephones, anesthesia and medicine, communication satellites, microwave ovens, concrete, light bulbs, telescopes and microscopes, cameras. Whites were the first to circumnavigate the planet by ship, and orbit it by spaceship, to walk on the moon, to explore the solar system, create architecture, unlock the secrets of DNA, and relativity, climb the highest peak, reach both poles, exceed the sound barrier, descend to the deepest point of the oceans…… sub-Saharan Africans still cannot even feed themselves.

      Blacks are the only race incapable of caring for themselves. Whites still have to provide food, medical, financial and engineering aid to every Black nation. They couldn’t survive without White charity. Blacks became an out-of-control invasive species after Whites domesticated them.

      No pre-contact sub-Saharan African society ever created a written language, or weaved cloth, or forged steel, invented the wheel or plow, or devised a calendar, or code of laws, or any social organization, or formal religion, or system of measurement, or math, or built a multi-story structure or bridge or sewer, or infrastructure of any kind, and they never harnessed a river, or even drilled well or irrigated, or built a road or railway or sea-worthy vessel, they never domesticated animals, or exploited underground natural resources, or produced anything that could be considered a mechanical device.

      Blacks lived alone in sub-Saharan Africa, a vast continent with temperate climates and abundant resources for 60,000 years; so they cannot blame racism, poverty, imperialism or anything else for their failures. How could they live with all that shoreline and never contemplate putting a sail on a ship like every other culture did?

      Blacks are the oldest race, they had a huge head-start so they should be the most advanced race; but they are the least advanced race. And in fact they never did develop until they were domesticated by Whites.

      19 of the 20 poorest countries are sub-Saharan African (Haiti). There has never been a successful Black country. No modern creations or civilization exists in sub-Saharan Africa that was not brought there by Whites.

      There are no White Third-World nations, but all Black ones are.

      Put Whites on an island and you get England; put Asians on an island and you get Japan; put Blacks on an island and you get Haiti.

      Nowhere Blacks live are they considered achievers. In fact they are universally viewed as unproductive and disruptive to society.

      Simply, life is an IQ test.

      Sub-Saharan Africans have never made a contribution to the world. Blacks can only achieve either because they are mixed with White genes or because they reside in White societies. For every one gifted Black there are eight gifted Whites. 80% of gifted Blacks are mixed-race.

      Blacks cannot achieve on their own without the intervention of Whites giving them all the things they could never produce or maintain themselves. Without the continuous intervention of charity into Black Africa they could not even maintain what they have been given.

      All current Black civilization is in fact transplanted White civilization. There is no Black society on Earth that has independently developed and maintained its own technological way of life.

      Some groups succeed all the time, everywhere. Some have never succeeded anywhere. Blacks are the oldest race so they should be the most advanced, but they have never been successful anywhere.

      This is why Blacks seethe with jealousy and hatred of Whites. Blacks hate us but can’t live without us.

      There hasn’t been a single contribution from sub-Saharan Africans to the world. Show me any community, city or state that is predominantly inhabited and run by Blacks anywhere in the world that is equal or superior to a comparable White one. By their fruits ye shall know them. Show me the fruits of that intelligence.

      Black-White IQ Distribution:

      For a graphical representation of the racial IQ gap Google: racial IQ bell curve

      Percentages below are from a cumulative percentages graph for readability:

      Blacks:
                       5% above 110 IQ
                       16% above 100 IQ
                       40% above 90 IQ
                       70% above 80 IQ
                       40% below 80 IQ
                       18% below 75 IQ
                       10% below 70 IQ

      Whites:
                       10% above 120 IQ
                       18% above 115 IQ
                       27% above 110 IQ
                       40% above 105 IQ
                       50% above 100 IQ
                       60% below 105 IQ
                       35% below 95 IQ
                       15% below 85 IQ

      So, the smartest 16% of Blacks are as intelligent as smartest 50% of Whites. 80% of Blacks score at or below the “low functioning” category.

      The least intelligent ten percent of Whites have IQs below 80; forty percent of Blacks have IQs that low.

      Only one Black in six is more intelligent than the average White; five Whites out of six are more intelligent than the average Black.

      Only one-in-3.5 million (.00003%) African Blacks have an IQ of 140 or higher (genius level). But one-in-83 (1.2%) U.S. Whites is a genius. Therefore the per capita genius rate for U.S.-resident Whites is 41,000 times higher than it is for African Blacks.

      Black females have higher IQs than Black males. Black female IQ is 2.4 points higher than Black male IQ. There are twice as many Black females as Black males with IQs over 120 and five times as many Black females as Black males with IQs over 140.

      As the New York Times put it, “…the difference in I.Q. points between the groups is quite significant. It means that the top sixth of Blacks score only as well on I.Q. tests as do the top half of Whites.”

      The standard deviation for African Blacks (IQ 67) is 9, meaning that 99% have an IQ of less than 100. The standard deviation for US-resident Blacks (IQ 85) is 12.4, meaning only one US-resident Black in about 218,000 will have an IQ above 140.

      So given equal sized populations there will be about 2,600 times more White geniuses than Black geniuses. Since there are about 5.5 times more Whites than Blacks in the United States, White geniuses outnumber Black geniuses by a ratio of about one-to-14,300. Therefore, if all the White people in the USA were replaced by Blacks having the IQ distribution of US-resident Blacks the number of geniuses in the country would fall from about 2.4 million to only about 1,000.

      US-resident Blacks have higher intelligence than African Blacks due to the approximately 24% average White admixture.

      IQ distribution by race/ethnicity:

           •   Ashkenazi Jews = 115
           •   East Asians = 106
           •   Whites = 100
           •   South East Asians = 87
           •   Non-White Hispanics = 86
           •   American Blacks = 85 (average 24% White admixture)
           •   Middle East and North Africans = 84
           •   Sub-Saharan Blacks = 67 (Only 2% of Whites score this low)
           •   Australian Aborigines = 62

      That is why Blacks are incapable of creating a civilization, and why Blacks can only achieve in White societies; there simply are not enough smart Blacks to create an infrastructure to allow the Black intellectual elite to achieve.

    • Rob Smith

      Black-White IQ Distribution:

      For a graphical representation of the racial IQ gap Google: racial IQ bell curve

      Percentages below are from a cumulative percentages graph for readability:

      Blacks:
                       5% above 110 IQ
                       16% above 100 IQ
                       40% above 90 IQ
                       70% above 80 IQ
                       40% below 80 IQ
                       18% below 75 IQ
                       10% below 70 IQ

      Whites:
                       10% above 120 IQ
                       18% above 115 IQ
                       27% above 110 IQ
                       40% above 105 IQ
                       50% above 100 IQ
                       60% below 105 IQ
                       35% below 95 IQ
                       15% below 85 IQ

      So, the smartest 16% of Blacks are as intelligent as smartest 50% of Whites. 80% of Blacks score at or below the “low functioning” category.

      The least intelligent ten percent of Whites have IQs below 80; forty percent of Blacks have IQs that low.

      Only one Black in six is more intelligent than the average White; five Whites out of six are more intelligent than the average Black.

      These differences show in every test of general cognitive ability that anyone, of any race or nationality, has yet been able to devise. And they are reflected in countless everyday situations, “Life is an IQ test.”

      Further, only one-in-3.5 million (.00003%) African Blacks have an IQ of 140 or higher (genius level). But one-in-83 (1.2%) U.S. Whites is a genius. Therefore the per capita genius rate for U.S.-resident Whites is 41,000 times higher than it is for African Blacks.

      As the New York Times put it, “…the difference in I.Q. points between the groups is quite significant. It means that the top sixth of Blacks score only as well on I.Q. tests as do the top half of Whites.”

      Black females have higher IQs than Black males. Black female IQ is 2.4 points higher than Black male IQ. There are twice as many Black females as Black males with IQs over 120 and five times as many Black females as Black males with IQs over 140.

      Professer Jensen, of Berkeley, looked at the social competency of people with low IQs and found that Blacks at low IQ were more socially competent than Whites. When you analyze a White person with a 70 IQ, then you’re looking at someone who is two SD below the White mean IQ, while a Black with an IQ of 70 is only one SD below the Black IQ mean.

      Blacks with a 70 IQ are more socially competent than Whites with the same IQ. A Black can be clinically retarded without this retardation being fully socially expressed because Black children of 70 IQ are normal. American Black’s have a mean IQ of 85, so 70 IQ is only one standard deviation below the Black mean. 16% of Black kids in the U.S. are below one standard deviation for the Black population. They are normal Black kids in terms of normality, though not in terms of ability; they were rather like white kids of IQ 85 who are one standard deviation below the white IQ mean of 100. A full 16% of white kids are below one standard deviation of the white intelligence mean. Only about 2% of white kids are below two standard deviations, IQ 70, whereas 16% of black kids are.

      In sum, a higher percentage of Whites at 70 IQ (two standard deviations below the White mean) have something wrong with their brains due to injury or genetic disorder, and a larger percentage of Blacks at 70 IQ are normal for Blacks (one standard deviation below the American Black mean IQ).

      ~~~~~

      Changes over time in the black–white difference on mental tests: Evidence from the children of the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth

      -Charles Murray, 2008

      Data for three Peabody achievement tests and for the Peabody picture vocabulary test administered to children of women in the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth show that the black–white difference did not diminish for this sample of children born from the mid 1970s through the mid 1990s. This finding persists after entering covariates for the child’s age and family background variables. It is robust across alternative samples and specifications of the model. The analysis supplements other evidence that shows no narrowing of the black–white difference in academic achievement tests since the late 1980s and is inconsistent with recent evidence that narrowing occurred in IQ standardizations during the same period.

      It is worth noting that the actual black-white IQ gap is probably larger than 15 IQ points. Studies are based on school samples, thus omitting high school dropouts while there are more blacks than whites who drop out of high school. Studies also omit the prisoners since incarcerated offenders have lower IQ than the public at large (The Bell Curve, p. 242) while there are more blacks than whites incarcerated in prisons. Rushton made the assumption that “educational researchers seldom get to examine the very lowest scoring segments of the Black population in inner cities” and that the actual black-white IQ gap could be underestimated given that “An IQ of 71 was found for the Black children in an entire school district from a rural county in Georgia in the U. S. Deep South; the White IQ in the same county was 101.

      ~~~~~

      Digit Span Tests

      Digit Span must be one of the simplest tests ever devised. The examiner says a short string of digits at the rate of one digit a second in a monotone voice, and then the examinee repeats them. The examiner then tries a string which is one digit longer, and continues in this fashion with longer and longer strings of digits until the examinee fails both trials at that particular length. That determines the number of digits forwards.

      Then the examiner explains that he will say a string of digits and the examinee has to repeat them backwards, that is, in reverse order. For example, 3 – 7 is to be said back to the examiner as 7 –3. This continues until the examinee fails two trials at a particular length which determines the number of digits backwards.

      I hope you will agree that this is a simple test, easy to understand, and largely bereft of any intellectual content. All you need is: to know the names of single digits, and to understand the simple instructions and examples given so that you repeat the digits forwards, and in the later version of the test, backwards. In particular, if you can do digits forwards you reveal you know your digits and have some memory, and if you can do a short string backwards you reveal that you have some memory and you understand the idea of repeating digits backwards.

      The test is not only bereft of intellectual content, but is also low on cultural content. Once you have learnt digit names you are ready to do the test. I assume that forwards and backwards are concepts understood by all cultures worthy of the name.

      How does digit backwards have this profound effect? Short term memory is just an auditory store. Most of the intellectual demand comes from digits backwards. That simple little task of remembering the forward sequence, and then keeping it in mind while reading off the sequence in reverse order taxes the mind. Digit backwards spans are usually at least a digit shorter than digits forwards. If someone can remember 7 digits forward (the average adult score) but only 6 backwards (the average adult core), that is a 14% reduction in memory capacity. (At age 11 for white kids the reduction is 23% and for black kids 30%, as shown below). Digits forwards are related to g, but digits backwards are even more loaded on g.

      That the Black-White gap on FDS is substantially smaller than on BDS is a robust finding confirmed in new analysis. This poses a challenge to the argument that racial differences in exposure to the kinds of information that are needed in cognitive tests cause the Black-White test score gap. The informational demands of the digit span tests are minimal, as only the knowledge of numbers from 1 to 9 is required. FDS is a simple memory test assessing the ability to store information and immediately recall it. The informational demands of BDS are the same as those of FDS, but the requirement that the digits be repeated in the reverse order means that it is not simply a memory test, but one that also requires mental transformation or manipulation of the information presented.

      Black-White Digit Span:

      Forward Digit Span Difference

      Age 7              Age 9               Age 11
        0.01                 0.04                   0.16

      Backward Digit Span Difference

      Age 7              Age 9               Age 11
       0.43                 0.31                  0.36

      It was predicted that forward digit span (FDS) should correlate less with IQ than backward digit span (BDS), and age and race should interact with FDS-BDS, with the FDS-BDS difference decreasing as a junction of age and a greater White-Black difference in BDS than in FDS. The predictions were substantiated at a high level of significance in large representative samples of 669 White and 622 Black 5-12 yr olds who were given the revised WISC. Socioeconomic differences accounted for less of the predicted effects than race. (25 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

      The “backward digit span” test is not reinforced by any socialization and is not a taught skill for either race; Whites score better at recalling digits presented in order, but recalling the digits in reverse order requires mental transformation and is a good predictor of IQ. The race gap for the backward digit span is twice as great as for the forward test.

      In sum, race differences are most pronounced on tests that best measure the General Intelligence Factor (g). Black-White differences, for example, are larger on the Backward Digit Span test than on the less g loaded Forward Digit Span test.

      ~~~~~~~~~

      Mental Chronometry or Reaction Time Tests

      Mental chronometry measures the elapsed time between the presentation of a sensory stimulus and the subsequent behavioral response by the participant.

      The races differ on average cognitive speed. Even the speed with which one neuron in the brain fires correlates with IQ.

      Reaction time is one of the simplest culture-free cognitive measures. Most reaction time tasks are so easy that children can perform them in less than one second. But even on these very simple tests, children with higher IQ scores perform faster than do children with lower scores, perhaps because reaction time measures the neurophysiological efficiency of the brain’s capacity to process information accurately—the same ability measured by intelligence tests (Deary, 2000; Jensen, 1998b). Children are not trained to perform well on reaction time tasks (as they are on certain paper-and-pencil tests), so the advantage of those with higher IQ scores on these tasks cannot arise from practice, familiarity, education, or training.

      For three reaction time tasks (the simple, choice, and odd-man-out tasks), individuals with higher IQ scores average faster and less variable reaction times. For any one task, the correlation between reaction time and IQ normally lies between .20 and .40. A review of several studies concluded that the six measures combined (i.e., the average time and the variability for the three reaction time tasks) produce a multiple correlation of .67 (Deary, 2000). This is about the same magnitude as the correlation between two conventional intelligence tests of reasoning ability and vocabulary.

      Lynn and his colleagues carried out a series of reaction time studies on over 1,000 nine-year-old East Asian children in Japan and Hong Kong, White children in Britain and Ireland, and Black children in South Africa (summarized by Lynn & Vanhannen, 2002, pp. 66–67). The Progressive Matrices were given as a nonverbal test of intelligence, along with the simple, choice, and odd-man-out tasks. Reaction times and variabilities were measured by computer and hence were not subject to any human error in recording.

      Measured IQ scores of the reaction time test participants:
      Hong Kong: 113
      Japan: 110
      Briton: 100
      Ireland: 89
      South Africa: 67

      Odd-man Out Reaction Time Test (milliseconds):
      Hong Kong: 787
      Japan: 818
      Briton: 898
      Ireland: 902
      South Africa: 924

      ~~~~~~~

      Black-White SAT Score Gap by Year:

             Year              White             Black               Gap
             1986              1038               839                 199
             1990              1031               849                 185
             1996              1052               857                 195
             2000              1060               859                 201
             2005              1061               863                 197
             2010              1063               855                 208

      Source: U.S. Dept. of Education, Digest of Education Statistics, 2012

      Note that there is no closing of the large and persistent so-called “achievement gap”.

      The SAT correlates with an IQ test at 0.86, almost the same as an IQ test correlates with itself. For this reason, we can very reliably take SAT scores and convert them to IQ scores.

      In the 20 year period from 1994-2014 the Black-White difference increased on both the verbal and math SATs. On the reading test, it rose from .91 to .96 standard deviations. On the math test, it rose from .95 to 1.03 standard deviations.

      In 2015 only 16% of Blacks scored 1550 or higher, the threshold the College Board calls the “college and career readiness” level.

      This racial achievement gap is so significant that colleges give a “race bonus” of 230 points to Blacks and penalize Asians by 50 points to try to keep it even.

      Asian with similar qualifications have a much harder time getting into college — with an effect that would equal losing 140 points on the SAT and 3.4 on the ACT than students of other races.

      Frey and Detterman (2003) analyzed the correlation of SAT scores with intelligence test scores. They found SAT scores to be highly correlated with general mental ability, or g (r=.82 in their sample).

      Abstract

      This research established the relationship between SAT and g, as well as the appropriateness of the SAT as a measure of g, and examined the SAT as a premorbid measure of intelligence. In Study 1, we used the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979. Measures of g were extracted from the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery and correlated with SAT scores of 917 participants. The resulting correlation was.82 (.86 corrected for nonlinearity). Study 2 investigated the correlation between revised and recentered SAT scores and scores on the Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices among 104 undergraduates. The resulting correlation was.483 (.72 corrected for restricted range). These studies indicate that the SAT is mainly a test of g. We provide equations for converting SAT scores to estimated IQs; such conversion could be useful for estimating premorbid IQ or conducting individual difference research with college students.

      Frey MC, Detterman DK.

      PMID: 15147489 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

      ~~~~~

      New York Times, 2003:

      The SAT captures more than a narrow range of skills, important only in the first year or two of college. Large-scale meta-analyses by researchers at the University of Minnesota have found that SAT performance is as good of a predictor of overall college grade point average as it is of freshman grade point average, and Vanderbilt researchers David Lubinski and Camilla Benbow have documented that the SAT predicts life outcomes well beyond the college years, including income and occupational achievements.

      Furthermore, the SAT is largely a measure of general intelligence. Scores on the SAT correlate very highly with scores on standardized tests of intelligence, and like IQ scores, are stable across time and not easily increased through training, coaching or practice. SAT preparation courses appear to work, but the gains are small — on average, no more than about 20 points per section.

      ~~~~~~~

      ACT Scores by Race:

             Year              White             Black               Asian
             2009              22.2               16.9                 23.2
             2010              22.3               16.9                 23.4
             2011              22.4               17.0                 23.6
             2012              22.4               17.0                 23.6
             2013              22.2               16.9                 23.5
            
      Source: ACT, Inc.

      ~~~~~

      Percent by Race Reaching the SAT College and Career Readiness Benchmark:

                       15% = Black
                       24% = Non-White Hispanic
                       35% = Native American
                       53% = White
                       56% = Asian               

      Source: The College Board, 2014

      ~~~~~

      Black-White SAT Score Gap by Income:

             Year              White              Black               Gap
             -$20k              978                 798                 180
             $40k               995                 836                 159
             $60k               1017               864                 153
             $80k               1032               889                 143
             $100k             1052               908                 144
             $120k             1066               922                 144
             $140k             1073               926                 147
             $160k             1087               942                 145
             $200k             1091               943                 148
             +200k             1130               981                 149

      Source: The College Board, 2008

      So, Blacks from families earning more than $200k only scored 3 points higher than Whites from families earning less than $20k.

      We will continue with racial preferences in college admissions and job hiring. We will continue to blame black underachievement on racism. We will continue to dumb down education and occupational standards in order to achieve higher proportions of Blacks.

      Differences in intelligence between income groups are not larger than intelligence differences between racial groups in the US, nor do differences in income or wealth account for the racial differences. Whites from households in the lowest income bracket have higher IQ scores than blacks from households in the highest income bracket.

      Black students coming from families earning over $70,000 USD are doing worse on their SATs on average than White students from families in the lowest income group.

      One of the largest modern sociology studies of American students found that ethnicity was the single most important predictor of academic achievement:

      “Beyond the Classroom,” by Laurence Steinberg, B. Bradford Brown and Sanford M. Dornbusch, concludes “Of all the demographic factors we studied in relation to school performance, ethnicity was the most important. In terms of school achievement, it is more advantageous to be Asian than to be wealthy, or to have non-divorced parents, or to have a mother who is able to stay at home full time.”

      A number of experiments are able to test all of these environmental theories. Transracial adoption experiments control for all the shared aspects of the environment that differ between Whites and Blacks (parenting, income, nutrition, neighborhood), while structural equation models test for possible uncommon factors between Whites and Blacks that could be acting on IQ (which would include things like racism). These experiments do not lend support to any existing or plausible environmental theories for the remaining lower intelligence scores of people of African descent in Western societies. The Minnesota Transracial Adoption Study found that, by adulthood, the difference in IQ scores between adopted black and adopted White children raised side by side in the same high income households in mostly homogeneous Northern US upper class neighborhoods was 18 IQ points.

      ~~~~~~~

      THE GROWING CORRELATION BETWEEN RACE AND SAT SCORES:

      NEW FINDINGS FROM CALIFORNIA

      October 2015

      Saul Geiser

      Center for Studies in Higher Education

      University of California, Berkeley

      ABSTRACT

      This paper presents new and surprising findings on the relationship between race and SAT scores. The findings are based on the population of California residents who applied for admission to the University of California from 1994 through 2011, a sample of over 1.1 million students. The UC data show that socioeconomic background factors – family income, parental education, and race/ethnicity – account for a large and growing share of the variance in students’ SAT scores over the past twenty years. More than a third of the variance in SAT scores can now be predicted by factors known at students’ birth, up from a quarter of the variance in 1994. Of those factors, moreover, race has become the strongest predictor. Rather than declining in salience, race and ethnicity are now more important than either family income or parental education in accounting for test score differences. It must be cautioned that these findings are preliminary, and more research is needed to determine whether the California data reflect a broader national trend. But if these findings are representative, they have important implications for the ongoing debate over both affirmative action and standardized testing in college admissions.

      ~~~~~~

      The large and persistent so-called “achievement gap” has remain steady since it was first observed.

      Evidence of the racial achievement gap has been manifested through standardized test scores, high school dropout rates, high school completion rates, college acceptance and retention rates, and longitudinal trends.

      It has been found to exist before students enter kindergarten for their first year of schooling. At the start of kindergarten, Black students have math and reading scores substantially lower than those of White students. In a study published in 2009, Reardon and Galindo (2009) specifically examine test scores by race. The data comes from the ECLS-K, sponsored by the National Center for Education Statistics. The ECLS-K contains data on a nationally representative sample of approximately 21,400 students from the kindergarten class of 1998–1999. Students in the sample were assessed in reading and mathematics skills six times from 1998 to 2004. The content areas of the tests are based on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) fourth-grade content areas, adapted to be age appropriate at each grade level. The assessments were scored using a three-parameter Item Response Theory (IRT) model. Reardon and Galindo found that average Black students begin kindergarten with math scores three quarters of a standard deviation lower than those of White students. Six years later the gap widens by about a third.

      The racial group differences across admissions tests, such as the SAT, ACT, GRE, GMAT, MCAT, LSAT, Advanced Placement Program examinations and other measures of educational achievement, have been consistent. Since the 1960s, the population of students taking these assessments has become increasingly diverse. Consequently, the examination of ethnic score differences have been more rigorous. Specifically, the largest gaps exist between White and Black students. On average, Blacks score about .82 to 1.18 standard deviations lower than White students in composite test scores.

      The National Assessment of Educational Progress reports the national Black-White gap in math and reading assessments, measured at the 4th and 8th grade level. The trends show the achievement gaps staying the same.

      ~~~~~~~

      Racial Scoring Gap on Standardized Graduate Tests

      — Black Student Score Results on the Medical College Admission Test

      In 2005 the mean combined score for Black students who took the Medical College Admission Test was 21.2. (Each of the three sections of the MCAT test is scored on a scale of 1 to 15.) For Whites, the mean score on the combined three portions of the MCAT test was 28.5. Therefore, the White score was about 18 percent higher than the mean score for Blacks.

      — The Racial Scoring Gap on the Test for Admission to Business School

      The mean Black score on the GMAT was 425. (The test is scored on the familiar 200 to 800 scale used for each section of the SAT test.) For Whites, the mean GMAT score was 532. This is 107 points or 18 percent higher than the mean score for Blacks.

      The average GMAT score for admitted students at the nation’s leading business schools is over 700. Perhaps only 1 or 2 percent of all Black GMAT test takers score at this level. Therefore, without continuing affirmative action admissions programs at Harvard, Penn, Stanford, Northwestern, MIT, and other top MBA programs, the nation’s leading business schools will have very few Black students.

      The latest JBHE survey shows that Blacks make up about 5 percent of the students at the nation’s leading business schools. If affirmative action admissions programs were to be discontinued, Black enrollments at these schools might drop by 75 percent.

      — Very Few Blacks Score at the Highest Levels of the Law School Admission Test

      In 1998 the mean score of White students taking the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) was 151.96. (The LSAT is graded on a scoring scale of 120 to 180.) The mean score for Black students taking the test that year was 141.80, about 17 percent lower than the mean score of Whites.

      The latest data shows a slight improvement for both Blacks and Whites, but there was no progress in closing the racial scoring gap. In 2004 the mean score for Whites on the LSAT was 152.47. For Blacks, the mean score was 142.43. The 10 point, or 17 percent, scoring gap has remained constant throughout the period with only very minor fluctuations.

      Students seeking admission to the nation’s highest-ranked law schools such as Yale, Harvard, and Stanford have a mean LSAT score of about 170. Data obtained by JBHE from the Law School Admission Council shows that very few Blacks nationwide score at this level.

      In 2004, 10,370 Blacks took the LSAT examination. Only 29 Blacks, or 0.3 percent of all LSAT test takers, scored 170 or above. In contrast, more than 1,900 White test takers scored 170 or above on the LSAT. They made up 3.1 percent of all White test takers. Thus Whites were more than 10 times as likely as Blacks to score 170 or above on the LSAT. There were 66 times as many Whites as Blacks who scored 170 or above on the test.

      Even if we drop the scoring level to 165, a level equal to the mean score of students enrolling at law schools ranked in the top 10 nationwide but not at the very top, we still find very few Blacks. There were 108 Blacks scoring 165 or better on the LSAT in 2004. They made up 1 percent of all Black test takers. For Whites, there were 6,689 test takers who scored 165 or above. They made up 10.6 percent of all White students who took the LSAT examination.

      The nation’s top law schools could fill their classes exclusively with students who scored 165 or above on the LSAT. But if they were to do so, these law schools would have almost no Black students.

      — The Racial Scoring Gap on the Graduate Record Examination

      The vast majority of Black graduate students do not attend professional schools of law, business, or medicine. Most Black students are enrolled in graduate programs in other academic disciplines including education, natural sciences, mathematics, foreign languages, the humanities, the arts, history, psychology, and the social sciences. For these students the important test is the Graduate Record Examination (GRE).

      This test begins with two analytical writing sections, one where the student is given a choice of topics. The analytical writing section is scored on a scale of 0 to 6. Then there is a 30-minute verbal reasoning test and a 45-minute quantitative section. The test is given on a computer terminal and the test is adaptive, meaning that the test questions are selected based on correct or incorrect responses to previous questions. These two sections are scored on the familiar 200 to 800 scale used for the SAT test.

      Each year about 300,000 college students seeking admission to graduate programs in fields such as education, the humanities, the natural sciences, and the social sciences sit for the GRE. In 2003, the latest year for which there is complete data available, 27,267 Blacks took the GRE test. Therefore, Blacks made up 8.8 percent of all students who took the GRE.

      In 2003 the mean score for Blacks on the combined verbal and quantitative sections of the GRE was 821. For Whites, the mean combined score was 1062. Thus the mean White score was 241 points, or 20 percent, higher than the mean score for Blacks. This racial scoring gap is even wider than the persistent and growing gap on the SAT test.

      In 2003 the mean Black score on the analytical writing section was 3.7 on a scale of 0 to 6. For Whites, the mean score was 4.5, a difference of about 13 percent. There is no way to compare the trend in the gap on this portion of the GRE because the 0 to 6 scale was recently instituted. Previously the analytical section of the test was scored on the 200 to 800 scale.

      The GRE scoring gap between Blacks and Whites varies to a large degree depending on the field of proposed study in graduate school. Black students planning to study in the field of engineering scored on average 187 points below whites who plan to pursue a graduate degree in engineering. In the physical sciences, Black students on average scored 247 points below Whites.

      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

      Effects of Affirmative Action

      Quota admittees drop out more often, avoid college science and math, and flunk post-graduation professional tests.

      The SAT scores of White applicants to U.S. colleges and universities have been, on average, about 200 points higher than those of their Black counterparts. Nonetheless, Black students have been admitted to virtually all academically competitive schools at much higher rates than Whites. At Amherst College in 1995, for instance, 51 percent of Black applicants were admitted vs. just 19 percent of White applicants. At Rice University that same year, the corresponding numbers were 52 percent and 25 percent for Blacks and Whites, respectively. At Bowdoin College, the figures were 70 percent and 30 percent.

      At the five most elite American, Black applicants whose SAT scores fell within the 1200 to 1249 range had a 60 percent chance of admission, whereas Whites with similar scores had just a 19 percent chance.

      At medical schools the situation is much the same. The Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT) scores of Blacks who are accepted are actually lower than those of Whites who are rejected. At the University of Maryland Medical School in 2000, Blacks with college GPAs of B or B+ and MCAT scores in the bottom half of all test-takers had a 70 percent chance of admission; for Whites and Asians of similar credentials, the chance was 2 percent.

      At America’s top law schools, Blacks are admitted at fully 17 times the rate that a colorblind process would allow. At UCLA Law School in 1994, a Black applicant with a college GPA between 2.5 and 3.5, and an LSAT score between 60 and 90, had a 61 percent chance of admission. The corresponding rates for similarly qualified Asians and Whites were 7 percent and 1 percent, respectively. Consider also Texas Law School, which in 1992 rejected 668 White applicants before rejecting a single Black. Fully 100 percent of Blacks who scored between 189 and 192 in the school’s academic rating system were admitted, as compared to just 6 percent of Whites.

      So-called “diversity degrees” were created with soft curricula to allow Blacks an easier opportunity to earn a degree than is possible in the hard sciences.

      College majors with the highest percentage of Whites (63% of U.S. population):

             Forestry: 93% White
             Natural Resources Management: 92% White
             Agriculture Production and Management: 92% White
             Plant Science and Agronomy: 92% White
             Nuclear Engineering: 91% White
             Animal Sciences: 91% White
             Soil Science: 91% White
             Miscellaneous Agriculture: 90% White
             Agricultural Economics: 90% White
             Art and Music Education: 90% White

      College majors with the highest percentage of Asians (6% of U.S. population):

             Computer Engineering: 33% Asian
             Statistics and Decision Science: 30% Asian
             Neuroscience: 27% Asian
             Biomedical Engineering: 26% Asian
             Other Foreign Languages: 26% Asian
             Electrical Engineering: 22% Asian
             Military Technologies: 22% Asian
             Biochemical Sciences: 20% Asian
             Applied Mathematics: 20% Asian
             Pharmacy Pharmaceutical Sciences and Administration: 20% Asian

      College majors with the highest percentage of Blacks (14% of U.S. population):

             School Student Counseling: 38% Black
             Human Services and Community Organization: 21% Black
             Counseling Psychology: 20% Black
             Health and Medical Administrative Services: 18% Black
             Public Administration: 18% Black
             Social Work: 16% Black
             Miscellaneous Social Sciences: 16% Black
             General Medical and Health Services: 15% Black
             Public Policy: 15% Black

    • Rob Smith

      Blacks have small brains

      Would you expect a population of small-brain people to have a higher, lower or equal IQ as compared to a population of large-brain people?

      Compared to Blacks, Whites’ brains:

           •   are 7% larger (1438cc versus 1343cc)
           •   are 100 grams heavier
           •   have deeper fissuration in the frontal and occipital regions
           •   have more complex convolutions and larger frontal lobes
           •   have more pyramidal neurons
           •   have 16% thicker supra-grandular layer
           •   react faster on mental chronometry tests
           •   have 600 million more neurons (each carries about 600 billion synapses, which each carry one bit of cortical information)

      Genes contribute to about 90% of the individual variation of brain size.

      Asian, White, and Black brains can be reliably differentiated by examining the surface configuration.

      There are four methods of measuring brain size, and studies utilizing all four methods have found that Whites have larger brains than Asians who have larger brains than Blacks. If you adjust for body size, the position of Whites and Asians flips.

      Blacks are the only racial group with no DNA from the large-brained Neanderthals, and also the only race without the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which produces increased brain volume.

      The correlation between brain size and IQ across 25 primate species is 0.77 (where 1.0 indicates that monozygotic twins have no variance in IQ and 0 indicates that their IQs are completely uncorrelated).

      Larger brains contain more neurons and synapses and process information faster. By adulthood, East Asians average 1 cubic inch more cranial capacity than Whites who average 5 cubic inches more than Blacks.

      The average White brain is 1438cc while the average Black brain is 1343cc, or 93% of the average White brain. The heritability of brain size is extremely strong at 0.90 and not one study to date has shown larger brain size for Blacks. The White and Asians brain also has a higher degree of fissuring (higher complexity) in the cerebral cortex of their brains, where abstract and conceptual thought is performed.

      There are also racial differences in brain shape, fissuration, number of pyramidal neurons and supra-grandular layer thickness. The depth of fissuration is related to superior intelligence and the brains of Whites have deeper fissures in the frontal and occipital regions. The supra-grandular layer of Blacks’ brains is 16% smaller than it is for Whites’ brains.

      Based on studies of brain weight at autopsy, endocranial volume of empty skulls, head size measurements by the U.S. military and NASA, and two dozen MRI volumetric studies Blacks’ brain size is 7% smaller than Whites’, and 8% smaller than Asians’. There is a correlation of brain size with IQ of about 0.40 and that these racial differences in brain size are present at birth. Genes contribute to about 90% of the individual variation of brain size.

      In addition to brain size are differences in brain shape, fissuration, number of pyramidal neurons and supra-grandular layer thickness. The depth of fissuration is related to superior intelligence and the brains of Whites have deeper fissures in the frontal and occipital regions. The supra-grandular layer of Blacks’ brains is 16% smaller than it is for Whites’ brains.

      The average human brain contains 86 billion neurons. Whites, on average, have 600 million more neurons than Blacks. Each neuron carries about 600 billion synapses, each of which carries, as a minimum, one bit of cortical information.

      Blacks are the only racial group with no DNA from the large-brained Neanderthals, and also the only race without the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which produces increased brain volume.

      Even before birth, population group differences in average brain size are found from the ninth week of intrauterine life with White fetuses averaging larger brain cases and smaller faces Black fetuses, with the differences becoming more prominent over the course of fetal development.

      Weighing brains at autopsy, Whites averaged heavier brains than Blacks and had more complex convolutions and larger frontal lobes. Subsequent studies have found an average Black–White difference of about 100 g. Studies have found that the more White admixture (judged independently from skin color), the greater the average brain weight in Blacks. In a study of 1,261 American adults, Ho et al. (1980) found that 811 White Americans averaged 1,323 g and 450 Black Americans averaged 1,223 g. Since the Blacks and Whites were similar in body size, differences in body size cannot explain away the differences in brain weight.

      The same three-way pattern of race differences has been found using the simplest culture-free cognitive measures such as reaction time tasks, which 9- to 12-year-old children perform in less than 1 s. Lynn (2006) found that East Asian children from Hong Kong and Japan were faster than European children from Britain and Ireland, who in turn were faster than African children from South Africa. Using similar tasks, this pattern of racial differences was also found in California (Jensen, 1998; Rushton & Jensen, 2005). Within each group, the children with higher IQ scores perform faster those with lower scores.

      Race differences start in the womb. Blacks are born earlier and grow quicker than Whites and Asians. The three-way race pattern occurs in milestones such as sexual maturity, family stability, crime rates, and population growth.

      Black babies mature more quickly than White babies, while Asian babies mature more slowly. Black babies in a sitting position are more able to keep their heads up and backs straight from the start. White babies often need six to eight weeks to do these things. It is unlikely that social factors could produce these differences. A basic law of biology shows that longer infancy is related to greater brain growth.

      Black babies spend the least time in the womb. In America, 51% of Black children have been born by week 39 of pregnancy compared with 33% of White children. In Europe, Black babies of even professional mothers are born earlier than White babies.

      Black children sit, crawl, walk, and put on their own clothes earlier than Whites or Asians. The findings are measured by such tests as Bayley’s Scales of Mental and Motor Development and the Cambridge Neonatal Scales.

      Asian children, on the other hand, mature more slowly than do White children. Asian children often do not walk until 13 months. Walking starts at 12 months for white children and 11 months for Black children.

      ~~~~~~~~~~

      Meta-analysis of associations between human brain volume and intelligence differences

      AUTHORS: Pietschnig, Penke, Wicherts, Zeiler, Voracek

      ABSTRACT: “By means of a systematic review of published studies and unpublished results obtained by personal communications with researchers, we identified 88 studies examining effect sizes of 148 healthy and clinical mixed-sex samples. Our results showed significant positive associations of brain volume and IQ.”

      2015, October

      PMID: 26449760

      ~~~~~~~~

      Brain mass differences between racial groups in the US

      Jensen (1998) summarizes the brain mass findings from the Case-Western Reserve (1980) study (N= 811 W, 450 B). An age matched and height adjusted B-W differences of ~100g (~.78SD) was found, which is commensurate with the findings of Bean (1906), Mall (1909), Pearl (1934), and Vint (1934) as described in Rushton and Ankney (2009). Holloway (2002) found a B-W difference of 63 grams (N = 1,391 W; 615 Black). Similar findings have been found based in imaging studies (see 5). In their study, Isamah, et al. (2010) found that African Americans have 1 SD less total cerebrum volume than European Americans.

      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

      Contrary to most purely environmental theories, racial differences in brain size show up early in life. Data from the U.S. National Collaborative Perinatal Project on 19,000 Black children and 17,000 White children showed that Black children had a smaller head perimeter at birth and, although Black children were born shorter in stature and lighter in weight than White children, by age 7 ‘catch-up growth’ led Black children to be larger in body size than White children. However, Blacks remained smaller in head perimeter (Broman et al., 1987). Further, head perimeter at birth, 1 year, 4 years, and 7 years correlated with IQ scores at age 7 in both Black and White children (r = 0.13 to 0.24).

      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

      Brain Size Differences. Studies using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) find a correlation of brain size with IQ of about 0.40. Larger brains contain more neurons and synapses and process information faster. Race differences in brain size are present at birth. By adulthood, East Asians average 1 cubic inch more cranial capacity than Whites who average 5 cubic inches more than Blacks.

      “Neither the existence nor the size of race differences in IQ are a matter of dispute, only their cause,” write the authors. The Black-White difference has been found consistently from the time of the massive World War I Army testing of 90 years ago to a massive study of over 6 million corporate, military, and higher-education test-takers in 2001.

      “Race differences show up by 3 years of age, even after matching on maternal education and other variables,” said Rushton. “Therefore they cannot be due to poor education since this has not yet begun to exert an effect. That’s why Jensen and I looked at the genetic hypothesis in detail. We examined 10 categories of evidence.”

      1. The Worldwide Pattern of IQ Scores; East Asians average higher on IQ tests than Whites, both in the U. S. and in Asia, even though IQ tests were developed for use in the Euro-American culture. Around the world, the average IQ for East Asians centers around 106; for Whites, about 100; and for Blacks about 85 in the U.S. and 70 in sub-Saharan Africa.

      2. Race Differences are Most Pronounced on Tests that Best Measure the General Intelligence Factor (g); Black-White differences, for example, are larger on the Backward Digit Span test than on the less g loaded Forward Digit Span test.

      3. The Gene-Environment Architecture of IQ is the Same in all Races, and Race Differences are Most Pronounced on More Heritable Abilities; Studies of Black, White, and East Asian twins, for example, show the heritability of IQ is 50% or higher in all races.

      4. Brain Size Differences; Studies using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) find a correlation of brain size with IQ of about 0.40. Larger brains contain more neurons and synapses and process information faster. Race differences in brain size are present at birth. By adulthood, East Asians average 1 cubic inch more cranial capacity than Whites who average 5 cubic inches more than Blacks.

      5. Trans-Racial Adoption Studies; Race differences in IQ remain following adoption by White middle class parents. East Asians grow to average higher IQs than Whites while Blacks score lower. The Minnesota Trans-Racial Adoption Study followed children to age 17 and found race differences were even greater than at age 7: White children, 106; Mixed-Race children, 99; and Black children, 89.

      6. Racial Admixture Studies; Black children with lighter skin, for example, average higher IQ scores. In South Africa, the IQ of the mixed-race “Colored” population averages 85, intermediate to the African 70 and White 100.

      -June 2005, Psychology, Public Policy and Law, a journal of the American Psychological Association

      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

      According to a new study, just published in the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) newsroom, scientists have definitively found the genes which control brain size and intelligence.

      Dozens of studies have found race differences in brain size, whether measured by MRI, endocranial volume, brain weight at autopsy or external head size (with or without corrections for body size).

      Most were carried out on the three major races of East Asians, Europeans, and Africans. Averaging all the data, the following figures have emerged: Brain size average for East Asians = 1364cm; Whites = 1347cm; and Blacks = 1267cm.

      The overall mean for East Asians was 17cm more than for Whites and 97cm more than for Blacks.

      Since every cubic centimeter of brain tissue contains millions of brain cells and billions of synapses, the race differences in brain size help to explain the race differences in IQ.

      The latest overview, billed as the “world’s largest brain study to date,” saw a team of more than 200 scientists from 100 institutions worldwide collaborate to map the human genes that boost or sabotage the brain’s resistance to a variety of mental illnesses and Alzheimer’s disease.

      Additionally, the study (also published in the journal Nature Genetics), found new genes which control “differences in brain size and intelligence.”

      “We searched for two things in this study,” said senior author Paul Thompson, professor of neurology at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA and a member of the UCLA Laboratory of Neuro Imaging.

      “We hunted for genes that increase your risk for a single disease that your children can inherit. We also looked for factors that cause tissue atrophy and reduce brain size, which is a biological marker for disorders like schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, Alzheimer’s disease and dementia.”

      Three years ago, Thompson’s lab partnered with geneticists Nick Martin and Margaret Wright at the Queensland Institute for Medical Research in Brisbane, Australia, and with geneticist Barbara Franke of Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre in the Netherlands.

      The four investigators recruited brain-imaging labs around the world to pool their brain scans and genomic data, and Project ENIGMA (Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis) was born.

      “Our individual centers couldn’t review enough brain scans to obtain definitive results,” said Thompson, who is also a professor of psychiatry at the Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior at UCLA.

      “By sharing our data with Project ENIGMA, we created a sample large enough to reveal clear patterns in genetic variation and show how these changes physically alter the brain.”

      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

      Recent reviews (by Nisbett et al. (2012b) and Mackintosh (2011)) confirm current data does show an average difference in brain size and head-circumference between American Blacks and Whites.

      Brain size is found to have a correlation of about .35 with intelligence and cites studies showing that genes may account for as much as 90% of individual variation in brain size, concluding that race differences in average brain size could be an important argument for genetic contribution to racial IQ gaps.

      – Considerations Relating to the Study of Group Differences in Intelligence, Earl Hunt1 and Jerry Carlson, The University of Washington
      – American Psychologist, Vol 67(6), Sep 2012, 503-504

      On the outside, there’s not a lot of difference between Black heads and White ones. There is a slight difference, however, with Whites having the larger heads. But the big difference is in the size of the brain. Blacks have thicker skulls, which means that a higher percentage of their head is bone instead of brain.

      Blacks are the only race without the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which appeared about 37,000 years ago and is associated with increased brain volume.

      Empirical data obtained from brain weight at autopsy, endocranial volume of empty skulls, head size measurements by the U.S. military and NASA, and two dozen MRI volumetric studies have shown that brain volumes average 1427 cubic centimeters for Whites, but only 1361 cubic centimeters for Blacks.

      In weight measurements, the brains of African Blacks were found to weigh an average of 1157 grams, whereas those of pure Whites weighed an average of 1323 grams. The brains of US-resident Blacks, who have a bit of White mixture in their genetic makeup, average 1223 grams in weight.

      That 100-gram weight difference, between White Americans and US-resident Blacks, corresponds to an approximate 600 million neuron advantage for Whites. In 600 million neurons, there are about 600 billion synapses, each of which carries, as a minimum, one bit of cortical information.

      Also, Whites have a larger genus to splenium ratio (front to back part of corpus callosum), which indicates that Whites probably have more activity in the frontal lobes which are thought to be the seat of intelligence. One study found that White cerebrums exhibited 14% more sulsification, or fissuring, as compared with those of Blacks. So, not only are White brains larger, they are also significantly more complex.

      Blacks also have considerably smaller frontal lobes. Frontal lobes are responsible for planning complex cognitive behavior, personality expression, decision making and moderating social behavior.

      This is a genetic trait because even malnourished Asians from poor countries have a larger brain on average than well fed blacks from western countries.

      Sources:

      Willerman et al. (1991) Using MRI obtained r’s ranging from .26 to .56 between IQ and the size of specific brain structures and an overall r of .38 between full-scale IQ and gray matter volume when body size is controlled for. Replications by Raz et al. (1993) and Wickett, Vernon and Lee (1994) found correlations between IQ and brain size of .41 and .47-49. Egan et al. (1994) found an r of .32 between IQ and brain size in a sample whose SD for IQ was 9.3.

      Beals, K. L., Smith, C. L., & Dodd, S. M. (1984). Brain size, cranial morphology, climate, and time machines. Current Anthropology 25, 301–330.

      Jensen, A. R. (1998). The g Factor. Westport, CT: Praeger.

      Rushton, J. P. & Ankney, C. D. (1996). Brain size and cognitive ability: Correlations with age, sex, social class, and race. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 3, 21-36.

      Ho, K. C., Roessmann, U., Straumfjord, J. V., & Monroe, G. (1980). Analysis of brain weight: I and II. Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine 104, 635–645.

      Johnson F. W. & Jensen (1994). Race and sex differences in head size and IQ. Intelligence 18: 309–33

      Rushton JP. (1997). Cranial size and IQ in Asian Americans from birth to age seven. Intelligence 25: 7–20.

      Rushton JP (1991). Mongoloid-Caucasoid differences in brain size from military samples [and NASA]. Intelligence 15: 351–9.

      Cranial Capacities:

      Study                    Black               White                Asian             Black/White

      Ho et al., 1980          1267                1370                                   .92

      Gould, 1981              1356                1426                 1426              .95

      Beals, 1984             1276                1362                 1380              .93

      Herskovits, 1993         1295                1421                 1451              .91

      Ruston (Army) 92         1346                1361                 1403              .98

      Ruston (ILO), 1994       1228                1284                 1312              .95
                  

      ————–

      Abstract:

      Genome-wide association studies establish that human intelligence is highly heritable and polygenic.

      General intelligence is an important human quantitative trait that accounts for much of the variation in diverse cognitive abilities. Individual differences in intelligence are strongly associated with many important life outcomes, including educational and occupational attainments, income, health and lifespan. Data from twin and family studies are consistent with a high heritability of intelligence, but this inference has been controversial. We conducted a genome-wide analysis of 3511 unrelated adults with data on 549 692 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and detailed phenotypes on cognitive traits. We estimate that 40% of the variation in crystallized-type intelligence and 51% of the variation in fluid-type intelligence between individuals is accounted for by linkage disequilibrium between genotyped common SNP markers and unknown causal variants. These estimates provide lower bounds for the narrow-sense heritability of the traits. We partitioned genetic variation on individual chromosomes and found that, on average, longer chromosomes explain more variation. Finally, using just SNP data we predicted ~1% of the variance of crystallized and fluid cognitive phenotypes in an independent sample (P=0.009 and 0.028, respectively). Our results unequivocally confirm that a substantial proportion of individual differences in human intelligence is due to genetic variation, and are consistent with many genes of small effects underlying the additive genetic influences on intelligence.

      Molecular Psychiatry, 2011: 996-1005.

      ~~~~~~~~~~~~

      Three papers looked at how 14 alleles (gene variants) which were previously associated with intelligence, or a proxy for intelligence, varied by race (Piffer 2013) (Piffer 2014) (Piffer and Kirkeggard 2014). In a sample of 101,069, these 10 alleles were each found to predict higher than average educational attainment (Rietveld et al. 2013). The predictive ability of each allele was then re-tested again across 12 samples totaling 25,290 people. All ten alleles used in were found to be associated with intelligence in multiple samples, the the associations were not always statistically significant. Importantly, the samples consisted of only white people which means that no genes arbitrarily associated with race will be falsely thought to associate with education just because race does.

      The other four alleles come from more varied sources. The first is a version of the NPTN gene which is involved in how the brain changes itself (neural outgrowth and synaptic plasticity). A particular allele of this gene has been previously found to predict lower IQ scores and less cortical thickness. The second allele comes from the FNB1L gene and has been associated with high intelligence across multiple studies. The third allele is a version of the CHRM2 gene and has been associated with high intelligence in 4 separate studies.

      Finally, a version of the APOE4 gene has been found to predict better memory, perceptual speed, and general cognitive functioning, in a meta-analyses of 77 previous studies. Each of the studies involving these four genes used different sets of controls and statistical adjustments. Because they have been found to associate with intelligence so consistently, a causal relationship between the allele and intelligence is likely.

      The 14 alleles were found to be patterned such that, based on this genetic data alone, Asians would be predicted to have the highest IQs followed by Whites and ending with Blacks. These differences were statistically significant and were replicated across the three data bases. More extraordinary was the finding that all 14 alleles differed between Blacks and Whites in a way that would predict that Blacks would be less intelligent. This result strongly suggests that the hereditarian viewpoint is the correct one. On the egalitarian viewpoint each allele should have, on average, a 50% probability of existing in a greater frequency among either Blacks or Whites. The probability that this model would predict all 14 alleles examined to favor Whites would be 1-in-16284.

      ~~~~~~~~~~~~

      Ongoing Adaptive Evolution of ASPM, a Brain Size Determinant in Homo sapiens

      Science 09 Sep 2005:
      Vol. 309, Issue 5741, pp. 1720-1722
      DOI: 10.1126/science.1116815

      The research team showed that there was accelerated evolution in humans among numerous genes, including microcephalin and abnormal spindle-like microcephaly-associated (ASPM). Both of these genes regulate brain size, and therefore “were good candidates to look for signatures of selection. We indeed found such signatures when we compared humans to other species,” he said. “As a natural extension of that, we asked, could it be that selection on these genes is still ongoing in humans?”

      In the two Science papers, the researchers looked at variations of microcephalin and ASPM within modern humans. They found evidence that the two genes have continued to evolve. For each gene, one class of variants has arisen recently and has been spreading rapidly because it is favored by selection. For microcephalin, the new variant class emerged about 37,000 years ago and now shows up in about 70 percent of present-day humans. For ASPM, the new variant class arose about 5,800 years ago and now shows up in approximately 30 percent of today’s humans. These time windows are extraordinarily short in evolutionary terms, indicating that the new variants were subject to very intense selection pressure that drove up their frequencies in a very brief period of time–both well after the emergence of modern humans about 200,000 years ago.

      Each variant emerged around the same time as the advent of “cultural” behaviors. The microcephalin variant appears along with the emergence of such traits as art and music, religious practices, and sophisticated tool-making techniques–which date back to about 50,000 years ago. The ASPM variant coincides with the oldest-known civilization, Mesopotamia, which dates back to 7000 BC. “Microcephalin,” the authors wrote in one of the papers, “has continued its trend of adaptive evolution beyond the emergence of anatomically modern humans. If selection indeed acted on a brain-related phenotype, there could be several possibilities, including brain size, cognition, personality, motor control or susceptibility to neurological/psychiatric diseases.”

      The team also observed geographic differences. For haplogroup D of ASPM, they found that it occurs more frequently in Europeans and surrounding populations including, North Africans, Middle Easterners, and South Asians, and at a lower incidence in East Asians, New World Indians and sub-Saharan Africans. For microcephalin, the researchers found that haplogroup D is more abundant in populations outside of sub-Saharan Africa.

      ~~~

      The Genetical Aspect of Human Brain Evolution
      Suman Pratihar1, Rudra Prasad Nath, Jayanta Kumar Kundu
      EJBS 3 (1) – April-June 2010

      The human brain, particularly the cerebral cortex, has undergone a dramatic increase in its volume during the course of primate evolution. ASPM and MCPH are the major protagonist helped to shape and size of our brain. The developmental biology and genetics is the key to unlocking the mystery of human brain evolution.

      In summary the developmental linkage between comparative brain morphometry and the comparative processes that influence the specification of axonal connectivity suggests that what is uniquely different about human brain is not just their quantitative organization, but more importantly the consequent shifts in connectivity in brain region. For over a century scientists have studied brain evolution as a problem of gross functional morphology. ASPM and MCPH responded to natural selection and the resulting changes contributed to our large brains. But how exactly the ASPM gene produced these changes is not yet entirely clear. It seems to control how many times cells in the cerebral cortex can divide which controls how much space there is for neurons. It is known that a variant of the gene that allowed additional cell divisions gave some hominids the additional neuronal infrastructure that eventually let them develop abstract reasoning and language skills.

      Nature is not democratic. Individuals’ IQs vary. Instead genetic interactions with the environment suggest that enriched environments will help everyone achieve their potential, but not to quality. Our potential seems largely pre determined. That our interpretation of intelligence the brain and heritability has succumbed to a variety of political and social pressures is undeniable. Presumed functional correlates of brain size differences, theories of encephalization and the plausibility of highly modular species specific changes all must be carefully reexamined in the context of this information. Although well-accepted claims about brain evolution in our lineage may be put in question as a result the value of comparative morphological analysis takes on a new significance as a guide to more detailed development and molecular studies of brain.

      Microcephalin 1 (MCPH 1) is one of the most important gene causing primary microcephaly, this condition is characterized by a severely diminished brain. Hence it is assumed that normal variants have a role in brain development, but no effect on mental ability. MCPH 1 is expressed in the fetal brain, in the developing forebrain and on the walls of the lateral ventricles. Cells of this area divide, producing neurons that migrate to eventually from the cerebral cortex (Trimborn, 2004). A derived form of MCPH 1 called haplogroup D appeared about 37000 years ago and has spread become the more common form throughout the world except sub Saharan Africa. The timing of its emergence may have closely preceded the upper Paleolithic, when people started colonizing Europe, although the margin of error is substantial and there is evidence that the transition to the upper Paleolithic occurred in Africa before spreading to Europe. The modern distributions of chromosomes bearing the ancestral forms of the MCPH 1 and MCPH 5 coincide with the incidence of tonal languages, although the nature of the relationship can only be guessed at haplogroup D may have originated from a lineage separated from modern humans approximately 1.1 million years ago and later entered into in humans (Trimborn, 2004).

      ~~~

      Evidence that the adaptive allele of the brain size gene microcephalin introgressed into Homo sapiens from an archaic Homo lineage

      Edited by Henry C. Harpending, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, and approved October 5, 2006 (received for review August 10, 2006)

      At the center of the debate on the emergence of modern humans and their spread throughout the globe is the question of whether archaic Homo lineages contributed to the modern human gene pool, and more importantly, whether such contributions impacted the evolutionary adaptation of our species. A major obstacle to answering this question is that low levels of admixture with archaic lineages are not expected to leave extensive traces in the modern human gene pool because of genetic drift. Loci that have undergone strong positive selection, however, offer a unique opportunity to identify low-level admixture with archaic lineages, provided that the introgressed archaic allele has risen to high frequency under positive selection. The gene microcephalin (MCPH1) regulates brain size during development and has experienced positive selection in the lineage leading to Homo sapiens. Within modern humans, a group of closely related haplotypes at this locus, known as haplogroup D, rose from a single copy ≈37,000 years ago and swept to exceptionally high frequency (≈70% worldwide today) because of positive selection. Here, we examine the origin of haplogroup D. By using the interhaplogroup divergence test, we show that haplogroup D likely originated from a lineage separated from modern humans ≈1.1 million years ago and introgressed into humans by ≈37,000 years ago. This finding supports the possibility of admixture between modern humans and archaic Homo populations (Neanderthals being one possibility). Furthermore, it buttresses the important notion that, through such adminture, our species has benefited evolutionarily by gaining new advantageous alleles. The interhaplogroup divergence test developed here may be broadly applicable to the detection of introgression at other loci in the human genome or in genomes of other species.

      ~~~

      The Microcephalin Ancestral Allele in a Neanderthal Individual
      Martina Lari,

      Published: May 14, 2010

      Microcephalin has been proposed as the target of positive selection in the evolutionary lineage leading from ancestral primates to humans. This observation, coupled with the fact that this gene is a critical regulator of brain size, suggests that the molecular evolution of microcephalin may have contributed to the phenotypic evolution of the human brain. In a recent study, Evans et al. found that a class of haplotypes at the locus, dubbed haplogroup D (all sharing a G37995C transversion in the coding region, that results in the substitution of an aspartate with a histidine), shows a recent coalescence age (point estimate  = 37,000 years) despite a very high worldwide frequency (0.70). There is also a marked difference between Africa (with low D frequencies) and Eurasia (with high D frequencies). Taken at face value, these findings would imply a rapid rise in the frequency of haplogroup D, so rapid indeed to suggest that positive selection, and not only drift or a demographic expansion, has affected the frequency of haplogroup D after the spread from Africa of early modern humans. Evans and colleagues proposed that haplogroup D originated from a lineage separated from modern humans for 1.1 million years and introgressed into the human gene pool by 37,000 years ago, probably from a Neanderthal stock.

      ~~~

      Positive selection at the ASPM gene coincides with brain size enlargements in cetaceans

      Shixia Xu, Yuan Chen, Yuefeng Cheng, Dan Yang, Xuming Zhou, Junxiao Xu, Kaiya Zhou, Guang Yang

      Published 12 September 2012. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2012.1729

      The enlargement of cetacean brain size represents an enigmatic event in mammalian evolution, yet its genetic basis remains poorly explored. One candidate gene associated with brain size evolution is the abnormal spindle-like microcephaly associated (ASPM), as mutations in this gene cause severe reductions in the cortical size of humans. Here, we investigated the ASPM gene in representative cetacean lineages and previously published sequences from other mammals to test whether the expansion of the cetacean brain matched adaptive ASPM evolution patterns. Our analyses yielded significant evidence of positive selection on the ASPM gene during cetacean evolution, especially for the Odontoceti and Delphinoidea lineages. These molecular patterns were associated with two major events of relative brain size enlargement in odontocetes and delphinoids. It is of particular interest to find that positive selection was restricted to cetaceans and primates, two distant lineages both characterized by a massive expansion of brain size. This result is suggestive of convergent molecular evolution, although no site-specific convergence at the amino acid level was found.

      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~

      Intelligence

      Volume 18, Issue 3, May–June 1994, Pages 309–333

      Race and sex differences in head size and IQ
      Arthur R. Jensen, Fred W. Johnson

      Abstract

      An analysis of IQ in relation to head size (and by inference, brain size) was performed on some 14,000 children and their full siblings, almost evenly divided by race (white and black) and sex, on whom data were obtained at ages 4 and 7 years in the National Collaborative Perinatal Project. Within each race × sex group, IQ is significantly correlated with head size, age and body size having been partialed out. A significant positive correlation between IQ × head size exists not only within subjects (at ages 4 and 7) but also within families and between families (at age 7 only). The within-families correlation (at age 7) is consistent with an intrinsic or pleiotropic correlation between the mental and physical variables. No significant positive correlation within families appeared at age 4, despite a significant within-subjects correlation at that age. As yet, there are only speculative explanations of the disparity between the age 4 and 7 within-family correlations of head size with IQ. Although general body size is also correlated with IQ within subjects and between families, the correlation does not exist within families in either age group, which rules out a pleiotropic correlation between body size and IQ. There are both race and sex differences in head size, although the sex difference in IQ is nil. White and black children who are matched on IQ show, on average, virtually zero difference in head size.

      Correspondence and requests for reprints should be sent to Arthur R. Jensen, School of Education, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.

    • Rob Smith

      Blacks are violent

      Blacks have mean testosterone levels 19% higher than in whites. This is why 1-in-4 Black men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer but only 1-in-8 White men and 1-in-13 Asian men will. Testosterone is associated with impulsive, aggressive and violent behavior.

      The Black homicide rate is 17 per 100,000, a rate over 9x that of the White rate, and comparable to some of those most murderous countries in the world.

      If the homicide rate for the country as a whole were the White-only rate, the homicide rate would drop 84%, making the U.S. rate comparable to European countries.

      Black males age 18-35 are only 4% of the U.S. population, yet commit 50% of homicides. Black males (all ages) are only 6% of the U.S. population, yet commit 46% of all violent crimes, and 50% of the gun homicides. If Blacks were removed from the equation, the U.S. gun homicide rate would be equal to Great Britain’s, who have some of the most restrictive gun control laws in the world.

      Therefore, the U.S. has a Black problem, not a gun or violent crime problem.

      In 2013, according to FBI statistics, Blacks committed an average of 486,945 violent crimes against Whites, whereas Whites committed only 99,403 violent crimes against Blacks. This means Blacks were the attackers in 84.5 percent of the violent crimes involving Blacks and Whites. By age 23, half of Blacks males have been arrested.

      Model for Significant Predictors of Firearm Homicide Rate Using Standarized Predictor Variables (Percentage Black): for each one standard deviation increase in proportion of Black population, firearm homicide rate is increased by 82.8%.

      Blacks have a very high percentage carrying the dysfunctional form of the MAOA gene which does not produce a protein needed to break down old serotonin in their brains. This causes them to be agitated, aggressive and impulsive. The popular term for this is the “warrior gene” which could be considered propaganda to put a positive spin on those who possess this dysfunctional gene which is highly-correlated to criminality.

      Comprehensive Psychiatry published a large study on the rates at which black and white Americans carry shortened, or dysfunctional, MAOA genes.

      The gene can come in the form of 2, 3, 3.5, 4, or 5 allele. A 3-repeat allele is considered dysfunctional and is what is referred to as the “warrior gene”. A 2-repeat allele is considered very dysfunctional. People with a 2-repeat allele MAOA gene have a permanent chemical imbalance in their brain making the person more likely to be agitated, aggressive, and impulsive.

      According to the study published in Comprehensive Psychiatry, 34.6% of Whites and 53.4% of Blacks have 2-repeat allele or less. However, only .5% of whites have the 2-repeat (2R) allele version compared to 4.7% of blacks.

      That means Blacks are 9.4 times more likely to have the extremely dysfunctional version of the gene than Whites. Considering that Black Americans are 9 times more likely to commit murder, this is very significant.

      Other studies have shown even higher rates of occurrence of the 2-repeat (2R) allele version of the gene in Blacks.

      It was discovered that Black males carrying 2R were more likely to be involved in extreme violence (shooting and stabbing) than Black men with other MAOA variants. The relationship between the rare MAOA version and antisocial behaviors has raised eyebrows because, quite simply, this gene is not distributed equally across ethnic groups. In the Add Health database, 5.5% of African American men, 0.9% of Caucasian men, and 0.00067% of Asian men have 2R.

      The association between 2R and committing a shooting or stabbing crime was statistically significant. The MAOA-2R has become a symbol of a new era in behavioral genetics research — an era that has reintroduced race into the nature versus nurture debate over the source of ethnic behavioral differences

      Notes: There are other genes associated with violent and/or impulsive behavior. The MAOA gene is only one of them. However, the effects of a shortened MAOA gene are well documented. The chemical imbalance its creates can be observed in a laboratory.

      Blacks possess 10x more of the dysfunctional MAOA (or “warrior gene”) that is associated with violent and/or impulsive behavior.

      Blacks are also more likely to have versions of dopamine genes like ANKK1, DAT1, and DRD4 that have been linked to antisocial behavior.

      ~~~~~~~~~~~

      Abstract:

      A line of research has revealed that a polymorphism in the promoter region of the MAOA gene is related to antisocial phenotypes. Most of these studies examine the effects of low MAOA activity alleles (2-repeat and 3-repeat alleles) against the effects of high MAOA activity alleles (3.5-repeat, 4-repeat, and sometimes 5-repeat alleles), with research indicating that the low MAOA activity alleles confer an increased risk to antisocial phenotypes. The current study examined whether the 2-repeat allele, which has been shown to be functionally different from the 3-repeat allele, was associated with a range of antisocial phenotypes in a sample of males drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Analyses revealed that African-American males who carried the 2-repeat allele were, in comparison with other African-American male genotypes, significantly more likely to be arrested and incarcerated. Additional analyses revealed that African-American male carriers of the 2-repeat allele scored significantly higher on an antisocial phenotype index and on measures assessing involvement in violent behaviors over the life course. There was not any association between the 2-repeat allele and a continuously measured psychopathic personality traits scale. The effects of the 2-repeat allele could not be examined in Caucasian males because only 0.1% carried it.

      Authors: Kevin M. Beavera, John Paul Wright, Brian B. Boutwell, J.C. Barnesd, Matt DeLisie, Michael G. Vaughnf

      ~~~

      Monoamine oxidase A genotype is associated with gang membership and weapon use.

      Beaver KM1, DeLisi M, Vaughn MG, Barnes JC.

      ABSTRACT:

      A functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene has been found to be associated with a broad range of antisocial phenotypes, including physical violence. At the same time, it is well known that gang members represent some of the most serious violent offenders. Even so, no research has ever examined the association between MAOA and gang membership.

      RESULTS:

      The low MAOA activity alleles conferred an increased risk of joining a gang and using a weapon in a fight for males but not for females. Moreover, among male gang members, those who used weapons in a fight were more likely to have a low MAOA activity allele when compared with male gang members who do not use weapons in a fight.

      CONCLUSIONS:

      Male carriers of low MAOA activity alleles are at risk for becoming a gang member and, once a gang member, are at risk for using weapons in a fight.

      Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

      PMID: 20152292

      ~~~

      Serum testosterone levels in healthy young black and white men.

      Blacks in the United States have the highest prostate cancer rate in the world and nearly twice that of whites in the United States. The 2:1 black-to-white ratio in prostate cancer rates is already apparent at age 45 years, the age at which the earliest prostate cancer cases occur. This finding suggests that the factor(s) responsible for the difference in rates occurs, or first occurs, early in life. Testosterone has been hypothesized to play a role in the etiology of prostate cancer, because testosterone and its metabolite, dihydrotestosterone, are the principal trophic hormones that regulate growth and function of epithelial prostate tissue. Mean testosterone levels in blacks were 19% higher than in whites, and free testosterone levels were 21% higher. Both these differences were statistically significant. A 15% difference in circulating testosterone levels could readily explain a twofold difference in prostate cancer risk.

      J Natl Cancer Inst. 1986 Jan;76(1):45-8.

      PMID: 3455741

      ~~~~~~~~

      The 2-repeat allele of the MAOA gene confers an increased risk for shooting and stabbing behaviors.

      Beaver KM1, Barnes JC, Boutwell BB.

      Abstract

      There has been a great deal of research examining the link between a polymorphism in the promoter region of the MAOA gene and antisocial phenotypes. The results of these studies have consistently revealed that low activity MAOA alleles are related to antisocial behaviors for males who were maltreated as children. Recently, though, some evidence has emerged indicating that a rare allele of the MAOA gene-that is, the 2-repeat allele-may have effects on violence that are independent of the environment. The current study builds on this research and examines the association between the 2-repeat allele and shooting and stabbing behaviors in a sample of males drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Analyses revealed that African-American males who carry the 2-repeat allele are significantly more likely than all other genotypes to engage in shooting and stabbing behaviors and to report having multiple shooting and stabbing victims. The limitations of the study are discussed and suggestions for future research are offered.

      PMID: 24326626

      ~~~~~~~~

      Barnes, B. Genes, agents and the institution of responsible action. New Genetics and Society 21(3), 291-302 (2003).

      Beaver, K. M. et al. Monoamine oxidase A genotype is associated with gang membership and weapon use. Compr. Psychiatry 51(2), 130-134 (2009).

      Brunner, H. G. et al. Abnormal behavior associated with a point mutation in the structural gene for monoamine oxidase A. Science 262, 578-580. (1993).

      Buchen, L. In their nature. Nature 467, 146-148 (2010).

      Caspi, A. et al. Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children. Science 297(5582), 851-854 (2002a).

      Caspi, A. et al. Supplementary material. Description of methods and measurements used in the Dunedin multidisciplinary health and development study. Science 297 (2002b).

      Denno, D. W. “Behavioral Genetics Evidence in Criminal Cases: 1994–2007” in Farahany N. A. (ed) The impact of behavioral sciences on criminal law (Oxford University Press, chapter 10, 2009).

      Lea, R. & Chambers, G. Monamine oxidase, addiction and the ‘warrior’ gene hypothesis. New Zealand Medical Journal 120, 1250 (2007).

      Levitt, M. Genes, environment and responsibility for violent behaviour: “Whatever genes one has it is preferable that you are prevented from going around stabbing people”. New Genetics and Society 32(1), 4-17 (2013).

      Shih, J. C et al. Monoamine oxidase: from genes to behaviour. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 22,197-217 (1999).

      ~~~~~~~~

      MAOA is an enzyme that degrades neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine in the brain — is coded for by the MAOA gene. Neurotransmitters play a pivotal role in mood, arousal, and emotions, even affecting impulse control. Since the 1990s scientists have identified several versions of the MAOA, which are usually categorized as low-activity or high-activity variants. MAOA genes are classified based on how many times a short sequence — a functional strip of DNA — repeats itself within a variable region of the gene. The most common variant, MAOA-4R, has four repeats and is associated with high-activity breakdown of neurotransmitters. Alternate forms of the MAOA, including the 2-repeat (2R) and 3-repeat (3R) versions, contain fewer repeat sequences.

      The 2R and 3R variants are often lumped together in studies of the low-activity MAOA gene. (Although the 5R version has a large number of repeats, it too is less active than the 4R version.) The two classes of MAOA versions correlate with different behavioral tendencies. Low-activity variants are thought to lead to reduced levels of MAOA in the brain, possibly shifting mood by changing serotonin levels.

      But it was 2R — the “extreme warrior gene” — that captivated researchers searching for a genetic basis of criminal predispositions. Guo’s team analyzed data on male youth from Add Health — a national sample of adolescents in grades 7-12. Their findings showed that the rare variant, 2R, was correlated with higher levels of self-reported serious and violent delinquency.

      More recently, Beaver’s team has focused only on the 2R variant rather than the low-expression variants combined. He and his colleagues have discovered that African American males carrying 2R were more likely to be involved in extreme violence — shooting and stabbing — than African American men with other MAOA variants. The relationship between the rare MAOA version and antisocial behaviors has raised eyebrows because, quite simply, this gene is not distributed equally across ethnic groups. In the Add Health database, 5.5% of African American men, 0.9% of Caucasian men, and 0.00067% of Asian men have 2R. Since the rare MAOA variant is virtually non-existent in whites, all of the males in Beaver’s study were black Americans.

      Beaver’s sample of 133 African American men from the Add Health database included 6% that carried 2R. Overall, 5.6% of the men in the sample reported shooting or stabbing someone at some point in their lifetime. The association between 2R and committing a shooting or stabbing crime was statistically significant. Based on Beaver’s evidence, 2R appears to increase the risk of shooting or stabbing a victim during adolescence or adulthood. For some commentators in the public arena, MAOA-2R has become a symbol of a new era in behavioral genetics research — an era that has reintroduced race into the nature versus nurture debate over the source of ethnic behavioral differences.

      Beaver’s studies have shown that the 2R variant has a robust association with violent behaviors, arrest, and incarceration. His research is applauded by supporters of behavioral genetics, but it has also drawn criticism. It focuses on an antisocial-linked gene that reportedly occurs more frequently in African American men than in males of other ethnic groups. This has led some popular writers to speculate that MAOA-2R might account for — or at least play a significant role in — the relatively higher rates of violent crime in African Americans.

      ~~~~~

      Mass and Serial Killers

      Mass Killers:

      There have been 70 mass shooters since 1982.

      45 by whites, 11 by blacks, 6 by Asians, 4 by Latinos, 3 by Native American.

      Per capita:

      Whites make up 77.7% of the populations and 64% of the shootings -13.7
      Latinos make up 17.1% of the populations and 5.7% of the shootings -11.4
      Blacks make up 13.2% of the populations and 15% of the shootings +1.8
      Asians make up 5.3% of the populations and 8.5% of the shootings +3.2
      Native Americans make up 1.2% of the populations and 4% of the shootings +2.8

      Serial Killers:

      According to the FBI 90 percent of serial killers are male, and 46 percent of those are white.

      Black serial killers have comprised over half of documented serial killers since the dawn of the 21st century at 56 percent, making up a total of 40 percent in years dating back to 1900.

      As Blacks are only 13% of the U.S. population they are heavily over-represented as serial killers.

      Criminal profiler Pat Brown says serial killers are usually reported as white because the media typically focuses on “All-American” white and pretty female victims who were the targets of white male offenders, that crimes among minority offenders in urban communities, where crime rates are higher, are under-investigated, and that minority serial killers likely exist at the same ratios as white serial killers for the population. She believes that the myth that serial killers are always white might have become “truth” in some research fields due to the over-reporting of white serial killers in the media.

      According to some sources, the percentage of serial killers who are African American is estimated to be between 13 and 22 percent. Another study has shown that 16 percent of serial killers are African American, what author Maurice Godwin describes as a “sizeable portion”. However, the 2013 Radford/FGCU Serial Killer Database annual statistics show, for the decades 1900–2010, that the percentage of African American serial killers is 40.7%. Popular racial stereotypes about the lower intelligence of African-Americans, and the stereotype that serial killers are white males with “bodies stacked up in the basement and strewn all over the countryside” may explain the media focus on serial killers that are white and the failure to adequately report on those that are black.

      Child Molesters:

      Myth: Whites Are More Likely to be Pedophiles and Child Molesters

      There is a long-standing myth that Whites are more likely to molest children than any other race. This goes back to some stereotype of the creepy, nerdy, weirdo White guy who can’t get laid so he molests kids.

      % of total child abusers:

      White                            51%
      African American                 25%
      Hispanic                         15%
      American Indian/Alaska Natives    2%
      Asian/Pacific Islanders           1%

      Relative to their population, likelihood of child abuse compared to background population rate:
      American Indian    +100%
      Blacks             +92%
      Hispanics          no difference
      Whites             -35%
      Asian              -67%

      ~~~~~

      FBI Table 43 (2013)

      Blacks are 13 percent of the population and commit 32.5% of all crimes against family and children. That is 2.5 times their population.

      Whites are 66 percent of the population and commit 65% of all crimes against family and children. That is 1 times their population.

      Therefore, a Black is 2.5 times more likely to be a pedophile than a White.

    • Rob Smith

      Google: National IQ Congo

      ….then: IQ Koko the gorilla

      LOL

      IQ correlates strongly to job performance, increased wealth, increased income, economic growth, livability in a U.S. state, cooperation, life expectancy and infant mortality.

      It is estimated that a minimum IQ of 90 is required just to maintain a technological society.

      The more White a society is the more successful (safe and prosperous) it is.

      The following intelligence scores came from work carried out earlier this decade by Richard Lynn, a British psychologist, and Tatu Vanhanen, a Finnish political scientist, who analysed IQ studies from 113 countries, and from subsequent work by Jelte Wicherts, a Dutch psychologist. Lynn and Vanhanen benchmarked their IQ results so that Britain is 100. America scores 98 on this scale, and the world average is 90. IQ`s are assumed to form a normal probability distribution (“bell curve”) with the standard deviation set at 15.

      National IQ correlates at 0.73 with living standard.

      Each 10 point increase in IQ generally doubles economic growth, assuming the country has a market economy.

      Do you observe a pattern?

                •   108      Singapore
                •   106      South Korea
                •   105      Japan
                •   105      China
                •   102      Italy
                •   101      Iceland
                •   101      Mongolia
                •   101      Switzerland
                •   100      Austria
                •   100      Luxembourg
                •   100      Netherlands
                •   100      Norway
                •   100      United Kingdom
                •   99        Belgium
                •   99        Canada
                •   99        Estonia
                •   99        Finland
                •   99        Germany
                •   99        New Zealand
                •   99        Poland
                •   99        Sweden
                •   98        Andorra
                •   98        Australia
                •   98        Czech Republic
                •   98        Denmark
                •   98        France
                •   98        Hungary
                •   98        Latvia
                •   98        Spain
                •   98        United States
                •   97        Belarus
                •   97        Malta
                •   97        Russia
                •   97        Ukraine
                •   96        Moldova
                •   96        Slovakia
                •   96        Slovenia
                •   96        Uruguay
                •   95        Israel
                •   95        Portugal
                •   94        Armenia
                •   94        Georgia
                •   94        Kazakhstan
                •   94        Romania
                •   94        Vietnam
                •   93        Argentina
                •   93        Bulgaria
                •   92        Greece
                •   92        Ireland
                •   92        Malaysia
                •   91        Brunei
                •   91        Cambodia
                •   91        Cyprus
                •   91        Lithuania
                •   91        Thailand
                •   90        Albania
                •   90        Bosnia
                •   90        Chile
                •   90        Croatia
                •   90        Kyrgyzstan
                •   90        Turkey
                •   89        Cook Islands
                •   89        Costa Rica
                •   89        Laos
                •   89        Mauritius
                •   89        Serbia
                •   89        Suriname
                •   88        Ecuador
                •   88        Mexico
                •   88        Samoa
                •   87        Azerbaijan
                •   87        Bolivia
                •   87        Brazil
                •   87        Guyana
                •   87        Indonesia
                •   87        Iraq
                •   87        Myanmar
                •   87        Tajikistan
                •   87        Turkmenistan
                •   87        Uzbekistan
                •   86        Kuwait
                •   86        Philippines
                •   86        Seychelles
                •   86        Tonga
                •   85        Cuba
                •   85        Eritrea
                •   85        Fiji
                •   85        Kiribati
                •   85        Peru
                •   85        Trinidad and Tobago
                •   85        Yemen
                •   84        Afghanistan
                •   84        Bahamas
                •   84        Belize
                •   84        Colombia
                •   84        Iran
                •   84        Jordan
                •   84        Marshall Islands
                •   84        Micronesia
                •   84        Morocco
                •   84        Nigeria
                •   84        Pakistan
                •   84        Panama
                •   84        Paraguay
                •   84        Saudi Arabia
                •   84        Solomon Islands
                •   84        Uganda
                •   84        United Arab Emirates
                •   84        Vanuatu
                •   84        Venezuela
                •   83        Algeria
                •   83        Bahrain
                •   83        Libya
                •   83        Oman
                •   83        New Guinea
                •   83        Syria
                •   83        Tunisia
                •   82        Bangladesh
                •   82        Dominican Republic
                •   82        India
                •   82        Lebanon
                •   82        Madagascar
                •   82        Zimbabwe
                •   81        Egypt
                •   81        Honduras
                •   81        Maldives
                •   81        Nicaragua
                •   80        Barbados
                •   80        Bhutan
                •   80        El Salvador
                •   80        Kenya
                •   79        Guatemala
                •   79        Sri Lanka
                •   79        Zambia
                •   78        Congo
                •   78        Nepal
                •   78        Qatar
                •   77        South Africa
                •   76        Cape Verde
                •   76        Congo
                •   76        Mauritania
                •   76        Senegal
                •   74        Mali
                •   74        Namibia
                •   73        Ghana
                •   72        Tanzania
                •   71        Central African Republic
                •   71        Grenada
                •   71        Jamaica
                •   71        St Vincent, Grenadines
                •   71        Sudan
                •   70        Antigua, Barbuda
                •   70        Benin
                •   70        Botswana
                •   70        Rwanda
                •   70        Togo
                •   69        Burundi
                •   69        Cote d’Ivoire
                •   69        Ethiopia
                •   69        Malawi
                •   69        Niger
                •   68        Angola
                •   68        Burkina Faso
                •   68        Chad
                •   68        Djibouti
                •   68        Somalia
                •   68        Swaziland
                •   67        Dominica
                •   67        Guinea
                •   67        Guinea-Bissau
                •   67        Haiti
                •   67        Lesotho
                •   67        Liberia
                •   67        Saint Kitts
                •   67        Sao Tome
                •   66        Gambia
                •   64        Cameroon
                •   64        Gabon
                •   64        Sierra Leone
                •   64        Mozambique
                •   62        Saint Lucia
                •   59        Equatorial Guinea

      A least developed country (LDC) is a country that, according to the United Nations, exhibits the lowest indicators of socioeconomic development, with the lowest Human Development Index ratings of all countries in the world. A country is classified as a Least Developed Country if it meets three criteria:

      Poverty (adjustable criterion: three-year average GNI per capita of less than US $992, which must exceed $1,190 to leave the list as of 2012)

      Human resource weakness (based on indicators of nutrition, health, education and adult literacy) and

      Economic vulnerability (based on instability of agricultural production, instability of exports of goods and services, economic importance of non-traditional activities, merchandise export concentration, handicap of economic smallness, and the percentage of population displaced by natural disasters)

      34 of the 47 LDCs are sub-Saharan African. There are a combined 48 sub-Saharan countries with a total population of one billion earning an annual per capita GDP of $1,720 in 2014 USD and a life expectancy of 57 years.

      Some groups succeed all the time, everywhere. Some have never succeeded anywhere. Blacks are the oldest race so they should be the most advanced, but they have never been successful anywhere. Civilization didn’t advance until humans evolved from Blacks by hybridizing with the large-brained Neanderthals which produced a modern human with an increase in cranium capacity and a heavier, more developed brain. Blacks are also the only race without the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which produces increased brain volume and density.

  • Rob

    General intelligence is inherited and not equally distributed among human races. IQ tests are designed to measure the general innate and immutable mental capability that involves abstract and cognitive thinking, spatial-relations skills, and logical reasoning. They are designed to measure the ability to:

         •   solve novel problems
         •   retain knowledge and apply skills
         •   comprehend complex ideas
         •   plan and learn quickly and from experience
       
    IQ tests are not designed to measure how much a person has learned, but rather whether a person is capable of learning.

    Intelligence, so defined, can be measured, and intelligence tests measure it well. They are among the most accurate (in technical terms, reliable and valid) of all psychological tests and assessments.

    To study something scientifically, you first have to measure it, and psychologists have developed tests for many mental traits. And contrary to popular opinion, the tests work pretty well; they give a similar measurement of a person every time they are administered, and they statistically predict life outcomes like school and job performance, psychiatric diagnoses and marital stability.

    It was discovered that people who did well on one mental test did well on others, regardless of their content. It was reasoned that different tests must draw on the same global capacity, and dubbed that capacity g, for general intelligence.

    There is a mean difference in Black and White scores on mental tests, historically about one standard deviation in magnitude on IQ tests (IQ tests are normed so that the mean is 100 points and the standard deviation is 15). This difference is not the result of test bias, but reflects differences in cognitive functioning. The predictive validity of IQ scores for educational and socioeconomic outcomes is about the same for Blacks and Whites.

    The American Psychological Association’s report Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns stated that the US Black-White IQ gap “does not result from any obvious biases in test construction and administration, nor does it simply reflect differences in socioeconomic status.” IQ test scores predict school grades, job performance, and other life outcomes equally well for Blacks and Whites.

    Individual differences in general cognitive ability are reliably measured by IQ tests. IQ is strongly related, probably more than any other single measurable trait, to many important educational, occupational, economic and social variables. IQ is also correlated with a number of variables of the brain, including its size, electrical potentials, and rate of glucose metabolism during cognitive activity. Individual differences in adult IQ are largely genetic, with heritability of about 70 percent. So far, attempts to raise IQ by educational or psychological means have failed to show appreciable lasting effects on cognitive ability and scholastic achievement. The IQ distribution between Blacks and Whites is represented by two largely overlapping bell curves with their means separated by about 15 points, a difference not due to test bias. IQ has the same meaning and practical predictive validity for both groups. Tests do not create differences; they merely reflect them.

    Raw individual test scores are converted so that they correlate perfectly to a bell curve representing the entire population of same-age students. The average score is always 100.

         •   An IQ score of 100 means that 50% of the people in your age group scored better, and 50% scored worse.
         •   An IQ score of 85 means that 84.13% of the people in your age group scored better, and 15.87% scored worse.
         •   An IQ score of 130 means that 2.28% of the people in your age group scored better, and 97.72% scored worse.

    The average score is set at 100, and everyone is rated accordingly. Expressed this way, IQs for a whole population can be arrayed on a single graph. Roughly two-thirds of all Americans fall between 85 and 115, in the fat midsection of the bell-shaped curve, and 95 percent score between 70 and 130.

    By computing a value known as the correlation coefficient, a scientist can measure the degree of association between any two phenomena that are plausibly linked. The correlation between unrelated variables is 0, while phenomena that vary in perfect lock step have a correlation of 1. A correlation of .4 would tell you that 40 percent of the variation in one thing is matched by variation in another, while 60 percent of it is not.

    Current estimates for heritability of IQ ranges up to 0.8 (where 1.0 indicates that monozygotic twins have no variance in IQ and 0 indicates that their IQs are completely uncorrelated). See the Minnesota Twin Family Study, conducted from 1979 to 1999, which followed identical and fraternal twins who were separated at an early age for some fascinating revelations about the powerful influence of genes.

    Studies find no IQ correlation among grown adoptive siblings. But the typical correlations are roughly .35 for half siblings (who share a quarter of their genes), .47 for full siblings (who share half of their genes) and .86 for identical twins (who share all their genes).

    Millions of IQ tests and psychometric experiments conducted world-wide over 100 years have been normed for every conceivable variable and bias, yet demonstrate an intractable intellegence divide between Blacks and the other races. Blacks score lowest on every intelligence test ever devised, including “life”. There has never been an IQ test administered anywhere in the world where the racial rankings didn’t follow the same pattern; Asians, Whites, non-White Hispanics, and then finally Blacks.

    Compared to Blacks, Whites’ brains:

         •   are 7% larger (1438cc versus 1343cc)
         •   are 100 grams heavier
         •   have deeper fissuration in the frontal and occipital regions
         •   have more complex convolutions and larger frontal lobes
         •   have more pyramidal neurons
         •   have 16% thicker supra-grandular layer
         •   react faster on mental chronometry tests
         •   have 600 million more neurons

    Genes contribute to about 90% of the individual variation of brain size.

    Blacks are the only racial group with no DNA from the large-brained Neanderthals, and also the only race without the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which produces increased brain volume.

    Racial activist groups have tried to create their own tests to demonstrate intellectual parity of the races and also attack the integrity of the existing tests and have hired anti-bias experts, but the rankings are always the same; African Blacks average a 70 IQ (only 2% of Whites score this low), but American Blacks average 85 due to mixing with Whites (24% on average), non-White Hispanics 87, Whites 100, Asians 106 and Ashkenazi Jews 115. Interestingly, mixed-race students in South Africa have an IQ of 85 — the same as Blacks in the United States, Britain, and the Caribbean. This is a standard deviation above pure Blacks, but also a standard deviation below Whites.

    Blacks have by far the lowest IQs of any race; 80% score at or below the “low functioning” category. In fact, only the top 16% of Blacks score as high as the top 50% of Whites. Blacks are socially functional at 70 IQ because that is only one standard deviation below their mean; that equates to a White at 85 IQ.

    Even using tests created by Black psychologists and non-verbal tests designed to be culture-free and unbiased, no amount of testing or wishful thinking shows any improvement in Black IQ. Tests that only require the subject to push buttons in response to flashing lights or memorizing sequences of colored squares projected on a screen Blacks perform worse than Whites, and the gap increases as the patterns become more complicated. The test involves rows of colored squares where one from each row has to be matched with another. More complex images which have distinctive features linked by that feature to other images in an increasing number of rows.

    Another test is a list of numbers read aloud and the subject has to repeat them back in forward and reverse order. The subject is given a relevant fact that has to be considered when making otherwise simple manipulations of numbers and identify designated figures or characters in a given amount of time. The “backward digit span” test is not reinforced by any socialization and is not a taught skill for either race; Whites score better at recalling digits presented in order, but recalling the digits in reverse order requires mental transformation and is a good predictor of IQ. The race gap for the backward digit span is twice as great as for the forward test.

    Some tests are completely non-verbal, such as Raven’s Progressive Matrices, Leiter Scale and Kohs Block Design to test pattern recognition, spatial thinking, and reasoning and contain no culturally-specific information.

    Genetics limits an individuals’ upper limit to IQ, and environment determines how much of that innate genetic potential will be reached. No amount of nurturing can make one exceed innate genetic potential. Genetics is the science of inheritance, not pre-determinism.

    The IQ race gap doesn’t begin to correlate firmly with adult IQ until about age five, but studies reveal a one standard deviation race gap present by age three.

    In the United States, self-identified Blacks and Whites have been the subjects of the greatest number of studies. The tests show a Black-White IQ difference of about 15 to 18 points (or about one standard deviation) which implies that between 11 and 16 percent of the black population have an IQ above 100 (the general population median). Consistent results were found for college and university application tests such as the Scholastic Aptitude Test and Graduate Record Examination as well as for tests of job applicants in the corporate sector and in the military.

    The least intelligent ten percent of Whites have IQs below 81; forty percent of Blacks have IQs that low. Only one Black in six is more intelligent than the average White; five Whites out of six are more intelligent than the average Black. These differences show in every test of general cognitive ability that anyone, of any race or nationality, has yet been able to devise. And they are reflected in countless everyday situations, “Life is an IQ test.”

    Further, only one-in-3.5 million (.00003%) African Blacks have an IQ of 140 or higher (genius level). But one-in-83 (1.2%) U.S. Whites is a genius. Therefore the per capita genius rate for U.S.-resident Whites is 41,000 times higher than it is for African Blacks.

    The IQ distribution for US-resident Blacks having an average IQ of 85 and a standard deviation of 12.4 doesn’t mean that there are no Blacks at all with IQs above 140; it means that only one Black in about 218,000 will have an IQ above 140. Meanwhile one-in-83 Whites have an IQ above 140. So given equal sized populations there will be about 2,600 times more White geniuses than Black geniuses. Since there are about 5.5 times more Whites than Blacks in the United States, White geniuses will outnumber Black geniuses by a ratio of about one-to-14,300. Therefore, if all the White people in the USA were replaced by Blacks having the IQ distribution of US-resident Blacks the number of geniuses in the country would fall from about 2.4 million to only about 1,000.

    For every one gifted Black there are 8 gifted Whites, 80% of gifted Blacks are mixed race.

    Incidentally, though the average IQ of East Asians is 6 points higher than the average non-Jewish White, the percentage distribution of East Asians with IQs above 140 is slightly lower. The reason for this is that the range of cognitive variation among Whites is greater than among East Asians. Specifically, Asians’ IQs are more clustered around the mean; therefore, Whites produce more geniuses, but also more morons.

    Psychometricians regard IQ tests as having high statistical reliability. A high reliability implies that although test-takers may have varying scores when taking the same test on differing occasions, and they may have varying scores when taking different IQ tests at the same age, the scores generally agree with one another and across time.

    Standardized intelligence testing has been called one of psychology’s greatest successes and is the field’s most widely-used invention. Since standardized tests were first used to identify learning-impaired children in the early 1900s they have become one of the primary tools for identifying children with learning disabilities, they assist the military place new recruits, job screening and for evaluating professional athletes. IQ correlates strongly to job performance, increased wealth, increased income, economic growth, livability in a U.S. state, cooperation, life expectancy, and infant mortality.

    Some occupations seek candidates within specific IQ ranges. There was a recent case where a police officer candidate was rejected after he scored too high on an intelligence test.

    The NFL famously uses the Wonderlic test in their scouting combines and the racial disparity is evident. Out of a perfect score of 50; offensive tackles=26, centers=25, quarterback=24; versus safeties=19, cornerbacks=18 and receivers=17.

    Black-White IQ Distribution (Google: racial IQ bell curve):

    Blacks:
                     5% above 110 IQ
                     16% above 100 IQ
                     40% above 90 IQ
                     70% above 80 IQ
                     30% below 80 IQ
                     18% below 75 IQ
                     10% below 70 IQ

    Whites:
                     10% above 120 IQ
                     18% above 115 IQ
                     27% above 110 IQ
                     40% above 105 IQ
                     50% above 100 IQ
                     60% below 105 IQ
                     35% below 95 IQ
                     15% below 85 IQ

    So, the top 16% of Black intellectual elites are only as intelligent as the top 50% of Whites.

    As the New York Times put it, “…the difference in I.Q. points between the groups is quite significant. It means that the top sixth of Blacks score only as well on I.Q. tests as do the top half of Whites.”

    IQ scores are used as predictors of educational achievement, special needs, job performance and income. They are also used to study IQ distributions in populations and the correlations between IQ and other variables. The same is true for other cognitive tests such as No Child Left Behind mandated state tests and NAEP tests. All of these cognitive tests show the same racial patterns in test score distribution with Ashkenazi Jews, East Asians (Chinese, Japanese, and Koreans), and Whites showing higher scores than Pacific Islanders, Native Americans, Hispanics, and Blacks showing lower scores.

    The scores on the SAT (especially the SAT-math) and the ACT are for all practical purposes interchangeable with IQ test scores. In 2005, 153,132 Black Americans took the SAT test. They made up 10.4 percent of all SAT test takers. But only 1,132 Black college-bound students scored 700 or above on the math SAT and only 1,205 scored at least 700 on the verbal SAT. On the math SAT, only 0.7 percent of all Black test takers scored at least 700 compared to 6.3 percent of all White test takers. Thus, Whites were nine times as likely as Blacks to score 700 or above on the math SAT. Only 0.16 percent of all Black test takers scored 750 or above compared to 1.8 percent of White test takers. Thus, Whites were more than 11 times as likely as Blacks to score 750 or above on the math SAT.

    This gap is so significant that colleges give a “race bonus” of 230 points to Blacks, 185 to non-White Hispanics and penalize Asians by 50 points, all in an effort to help the low-IQ races gain admittance.

    Studies also show there are some significant differences in what is called the structure of mental abilities. For example, if you took a sample of Black and White children, all of whom had scored around 100 on the WISC-R (the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children) meaning the Black kids in the sample were well above the Black average — you would find significant Black-White differences on six of the thirteen subtests. The average Black child would do better on arithmetic and digit span; where the average White child would do better on comprehension, block design, object assembly, and mazes.

    A person’s level of moral reasoning is correlated with intelligence. Studies sequencing the stages of moral development support what we all know; you have to be cognitively mature to reason morally. IQ tests correlate with moral maturity.

    There is also a strong correlation between IQ and success. Economists have started taking an interest in the value of human capital, particularly the factor that psychologists call cognitive ability. In other words, it’s the ability of a person to solve a problem most efficiently. Not with violence, but by thinking. It is worth noting here that Blacks possess 9.4 times more of the dysfunctional MAOA gene (“warrior gene”) and have mean testosterone levels 19% higher than in Whites, both strongly correlated with impulsive, aggressive and violent behavior.

    Researchers collected information on 90 countries, including far-off lands from the U.S. to New Zealand and Colombia to Kazakhstan. They also collected data on the country’s excellence in science and technology, including the number of patents granted per person and how many Nobel science laureates the country’s people had won in science (there has never been a Black Nobel science laureate).

    They found that intelligence made a difference in gross domestic product. For example, some of the highest National IQs:

              •   108      Singapore
              •   106      South Korea
              •   105      Japan
              •   105      China
              •   102      Italy
              •   101      Iceland
              •   101      Mongolia
              •   101      Switzerland
              •   100      Austria
              •   100      Luxembourg
              •   100      Netherlands
              •   100      Norway
              •   100      United Kingdom

    And the lowest:

              •   69        Malawi
              •   69        Niger
              •   68        Chad
              •   68        Somalia
              •   68        Swaziland
              •   67        Guinea
              •   67        Haiti
              •   67        Liberia
              •   66        Gambia
              •   64        Cameroon
              •   64        Gabon
              •   64        Sierra Leone
              •   64        Mozambique
              •   59        Equatorial Guinea

    Blacks are archaic proto-humans, a different species from Whites and Asians;

    Blacks are the only racial group with no DNA from the large-brained Neanderthals who lived in Europe. The trans-Saharan African migrants mated with the Neanderthals and Denisovans to create a composite hybrid that is modern man. Therefore, we do not share a common ancestor.

    The farther north the populations migrated out of Africa, the more they encountered the cognitively demanding problems of gathering and storing food, gaining shelter, making clothes, and raising children during prolonged winters. Consequently, as the original African populations evolved into present-day Whites and Asians, they did so by hybridizing with Neanderthals which created larger brains and greater intelligence, but also slower rates of maturation, lower levels of sex hormones, and concomitant reductions in sexual potency and aggressiveness, and increases in family stability and social conformity.

    Neanderthals are a different species than Whites, and yet produced fertile offspring (as do many interspecies hybrids). In fact all modern humans (Whites and Asians) are products of that hybridization.

    Blacks have a genetic distance closer to archaic human than to modern humans. That genetic distance is farther apart than it is for many species.

    Genetic distance is a measure of the genetic divergence between species or between populations within a species. Populations with many similar genes have small genetic distances. This indicates that they are closely related and have a recent common ancestor.

    The genetic distance between H.Sapien and H.Erectus is only 0.17, while the genetic distance between Blacks and Eurasians is 0.23. Therefore Blacks are more genetically proximate to archaic humans than to modern man (Whites and Asians).

    For comparison, the genetic distance between Blacks and modern man is greater than the genetic distance between the common chimpanzee and the bonobo (0.103, or half the Black-White distance) and between the Gorilla gorilla and the Gorilla beringei (0.04, or 1/6 the Black-White distance). Thus, Whites and Blacks are more genetically distant than two different chimpanzee species, two different gorilla species, Eurasians and Neanderthals, and Eurasians and H.Erectus.

    To be taxonomically consistent Blacks and Whites should be classified into separate species, or at the very least into different subspecies.

    When humans evolved from Blacks they hybridized with the large-brained Neanderthals 40,000 years ago in southern Europe. 37,000 years ago the gene that creates an increase in cranium capacity and a heavier, denser, and more developed brain appeared in humans, called MCPH1 microcephalin. Blacks are the only race without MCPH1 microcephalin.

    The microcephalin and ASPM alleles are known to increase brain size, density, and complexity. The mean estimated age of the ASPM allele of 5,800 years ago, which correlates with the development of written language, spread of agriculture, and development of cities. It has a frequency of about 50% in populations of the Middle East and Europe, it is less frequent in East Asia, and has low frequencies among Sub-Saharan African populations.

    The DRD4 7R gene, which also originated from the Neanderthal hybridization is associated with risk-taking, sensation-seeking and novelty-seeking, and correlated with openness to new experiences, intolerance to monotony, and exploratory behavior.

    Non-Black humans average 4% Neanderthal DNA. This is significant because there is only 1.5% difference between human and chimpanzee DNA. It is equivalent to having one Neanderthal great-great-great-grandparent. Blacks are the only race with no Neanderthal genes. Blacks also coexisted and interbred with archaic sapiens (H.heidelbergensis) for longer than those who left Africa. At least 30% of the Neanderthal genome made its way into non-Black humans.

    Blacks are Humans 1.0; modern man evolved from Blacks and are Humans 2.0, the improved version. They were formed by hybridization with the large-brained Neanderthals which created larger, denser, more complex brains:

         •   Blacks = 2% Archaic admixture
         •   Whites = 4% Neanderthal admixture
         •   Asians = 5% Neanderthal + Denisovan

    Pure H.Sapiens are Blacks; modern man (Whites and Asians) is hybridized with Neanderthal and is the improved version.

    Blacks belong in the Stone Age, where they were found just 400 years ago.

    Sub-Saharan Blacks did not receive Neanderthal or Denisovan gene introgression, which is why Blacks are the most genetically distant of all the human races.

    However, Blacks received significant gene introgression from other early (and unknown) hominid species, which the other races do not have because they left sub-Sahara before the introgression occurred. These early hominids remain “unknown” due to the simple fact that their DNA has not been retrieved nor sequenced, Only Neandertal and Denisovan DNA have been, thus far.

    Forensic scientists can determine race by cranium shape; Blacks have a small frontal lobe and sloping frontal plane and a smaller cranium-to-mandible ratio. Whites have the largest craniums, an almost vertical frontal slope and a massive frontal lobe. The Asian is very similar and also more evolved. It is the frontal lobe that separates our behavior most from the animals and is responsible for language and rational thought.

    Blacks show primitive traits associated with lower primates, such as prognathism, which is the slope of the face from the forehead to the jaws. A protruding jaw is associated with a sloping forehead which indicates a smaller prefrontal cortex, the area of the brain that handles planning, inhibition and self-control.

    Blacks have more robust cranial bones, simpler cranial sutures, a higher rate of unclosed sutures, a lower cephalic index, a higher rate of saggital keel, more post-orbital constriction, a more sloped forehead, more rectangular eye sockets, a wider nasal index, less nasal prominence, a higher rate of joined nasal bones, a higher rate of sub-nasal prognathism, a lower facial angle, the presence of the “Simian shelf”, a more rectangular palate, larger and wider-apart teeth, fur instead of hair, less spinal curvature, shorter spinal length, a lower sacral index, and longer arms and legs.

    At birth Africans have fewer cranial bones than Eurasians. The skull and other bones in Blacks are thicker and denser, even in the fetus, making them more difficult to break. The Black skull is smaller, with less space in the forehead, but proportionately more at the back.

    Blacks are the only racial group with no DNA from the large-brained Neanderthals, and also the only race without MCPH1 microcephalin which produces increased brain volume and density. This is why their brains are smaller, and less complex.

    Eurasian women have a wider pelvic inlet, and shallower anteroposterior outlet than Black women due to the difference in brain size.

    Larger brains contain more neurons and synapses and process information faster. By adulthood, East Asians average 1 cubic inch more cranial capacity than Whites who average 5 cubic inches more than Blacks.

    The average White brain is 1438cc while the average Black brain is 1343cc, or 93% of the average White brain. The heritability of brain size is extremely strong at 0.90 and not one study to date has shown larger brain size for Blacks. The White and Asians brain also has a higher degree of fissuring (higher complexity) in the cerebral cortex of their brains, where abstract and conceptual thought is performed.

    Based on studies of brain weight at autopsy, endocranial volume of empty skulls, head size measurements by the U.S. military and NASA, and two dozen MRI volumetric studies Blacks’ brain size is 7% smaller than Whites’, and 8% smaller than Asians’. There is a correlation of brain size with IQ of about 0.40 and that these racial differences in brain size are present at birth. Genes contribute to about 90% of the individual variation of brain size.

    In addition to brain size are differences in brain shape, fissuration, number of pyramidal neurons and supra-grandular layer thickness. The depth of fissuration is related to superior intelligence and the brains of Whites have deeper fissures in the frontal and occipital regions. The supra-grandular layer of Blacks’ brains is 16% smaller than it is for Whites’ brains.

    The average human brain contains 86 billion neurons. Whites, on average, have 600 million more neurons than Blacks. Each neuron carries about 600 billion synapses, each of which carries, as a minimum, one bit of cortical information.

    Further, this reflects what we observe in real life (including the large and persistent so-called “Achievement Gap”). People have made long-term observations of the different races and reached rational conclusions; the more White a society is the more prosperous, inventive and safe it is. 19 of the 20 poorest countries are sub-Saharan African (Haiti). In sub-Saharan Africa the only countries that could be considered successful were White-governed, (Rhodesia and S. Africa). To this day they still can’t even feed themselves even though they lived alone in Africa, a vast continent with temperate climates and abundant resources, for 60,000 years. So they cannot blame racism, poverty, imperialism or anything else for their failures.

    No pre-contact sub-Saharan African society ever created a written language, or weaved cloth, or forged steel, invented the wheel or plow, or devised a calendar, or code of laws, or any social organization, or formal religion, or system of measurement, or math, or built a multi-story structure or bridge or sewer, or infrastructure of any kind, and they never harnessed a river, or even drilled well or irrigated, or built a road or railway or sea-worthy vessel, they never domesticated animals, or exploited underground natural resources, or produced anything that could be considered a mechanical device, or anything that could be considered a mechanical device.

    IQ distribution by race/ethnicity:

         •   Ashkenazi Jews = 115
         •   East Asians = 106
         •   Whites = 100
         •   South East Asians = 87
         •   Non-White Hispanics = 86
         •   American Blacks = 85 (average 24% White admixture)
         •   Middle East and North Africans = 84
         •   Sub-Saharan Blacks = 67 (Only 2% of Whites score this low.
         •   Australian Aborigines = 62

    Sub-Saharan Africans never even created a written language. It was the White colonialists who gave the gift of literacy to them.

    No pre-contact sub-Saharan African society ever created a written language, or weaved cloth, or forged steel, invented the wheel or plow, or devised a calendar, or code of laws, or any social organization, or formal religion, or system of measurement, or math, or built a multi-story structure or bridge or sewer, or infrastructure of any kind, and they never harnessed a river, or even drilled well or irrigated, or built a road or railway or sea-worthy vessel, they never domesticated animals, or exploited underground natural resources, or produced anything that could be considered a mechanical device, or anything that could be considered a mechanical device.

    Blacks are the oldest race, so they should be the most advanced race; but they they never developed at all and had to be domesticated by Whites.

    Civilization didn’t occur until early humans hybridized with Neanderthals. Only after the hybridization were advanced societies created. Blacks, who never hybridized with Neanderthals, never created a civilization and were still living in the Stone Age when Whites discovered them just 400 years ago.

    Hybridizing with the large-brained Neanderthals produced a modern human (Whites and Asians) with an increase in cranium capacity and a heavier, more developed brain. Blacks are also the only race without the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which produces increased brain volume and density.

    Blacks lived alone in sub-Saharan Africa, a vast continent with temperate climates and abundant resources for 60,000 years; so they cannot blame racism, poverty, imperialism or anything else for their failures.

    How could they live with all that shoreline and never think about putting a sail on a ship like every other culture did? Columbus sailed across the ocean 500 years ago — Blacks STILL are incapable of such a feat.

    19 of the 20 poorest countries are sub-Saharan African (Haiti). There has never been a successful Black country. No modern creations or civilization exists in sub-Saharan Africa that was not brought there by Whites. There are no White Third-World nations, but all Black ones are.

    Blacks are the only race incapable of caring for themselves. Whites still have to provide food, medical, financial and engineering aid to every Black nation. They couldn’t survive without White charity. Blacks became an out-of-control invasive species after Whites domesticated them.

    The 41 nations of sub-Saharan Africa produce no more wealth than the tiny country of Belgium, which has only 1/45 the population. Of all of the region’s economic production, White-run South Africa accounts for three-quarters. That Whites are only 8% of South Africa’s population, it demonstrates how productive and industrious Whites are that so relative few can carry the load for so many unproductive Blacks. But a constantly A constantly dwindling number of Whites are at the mercy of a predatory welfare class and it’s possible they can’t and won’t carry the rest of the population. If things get worse for them, they will simply flee the country.

    Sub-Saharan Africans have never made a contribution to the world. Blacks can only achieve either because they are mixed with White genes or because they reside in White societies. Blacks are unable to achieve within their own race because not enough of them are smart enough to build a sufficient infrastructure to allow the Black intellectual elite to achieve. If allowed to become too numerous they destroy previously-thriving and safe White cities.

    This is why Blacks seethe with jealousy and hatred of Whites yet can’t seem to stay away because they want what we create and maintain, no matter if they deserve it or not. They want our peaceful and clean neighborhoods, our law and order, our technology and science, our school systems, our inventions, the jobs we create, the food we grow, the transportation we invent, the entertainment we provide….. Blacks hate us but can’t live without us. That’s why they demand that we take care of them and give them special rights and privileges that we don’t grant ourselves, just to compensate for their inability at living in a modern and technologically-advanced civilization.

    Some groups succeed all the time, everywhere. Some have never succeeded anywhere.

    Blacks are the oldest race, so they should be the most advanced race; but they they never developed at all and had to be domesticated by Whites.

    Civilization didn’t occur until early humans hybridized with Neanderthals. Only after the hybridization were advanced societies created. Blacks, who never hybridized with Neanderthals, never created a civilization and were still living in the Stone Age when Whites discovered them just 400 years ago.

    Hybridizing with the large-brained Neanderthals produced a modern human (Whites and Asians) with an increase in cranium capacity and a heavier, more developed brain. Blacks are also the only race without the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which produces increased brain volume and density.

    Blacks lived alone in sub-Saharan Africa, a vast continent with temperate climates and abundant resources for 60,000 years; so they cannot blame racism, poverty, imperialism or anything else for their failures.

    Google: “race and IQ”, “national IQ”, “race and MAOA gene”, “Neanderthal DNA”, “smaller black brains”, “correlation brain size and IQ”, “achievement gap”, “IQ correlation to achievement”, “NIH Blacks 21% greater testosterone”, Cumoe, D. & Thorne, A. – 2003. Number of Ancestral Human Species: a Molecular Perspective, Rushton, J. Philippe; Jensen, Arthur R (2005). “Thirty Years of Research on Race Differences in Cognitive Ability”, Psychology, Public Policy and Law 11 (2): 246–8, Current Biology, Vol. 13, R134–R136, February 18, 2003, ©2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. PII S0960-9822(03)00074-5; Categorization of humans in biomedical research: genes, race and disease — Genome Biology 2002.

    Racial brain size differences: Whole Brain Size and General Mental Ability: A Review, Int J Neurosci. 2009 Apr; 119(5): 692–732, PMCID: PMC2668913. Rutgers Anthropologist Sets Record Straight on Brain Size and Race. A NYT article that shows claims of racism in measuring skulls was false: Scientists Measure the Accuracy of a Racism Claim. Mismeasuring Skulls: New Research Resolves Historical Controversy, Shows Science Resists Bias; Stanford Department of Anthropology. Brain size, IQ, and racial-group differences: Evidence from musculoskeletal traits, J.Philippe Rushton, Intelligence Volume 31, Issue 2, March–April 2003, Pages 139–155. Thirty Years of Research on Race Differences in Cognitive Ability, Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 2005, Vol. 11, No. 2, 235–294, Copyright 2005 by the American Psychological Association, DOI: 10.1037/1076-8971.11.2.235

    Genetic Distance:
    ESTIMATION OF THE COANCESTRY COEFFICIENT: BASIS FOR A SHORT-TERM GENETIC DISTANCE
    John Reynolds, B. S. Weir, C. Clark Cockerham
    Genetics November 1, 1983 vol. 105 no. 3 767-779

    Number of ancestral human species: a molecular perspective
    D. Curnoe, A. Thorne
    doi:10.1078/0018-442X-00051

    The latest and best evidence, using high-density genotype data, shows that the proportion of European ancestry in the Black American population is as high as 24% (Bryc, Durand, Macpherson, Reich, & Mountain, 2015).

    Heritibility of intelligence: Molecular Psychiatry (2015) 20, 98–108; doi:10.1038/mp.2014.105; published online 16 September 2014, Genetics and intelligence differences: five special findings; Common DNA Markers Can Account for More Than Half of the Genetic Influence on Cognitive Abilities, Genetic contributions to variation in general cognitive function: a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in the CHARGE consortium (N=53949).

    One standard deviation racial IQ gap by age three: (Broman et al, Montie and Fagan, Brooks-Gunn, Klebanov and Duncan)

    • Rob

      Black-White IQ Distribution:

      For a graphical representation of the racial IQ gap Google: racial IQ bell curve

      Percentages below are from a cumulative percentages graph for readability:

      Blacks:
                       5% above 110 IQ
                       16% above 100 IQ
                       40% above 90 IQ
                       70% above 80 IQ
                       40% below 80 IQ
                       18% below 75 IQ
                       10% below 70 IQ

      Whites:
                       10% above 120 IQ
                       18% above 115 IQ
                       27% above 110 IQ
                       40% above 105 IQ
                       50% above 100 IQ
                       60% below 105 IQ
                       35% below 95 IQ
                       15% below 85 IQ

      So, the smartest 16% of Blacks are as intelligent as smartest 50% of Whites. 80% of Blacks score at or below the “low functioning” category.

      The least intelligent ten percent of Whites have IQs below 80; forty percent of Blacks have IQs that low.

      Only one Black in six is more intelligent than the average White; five Whites out of six are more intelligent than the average Black.

      These differences show in every test of general cognitive ability that anyone, of any race or nationality, has yet been able to devise. And they are reflected in countless everyday situations, “Life is an IQ test.”

      Further, only one-in-3.5 million (.00003%) African Blacks have an IQ of 140 or higher (genius level). But one-in-83 (1.2%) Whites is a genius. Therefore the per capita genius rate for Whites is 41,000 times higher than it is for African Blacks.

      Geniuses by Race (IQ 140 or higher):
            
           •   African Blacks                 1:3,500,000            (0.000003%)           
           •   American Blacks             1:218,000               (0.0004%) 
           •   Whites                             1:83                        (1.2%)             

      As the New York Times put it, “…the difference in I.Q. points between the groups is quite significant. It means that the top sixth of Blacks score only as well on I.Q. tests as do the top half of Whites.”

      Black females have higher IQs than Black males. Black female IQ is 2.4 points higher than Black male IQ. There are twice as many Black females as Black males with IQs over 120 and five times as many Black females as Black males with IQs over 140.

      Professer Jensen, of Berkeley, looked at the social competency of people with low IQs and found that Blacks at low IQ were more socially competent than Whites. When you analyze a White person with a 70 IQ, then you’re looking at someone who is two SD below the White mean IQ, while a Black with an IQ of 70 is only one SD below the Black IQ mean.

      Blacks with a 70 IQ are more socially competent than Whites with the same IQ. A Black can be clinically retarded without this retardation being fully socially expressed because Black children of 70 IQ are normal. American Black’s have a mean IQ of 85, so 70 IQ is only one standard deviation below the Black mean. 16% of Black kids in the U.S. are below one standard deviation for the Black population. They are normal Black kids in terms of normality, though not in terms of ability; they were rather like white kids of IQ 85 who are one standard deviation below the white IQ mean of 100. A full 16% of white kids are below one standard deviation of the white intelligence mean. Only about 2% of white kids are below two standard deviations, IQ 70, whereas 16% of black kids are.

      In sum, a higher percentage of Whites at 70 IQ (two standard deviations below the White mean) have something wrong with their brains due to injury or genetic disorder, and a larger percentage of Blacks at 70 IQ are normal for Blacks (one standard deviation below the American Black mean IQ).

      ~~~~~

      Changes over time in the black–white difference on mental tests: Evidence from the children of the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth

      -Charles Murray, 2008

      Data for three Peabody achievement tests and for the Peabody picture vocabulary test administered to children of women in the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth show that the black–white difference did not diminish for this sample of children born from the mid 1970s through the mid 1990s. This finding persists after entering covariates for the child’s age and family background variables. It is robust across alternative samples and specifications of the model. The analysis supplements other evidence that shows no narrowing of the black–white difference in academic achievement tests since the late 1980s and is inconsistent with recent evidence that narrowing occurred in IQ standardizations during the same period.

      It is worth noting that the actual black-white IQ gap is probably larger than 15 IQ points. Studies are based on school samples, thus omitting high school dropouts while there are more blacks than whites who drop out of high school. Studies also omit the prisoners since incarcerated offenders have lower IQ than the public at large (The Bell Curve, p. 242) while there are more blacks than whites incarcerated in prisons. Rushton made the assumption that “educational researchers seldom get to examine the very lowest scoring segments of the Black population in inner cities” and that the actual black-white IQ gap could be underestimated given that “An IQ of 71 was found for the Black children in an entire school district from a rural county in Georgia in the U. S. Deep South; the White IQ in the same county was 101.

      ~~~~~~~

      Digit Span Tests

      Digit Span must be one of the simplest tests ever devised. The examiner says a short string of digits at the rate of one digit a second in a monotone voice, and then the examinee repeats them. The examiner then tries a string which is one digit longer, and continues in this fashion with longer and longer strings of digits until the examinee fails both trials at that particular length. That determines the number of digits forwards.

      Then the examiner explains that he will say a string of digits and the examinee has to repeat them backwards, that is, in reverse order. For example, 3 – 7 is to be said back to the examiner as 7 –3. This continues until the examinee fails two trials at a particular length which determines the number of digits backwards.

      I hope you will agree that this is a simple test, easy to understand, and largely bereft of any intellectual content. All you need is: to know the names of single digits, and to understand the simple instructions and examples given so that you repeat the digits forwards, and in the later version of the test, backwards. In particular, if you can do digits forwards you reveal you know your digits and have some memory, and if you can do a short string backwards you reveal that you have some memory and you understand the idea of repeating digits backwards.

      The test is not only bereft of intellectual content, but is also low on cultural content. Once you have learnt digit names you are ready to do the test. I assume that forwards and backwards are concepts understood by all cultures worthy of the name.

      How does digit backwards have this profound effect? Short term memory is just an auditory store. Most of the intellectual demand comes from digits backwards. That simple little task of remembering the forward sequence, and then keeping it in mind while reading off the sequence in reverse order taxes the mind. Digit backwards spans are usually at least a digit shorter than digits forwards. If someone can remember 7 digits forward (the average adult score) but only 6 backwards (the average adult core), that is a 14% reduction in memory capacity. (At age 11 for white kids the reduction is 23% and for black kids 30%, as shown below). Digits forwards are related to g, but digits backwards are even more loaded on g.

      That the Black-White gap on FDS is substantially smaller than on BDS is a robust finding confirmed in new analysis. This poses a challenge to the argument that racial differences in exposure to the kinds of information that are needed in cognitive tests cause the Black-White test score gap. The informational demands of the digit span tests are minimal, as only the knowledge of numbers from 1 to 9 is required. FDS is a simple memory test assessing the ability to store information and immediately recall it. The informational demands of BDS are the same as those of FDS, but the requirement that the digits be repeated in the reverse order means that it is not simply a memory test, but one that also requires mental transformation or manipulation of the information presented.

      Black-White Digit Span:

      Forward Digit Span Difference

      Age 7              Age 9               Age 11
        0.01                 0.04                   0.16

      Backward Digit Span Difference

      Age 7              Age 9               Age 11
       0.43                 0.31                  0.36

      It was predicted that forward digit span (FDS) should correlate less with IQ than backward digit span (BDS), and age and race should interact with FDS-BDS, with the FDS-BDS difference decreasing as a junction of age and a greater White-Black difference in BDS than in FDS. The predictions were substantiated at a high level of significance in large representative samples of 669 White and 622 Black 5-12 yr olds who were given the revised WISC. Socioeconomic differences accounted for less of the predicted effects than race. (25 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

      The “backward digit span” test is not reinforced by any socialization and is not a taught skill for either race; Whites score better at recalling digits presented in order, but recalling the digits in reverse order requires mental transformation and is a good predictor of IQ. The race gap for the backward digit span is twice as great as for the forward test.

      In sum, race differences are most pronounced on tests that best measure the General Intelligence Factor (g). Black-White differences, for example, are larger on the Backward Digit Span test than on the less g loaded Forward Digit Span test.

      ~~~~~~~

      Mental Chronometry or Reaction Time Tests

      Mental chronometry measures the elapsed time between the presentation of a sensory stimulus and the subsequent behavioral response by the participant.

      The races differ on average cognitive speed. Even the speed with which one neuron in the brain fires correlates with IQ.

      Reaction time is one of the simplest culture-free cognitive measures. Most reaction time tasks are so easy that children can perform them in less than one second. But even on these very simple tests, children with higher IQ scores perform faster than do children with lower scores, perhaps because reaction time measures the neurophysiological efficiency of the brain’s capacity to process information accurately—the same ability measured by intelligence tests (Deary, 2000; Jensen, 1998b). Children are not trained to perform well on reaction time tasks (as they are on certain paper-and-pencil tests), so the advantage of those with higher IQ scores on these tasks cannot arise from practice, familiarity, education, or training.

      For three reaction time tasks (the simple, choice, and odd-man-out tasks), individuals with higher IQ scores average faster and less variable reaction times. For any one task, the correlation between reaction time and IQ normally lies between .20 and .40. A review of several studies concluded that the six measures combined (i.e., the average time and the variability for the three reaction time tasks) produce a multiple correlation of .67 (Deary, 2000). This is about the same magnitude as the correlation between two conventional intelligence tests of reasoning ability and vocabulary.

      Lynn and his colleagues carried out a series of reaction time studies on over 1,000 nine-year-old East Asian children in Japan and Hong Kong, White children in Britain and Ireland, and Black children in South Africa (summarized by Lynn & Vanhannen, 2002, pp. 66–67). The Progressive Matrices were given as a nonverbal test of intelligence, along with the simple, choice, and odd-man-out tasks. Reaction times and variabilities were measured by computer and hence were not subject to any human error in recording.

      Measured IQ scores of the reaction time test participants:
      Hong Kong: 113
      Japan: 110
      Briton: 100
      Ireland: 89
      South Africa: 67

      Odd-man Out Reaction Time Test (milliseconds):
      Hong Kong: 787
      Japan: 818
      Briton: 898
      Ireland: 902
      South Africa: 924

      ~~~~~~~

      Black-White SAT Score Gap by Year:

             Year              White             Black               Gap
             1985              1038               839                 199
             1990              1031               849                 185
             1996              1052               857                 195
             2000              1060               859                 201
             2005              1061               863                 197
             2010              1063               855                 208
             2015              1047               846                 201

      (Source: U.S. Dept. of Education, 2016)

      Note that there is no closing of the large and persistent so-called “achievement gap”.

      The SAT correlates with an IQ test at 0.86, almost the same as an IQ test correlates with itself. For this reason, we can very reliably take SAT scores and convert them to IQ scores.

      In the 20 year period from 1994-2014 the Black-White difference increased on both the verbal and math SATs. On the reading test, it rose from .91 to .96 standard deviations. On the math test, it rose from .95 to 1.03 standard deviations.

      In 2015 only 16% of Blacks scored 1550 or higher, the threshold the College Board calls the “college and career readiness” level.

      This racial achievement gap is so significant that colleges give a “race bonus” of 230 points to Blacks and penalize Asians by 50 points to try to keep it even.

      Asian with similar qualifications have a much harder time getting into college — with an effect that would equal losing 140 points on the SAT and 3.4 on the ACT than students of other races.

      Frey and Detterman (2003) analyzed the correlation of SAT scores with intelligence test scores. They found SAT scores to be highly correlated with general mental ability, or g (r=.82 in their sample).

      Abstract

      This research established the relationship between SAT and g, as well as the appropriateness of the SAT as a measure of g, and examined the SAT as a premorbid measure of intelligence. In Study 1, we used the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979. Measures of g were extracted from the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery and correlated with SAT scores of 917 participants. The resulting correlation was.82 (.86 corrected for nonlinearity). Study 2 investigated the correlation between revised and recentered SAT scores and scores on the Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices among 104 undergraduates. The resulting correlation was.483 (.72 corrected for restricted range). These studies indicate that the SAT is mainly a test of g. We provide equations for converting SAT scores to estimated IQs; such conversion could be useful for estimating premorbid IQ or conducting individual difference research with college students.

      Frey MC, Detterman DK.

      PMID: 15147489 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

      ~~~~~~~

      ACT Scores by Race:

             Year              White             Black               Asian
             2009              22.2               16.9                 23.2
             2010              22.3               16.9                 23.4
             2011              22.4               17.0                 23.6
             2012              22.4               17.0                 23.6
             2013              22.2               16.9                 23.5
             2014              22.3               17.0                 23.5
             2015              22.4               17.1                 23.9
            
      Source: ACT, Inc.

      ~~~~~~~

      Percent by Race Reaching the SAT College and Career Readiness Benchmark:

                       15% = Black
                       24% = Non-White Hispanic
                       35% = Native American
                       53% = White
                       56% = Asian               

      Source: The College Board, 2014

      ~~~~~~~

      Blacks score so poorly on academic tests that the National Achievement Scholarship Program was created for Black candidates only, instead of the National Merit Scholarship Program.

      THE SMARTEST STUDENTS: The National Merit Scholarship Program was founded to identify and honor scholastically talented American youth and to encourage them to develop their abilities to the fullest.

      BLACK STUDENTS ONLY: The National Achievement Scholarship Program was initiated specifically to identify academically promising Black American youth and encourage their pursuit of higher education.

      They are both measured on the PSAT.

      Minimum score for National Achievement: 190
      Minimum score for National Merit: 220

      Roughly, PSAT x 10 = SAT (out of 2400)

      ~~~~~~~

      Blacks and Whites with Equal Educational Attainment Differ in Cognitive Ability

      Black and White Americans with the same formal level of education differ significantly in their cognitive abilities. Specifically, within any given level of formal education Whites consistently outperform Blacks. Moreover, this effect is so strong that Blacks often underperform Whites who have lower levels of formal education than they do.

      Consider the following data from the General Social Survey. This public data is frequently used in social science research and contains a test of verbal intelligence as well as measurements of participant’s self-identified race and highest educational degree obtained. Verbal intelligence tests correlate at around .75 with full-scale IQ and so this data can also be taken as a fair measure of intelligence in general (Lynn, 1998). If we set the White mean score on this test to 100 and the standard deviation to 15, we can come up with an “IQ” style scale.

      As can be seen, using this method Blacks with a graduate degree have a level of verbal intelligence indistinguishable from that of Whites with a junior college degree. Blacks with a four-year degree are roughly on par with Whites who never went to college at all.

      VERBAL IQ BY RACE AND HIGHEST DEGREE EARNED
      1972 – 2014

             Highest Degree                      White IQ                  Black IQ                Gap
             High School Drop-out:                 89                             82                      7
             High School Diploma                   98                             90                      8
             Junior College Degree               102                             95                      7
             Bachelor’s Degree                     108                            100                     8
             Graduate Degree                       113                            102                    11
                  
      This data is consistent with evidence from the National Adult Literacy Survey (NALS) which administered tests of cognitive ability to 26,000 US adults in 1992. These tests were designed to measure how well people could take information and use it in a way which would help them function in modern society.

      ~~~~~~~~

      THE GROWING CORRELATION BETWEEN RACE AND SAT SCORES:

      NEW FINDINGS FROM CALIFORNIA

      October 2015

      Saul Geiser

      Center for Studies in Higher Education

      University of California, Berkeley

      ABSTRACT

      This paper presents new and surprising findings on the relationship between race and SAT scores. The findings are based on the population of California residents who applied for admission to the University of California from 1994 through 2011, a sample of over 1.1 million students. The UC data show that socioeconomic background factors – family income, parental education, and race/ethnicity – account for a large and growing share of the variance in students’ SAT scores over the past twenty years. More than a third of the variance in SAT scores can now be predicted by factors known at students’ birth, up from a quarter of the variance in 1994. Of those factors, moreover, race has become the strongest predictor. Rather than declining in salience, race and ethnicity are now more important than either family income or parental education in accounting for test score differences. It must be cautioned that these findings are preliminary, and more research is needed to determine whether the California data reflect a broader national trend. But if these findings are representative, they have important implications for the ongoing debate over both affirmative action and standardized testing in college admissions.

      ~~~~~~~

      The large and persistent so-called “achievement gap” has remain steady since it was first observed.

      Evidence of the racial achievement gap has been manifested through standardized test scores, high school dropout rates, high school completion rates, college acceptance and retention rates, and longitudinal trends.

      It has been found to exist before students enter kindergarten for their first year of schooling. At the start of kindergarten, Black students have math and reading scores substantially lower than those of White students. In a study published in 2009, Reardon and Galindo (2009) specifically examine test scores by race. The data comes from the ECLS-K, sponsored by the National Center for Education Statistics. The ECLS-K contains data on a nationally representative sample of approximately 21,400 students from the kindergarten class of 1998–1999. Students in the sample were assessed in reading and mathematics skills six times from 1998 to 2004. The content areas of the tests are based on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) fourth-grade content areas, adapted to be age appropriate at each grade level. The assessments were scored using a three-parameter Item Response Theory (IRT) model. Reardon and Galindo found that average Black students begin kindergarten with math scores three quarters of a standard deviation lower than those of White students. Six years later the gap widens by about a third.

      The racial group differences across admissions tests, such as the SAT, ACT, GRE, GMAT, MCAT, LSAT, Advanced Placement Program examinations and other measures of educational achievement, have been consistent. Since the 1960s, the population of students taking these assessments has become increasingly diverse. Consequently, the examination of ethnic score differences have been more rigorous. Specifically, the largest gaps exist between White and Black students. On average, Blacks score about .82 to 1.18 standard deviations lower than White students in composite test scores.

      The National Assessment of Educational Progress reports the national Black-White gap in math and reading assessments, measured at the 4th and 8th grade level. The trends show the achievement gaps staying the same.

      ~~~~~~~

      Racial Scoring Gap on Standardized Graduate Tests

      — Black Student Score Results on the Medical College Admission Test

      In 2005 the mean combined score for Black students who took the Medical College Admission Test was 21.2. (Each of the three sections of the MCAT test is scored on a scale of 1 to 15.) For Whites, the mean score on the combined three portions of the MCAT test was 28.5. Therefore, the White score was about 18 percent higher than the mean score for Blacks.

      — The Racial Scoring Gap on the Test for Admission to Business School

      The mean Black score on the GMAT was 425. (The test is scored on the familiar 200 to 800 scale used for each section of the SAT test.) For Whites, the mean GMAT score was 532. This is 107 points or 18 percent higher than the mean score for Blacks.

      The average GMAT score for admitted students at the nation’s leading business schools is over 700. Perhaps only 1 or 2 percent of all Black GMAT test takers score at this level. Therefore, without continuing affirmative action admissions programs at Harvard, Penn, Stanford, Northwestern, MIT, and other top MBA programs, the nation’s leading business schools will have very few Black students.

      The latest JBHE survey shows that Blacks make up about 5 percent of the students at the nation’s leading business schools. If affirmative action admissions programs were to be discontinued, Black enrollments at these schools might drop by 75 percent.

      — Very Few Blacks Score at the Highest Levels of the Law School Admission Test

      In 1998 the mean score of White students taking the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) was 151.96. (The LSAT is graded on a scoring scale of 120 to 180.) The mean score for Black students taking the test that year was 141.80, about 17 percent lower than the mean score of Whites.

      The latest data shows a slight improvement for both Blacks and Whites, but there was no progress in closing the racial scoring gap. In 2004 the mean score for Whites on the LSAT was 152.47. For Blacks, the mean score was 142.43. The 10 point, or 17 percent, scoring gap has remained constant throughout the period with only very minor fluctuations.

      Students seeking admission to the nation’s highest-ranked law schools such as Yale, Harvard, and Stanford have a mean LSAT score of about 170. Data obtained by JBHE from the Law School Admission Council shows that very few Blacks nationwide score at this level.

      In 2004, 10,370 Blacks took the LSAT examination. Only 29 Blacks, or 0.3 percent of all LSAT test takers, scored 170 or above. In contrast, more than 1,900 White test takers scored 170 or above on the LSAT. They made up 3.1 percent of all White test takers. Thus Whites were more than 10 times as likely as Blacks to score 170 or above on the LSAT. There were 66 times as many Whites as Blacks who scored 170 or above on the test.

      Even if we drop the scoring level to 165, a level equal to the mean score of students enrolling at law schools ranked in the top 10 nationwide but not at the very top, we still find very few Blacks. There were 108 Blacks scoring 165 or better on the LSAT in 2004. They made up 1 percent of all Black test takers. For Whites, there were 6,689 test takers who scored 165 or above. They made up 10.6 percent of all White students who took the LSAT examination.

      The nation’s top law schools could fill their classes exclusively with students who scored 165 or above on the LSAT. But if they were to do so, these law schools would have almost no Black students.

      — The Racial Scoring Gap on the Graduate Record Examination

      The vast majority of Black graduate students do not attend professional schools of law, business, or medicine. Most Black students are enrolled in graduate programs in other academic disciplines including education, natural sciences, mathematics, foreign languages, the humanities, the arts, history, psychology, and the social sciences. For these students the important test is the Graduate Record Examination (GRE).

      This test begins with two analytical writing sections, one where the student is given a choice of topics. The analytical writing section is scored on a scale of 0 to 6. Then there is a 30-minute verbal reasoning test and a 45-minute quantitative section. The test is given on a computer terminal and the test is adaptive, meaning that the test questions are selected based on correct or incorrect responses to previous questions. These two sections are scored on the familiar 200 to 800 scale used for the SAT test.

      Each year about 300,000 college students seeking admission to graduate programs in fields such as education, the humanities, the natural sciences, and the social sciences sit for the GRE. In 2003, the latest year for which there is complete data available, 27,267 Blacks took the GRE test. Therefore, Blacks made up 8.8 percent of all students who took the GRE.

      In 2003 the mean score for Blacks on the combined verbal and quantitative sections of the GRE was 821. For Whites, the mean combined score was 1062. Thus the mean White score was 241 points, or 20 percent, higher than the mean score for Blacks. This racial scoring gap is even wider than the persistent and growing gap on the SAT test.

      In 2003 the mean Black score on the analytical writing section was 3.7 on a scale of 0 to 6. For Whites, the mean score was 4.5, a difference of about 13 percent. There is no way to compare the trend in the gap on this portion of the GRE because the 0 to 6 scale was recently instituted. Previously the analytical section of the test was scored on the 200 to 800 scale.

      The GRE scoring gap between Blacks and Whites varies to a large degree depending on the field of proposed study in graduate school. Black students planning to study in the field of engineering scored on average 187 points below whites who plan to pursue a graduate degree in engineering. In the physical sciences, Black students on average scored 247 points below Whites.

      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

      Effects of Affirmative Action

      Quota admittees drop out more often, avoid college science and math, and flunk post-graduation professional tests.

      The SAT scores of White applicants to U.S. colleges and universities have been, on average, about 200 points higher than those of their Black counterparts. Nonetheless, Black students have been admitted to virtually all academically competitive schools at much higher rates than Whites. At Amherst College in 1995, for instance, 51 percent of Black applicants were admitted vs. just 19 percent of White applicants. At Rice University that same year, the corresponding numbers were 52 percent and 25 percent for Blacks and Whites, respectively. At Bowdoin College, the figures were 70 percent and 30 percent.

      At the five most elite American, Black applicants whose SAT scores fell within the 1200 to 1249 range had a 60 percent chance of admission, whereas Whites with similar scores had just a 19 percent chance.

      At medical schools the situation is much the same. The Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT) scores of Blacks who are accepted are actually lower than those of Whites who are rejected. At the University of Maryland Medical School in 2000, Blacks with college GPAs of B or B+ and MCAT scores in the bottom half of all test-takers had a 70 percent chance of admission; for Whites and Asians of similar credentials, the chance was 2 percent.

      At America’s top law schools, Blacks are admitted at fully 17 times the rate that a colorblind process would allow. At UCLA Law School in 1994, a Black applicant with a college GPA between 2.5 and 3.5, and an LSAT score between 60 and 90, had a 61 percent chance of admission. The corresponding rates for similarly qualified Asians and Whites were 7 percent and 1 percent, respectively. Consider also Texas Law School, which in 1992 rejected 668 White applicants before rejecting a single Black. Fully 100 percent of Blacks who scored between 189 and 192 in the school’s academic rating system were admitted, as compared to just 6 percent of Whites.

      So-called “diversity degrees” were created with soft curricula to allow Blacks an easier opportunity to earn a degree than is possible in the hard sciences.

      College majors with the highest percentage of Whites (63% of U.S. population):

             Forestry: 93% White
             Natural Resources Management: 92% White
             Agriculture Production and Management: 92% White
             Plant Science and Agronomy: 92% White
             Nuclear Engineering: 91% White
             Animal Sciences: 91% White
             Soil Science: 91% White
             Miscellaneous Agriculture: 90% White
             Agricultural Economics: 90% White
             Art and Music Education: 90% White

      College majors with the highest percentage of Asians (6% of U.S. population):

             Computer Engineering: 33% Asian
             Statistics and Decision Science: 30% Asian
             Neuroscience: 27% Asian
             Biomedical Engineering: 26% Asian
             Other Foreign Languages: 26% Asian
             Electrical Engineering: 22% Asian
             Military Technologies: 22% Asian
             Biochemical Sciences: 20% Asian
             Applied Mathematics: 20% Asian
             Pharmacy Pharmaceutical Sciences and Administration: 20% Asian

      College majors with the highest percentage of Blacks (14% of U.S. population):

             School Student Counseling: 38% Black
             Human Services and Community Organization: 21% Black
             Counseling Psychology: 20% Black
             Health and Medical Administrative Services: 18% Black
             Public Administration: 18% Black
             Social Work: 16% Black
             Miscellaneous Social Sciences: 16% Black
             General Medical and Health Services: 15% Black
             Public Policy: 15% Black

    • Rob

      Blacks have small brains

      Would you expect a population of small-brain people to have a higher, lower or equal IQ as compared to a population of large-brain people?

      Compared to Blacks, Whites’ brains:

           •   are 7% larger (1438cc versus 1343cc)
           •   are 100 grams heavier
           •   have deeper fissuration in the frontal and occipital regions
           •   have more complex convolutions and larger frontal lobes
           •   have more pyramidal neurons
           •   have 16% thicker supra-grandular layer
           •   react faster on mental chronometry tests
           •   have 600 million more neurons (each carries about 600 billion synapses, which each carry one bit of cortical information)

      Genes contribute to about 90% of the individual variation of brain size.

      Asian, White, and Black brains can be reliably differentiated by examining the surface configuration.

      There are four methods of measuring brain size, and studies utilizing all four methods have found that Whites have larger brains than Asians who have larger brains than Blacks. If you adjust for body size, the position of Whites and Asians flips.

      Blacks are the only racial group with no DNA from the large-brained Neanderthals, and also the only race without the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which produces increased brain volume.

      The correlation between brain size and IQ across 25 primate species is 0.77 (where 1.0 indicates that monozygotic twins have no variance in IQ and 0 indicates that their IQs are completely uncorrelated).

      Larger brains contain more neurons and synapses and process information faster. By adulthood, East Asians average 1 cubic inch more cranial capacity than Whites who average 5 cubic inches more than Blacks.

      The average White brain is 1438cc while the average Black brain is 1343cc, or 93% of the average White brain. The heritability of brain size is extremely strong at 0.90 and not one study to date has shown larger brain size for Blacks. The White and Asians brain also has a higher degree of fissuring (higher complexity) in the cerebral cortex of their brains, where abstract and conceptual thought is performed.

      There are also racial differences in brain shape, fissuration, number of pyramidal neurons and supra-grandular layer thickness. The depth of fissuration is related to superior intelligence and the brains of Whites have deeper fissures in the frontal and occipital regions. The supra-grandular layer of Blacks’ brains is 16% smaller than it is for Whites’ brains.

      Based on studies of brain weight at autopsy, endocranial volume of empty skulls, head size measurements by the U.S. military and NASA, and two dozen MRI volumetric studies Blacks’ brain size is 7% smaller than Whites’, and 8% smaller than Asians’. There is a correlation of brain size with IQ of about 0.40 and that these racial differences in brain size are present at birth. Genes contribute to about 90% of the individual variation of brain size.

      In addition to brain size are differences in brain shape, fissuration, number of pyramidal neurons and supra-grandular layer thickness. The depth of fissuration is related to superior intelligence and the brains of Whites have deeper fissures in the frontal and occipital regions. The supra-grandular layer of Blacks’ brains is 16% smaller than it is for Whites’ brains.

      The average human brain contains 86 billion neurons. Whites, on average, have 600 million more neurons than Blacks. Each neuron carries about 600 billion synapses, each of which carries, as a minimum, one bit of cortical information.

      Blacks are the only racial group with no DNA from the large-brained Neanderthals, and also the only race without the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which produces increased brain volume.

      Even before birth, population group differences in average brain size are found from the ninth week of intrauterine life with White fetuses averaging larger brain cases and smaller faces Black fetuses, with the differences becoming more prominent over the course of fetal development.

      Weighing brains at autopsy, Whites averaged heavier brains than Blacks and had more complex convolutions and larger frontal lobes. Subsequent studies have found an average Black–White difference of about 100 g. Studies have found that the more White admixture (judged independently from skin color), the greater the average brain weight in Blacks. In a study of 1,261 American adults, Ho et al. (1980) found that 811 White Americans averaged 1,323 g and 450 Black Americans averaged 1,223 g. Since the Blacks and Whites were similar in body size, differences in body size cannot explain away the differences in brain weight.

      The same three-way pattern of race differences has been found using the simplest culture-free cognitive measures such as reaction time tasks, which 9- to 12-year-old children perform in less than 1 s. Lynn (2006) found that East Asian children from Hong Kong and Japan were faster than European children from Britain and Ireland, who in turn were faster than African children from South Africa. Using similar tasks, this pattern of racial differences was also found in California (Jensen, 1998; Rushton & Jensen, 2005). Within each group, the children with higher IQ scores perform faster those with lower scores.

      Race differences start in the womb. Blacks are born earlier and grow quicker than Whites and Asians. The three-way race pattern occurs in milestones such as sexual maturity, family stability, crime rates, and population growth.

      Black babies mature more quickly than White babies, while Asian babies mature more slowly. Black babies in a sitting position are more able to keep their heads up and backs straight from the start. White babies often need six to eight weeks to do these things. It is unlikely that social factors could produce these differences. A basic law of biology shows that longer infancy is related to greater brain growth.

      Black babies spend the least time in the womb. In America, 51% of Black children have been born by week 39 of pregnancy compared with 33% of White children. In Europe, Black babies of even professional mothers are born earlier than White babies.

      Black children sit, crawl, walk, and put on their own clothes earlier than Whites or Asians. The findings are measured by such tests as Bayley’s Scales of Mental and Motor Development and the Cambridge Neonatal Scales.

      Asian children, on the other hand, mature more slowly than do White children. Asian children often do not walk until 13 months. Walking starts at 12 months for white children and 11 months for Black children.

      ~~~~~~~~~~

      Meta-analysis of associations between human brain volume and intelligence differences

      AUTHORS: Pietschnig, Penke, Wicherts, Zeiler, Voracek

      ABSTRACT: “By means of a systematic review of published studies and unpublished results obtained by personal communications with researchers, we identified 88 studies examining effect sizes of 148 healthy and clinical mixed-sex samples. Our results showed significant positive associations of brain volume and IQ.”

      2015, October

      PMID: 26449760

      ~~~~~~~~

      Brain mass differences between racial groups in the US

      Jensen (1998) summarizes the brain mass findings from the Case-Western Reserve (1980) study (N= 811 W, 450 B). An age matched and height adjusted B-W differences of ~100g (~.78SD) was found, which is commensurate with the findings of Bean (1906), Mall (1909), Pearl (1934), and Vint (1934) as described in Rushton and Ankney (2009). Holloway (2002) found a B-W difference of 63 grams (N = 1,391 W; 615 Black). Similar findings have been found based in imaging studies (see 5). In their study, Isamah, et al. (2010) found that African Americans have 1 SD less total cerebrum volume than European Americans.

      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

      Contrary to most purely environmental theories, racial differences in brain size show up early in life. Data from the U.S. National Collaborative Perinatal Project on 19,000 Black children and 17,000 White children showed that Black children had a smaller head perimeter at birth and, although Black children were born shorter in stature and lighter in weight than White children, by age 7 ‘catch-up growth’ led Black children to be larger in body size than White children. However, Blacks remained smaller in head perimeter (Broman et al., 1987). Further, head perimeter at birth, 1 year, 4 years, and 7 years correlated with IQ scores at age 7 in both Black and White children (r = 0.13 to 0.24).

      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

      Brain Size Differences. Studies using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) find a correlation of brain size with IQ of about 0.40. Larger brains contain more neurons and synapses and process information faster. Race differences in brain size are present at birth. By adulthood, East Asians average 1 cubic inch more cranial capacity than Whites who average 5 cubic inches more than Blacks.

      “Neither the existence nor the size of race differences in IQ are a matter of dispute, only their cause,” write the authors. The Black-White difference has been found consistently from the time of the massive World War I Army testing of 90 years ago to a massive study of over 6 million corporate, military, and higher-education test-takers in 2001.

      “Race differences show up by 3 years of age, even after matching on maternal education and other variables,” said Rushton. “Therefore they cannot be due to poor education since this has not yet begun to exert an effect. That’s why Jensen and I looked at the genetic hypothesis in detail. We examined 10 categories of evidence.”

      1. The Worldwide Pattern of IQ Scores; East Asians average higher on IQ tests than Whites, both in the U. S. and in Asia, even though IQ tests were developed for use in the Euro-American culture. Around the world, the average IQ for East Asians centers around 106; for Whites, about 100; and for Blacks about 85 in the U.S. and 70 in sub-Saharan Africa.

      2. Race Differences are Most Pronounced on Tests that Best Measure the General Intelligence Factor (g); Black-White differences, for example, are larger on the Backward Digit Span test than on the less g loaded Forward Digit Span test.

      3. The Gene-Environment Architecture of IQ is the Same in all Races, and Race Differences are Most Pronounced on More Heritable Abilities; Studies of Black, White, and East Asian twins, for example, show the heritability of IQ is 50% or higher in all races.

      4. Brain Size Differences; Studies using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) find a correlation of brain size with IQ of about 0.40. Larger brains contain more neurons and synapses and process information faster. Race differences in brain size are present at birth. By adulthood, East Asians average 1 cubic inch more cranial capacity than Whites who average 5 cubic inches more than Blacks.

      5. Trans-Racial Adoption Studies; Race differences in IQ remain following adoption by White middle class parents. East Asians grow to average higher IQs than Whites while Blacks score lower. The Minnesota Trans-Racial Adoption Study followed children to age 17 and found race differences were even greater than at age 7: White children, 106; Mixed-Race children, 99; and Black children, 89.

      6. Racial Admixture Studies; Black children with lighter skin, for example, average higher IQ scores. In South Africa, the IQ of the mixed-race “Colored” population averages 85, intermediate to the African 70 and White 100.

      -June 2005, Psychology, Public Policy and Law, a journal of the American Psychological Association

      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

      According to a new study, just published in the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) newsroom, scientists have definitively found the genes which control brain size and intelligence.

      Dozens of studies have found race differences in brain size, whether measured by MRI, endocranial volume, brain weight at autopsy or external head size (with or without corrections for body size).

      Most were carried out on the three major races of East Asians, Europeans, and Africans. Averaging all the data, the following figures have emerged: Brain size average for East Asians = 1364cm; Whites = 1347cm; and Blacks = 1267cm.

      The overall mean for East Asians was 17cm more than for Whites and 97cm more than for Blacks.

      Since every cubic centimeter of brain tissue contains millions of brain cells and billions of synapses, the race differences in brain size help to explain the race differences in IQ.

      The latest overview, billed as the “world’s largest brain study to date,” saw a team of more than 200 scientists from 100 institutions worldwide collaborate to map the human genes that boost or sabotage the brain’s resistance to a variety of mental illnesses and Alzheimer’s disease.

      Additionally, the study (also published in the journal Nature Genetics), found new genes which control “differences in brain size and intelligence.”

      “We searched for two things in this study,” said senior author Paul Thompson, professor of neurology at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA and a member of the UCLA Laboratory of Neuro Imaging.

      “We hunted for genes that increase your risk for a single disease that your children can inherit. We also looked for factors that cause tissue atrophy and reduce brain size, which is a biological marker for disorders like schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, Alzheimer’s disease and dementia.”

      Three years ago, Thompson’s lab partnered with geneticists Nick Martin and Margaret Wright at the Queensland Institute for Medical Research in Brisbane, Australia, and with geneticist Barbara Franke of Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre in the Netherlands.

      The four investigators recruited brain-imaging labs around the world to pool their brain scans and genomic data, and Project ENIGMA (Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis) was born.

      “Our individual centers couldn’t review enough brain scans to obtain definitive results,” said Thompson, who is also a professor of psychiatry at the Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior at UCLA.

      “By sharing our data with Project ENIGMA, we created a sample large enough to reveal clear patterns in genetic variation and show how these changes physically alter the brain.”

      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

      Recent reviews (by Nisbett et al. (2012b) and Mackintosh (2011)) confirm current data does show an average difference in brain size and head-circumference between American Blacks and Whites.

      Brain size is found to have a correlation of about .35 with intelligence and cites studies showing that genes may account for as much as 90% of individual variation in brain size, concluding that race differences in average brain size could be an important argument for genetic contribution to racial IQ gaps.

      – Considerations Relating to the Study of Group Differences in Intelligence, Earl Hunt1 and Jerry Carlson, The University of Washington
      – American Psychologist, Vol 67(6), Sep 2012, 503-504

      On the outside, there’s not a lot of difference between Black heads and White ones. There is a slight difference, however, with Whites having the larger heads. But the big difference is in the size of the brain. Blacks have thicker skulls, which means that a higher percentage of their head is bone instead of brain.

      Blacks are the only race without the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which appeared about 37,000 years ago and is associated with increased brain volume.

      Empirical data obtained from brain weight at autopsy, endocranial volume of empty skulls, head size measurements by the U.S. military and NASA, and two dozen MRI volumetric studies have shown that brain volumes average 1427 cubic centimeters for Whites, but only 1361 cubic centimeters for Blacks.

      In weight measurements, the brains of African Blacks were found to weigh an average of 1157 grams, whereas those of pure Whites weighed an average of 1323 grams. The brains of US-resident Blacks, who have a bit of White mixture in their genetic makeup, average 1223 grams in weight.

      That 100-gram weight difference, between White Americans and US-resident Blacks, corresponds to an approximate 600 million neuron advantage for Whites. In 600 million neurons, there are about 600 billion synapses, each of which carries, as a minimum, one bit of cortical information.

      Also, Whites have a larger genus to splenium ratio (front to back part of corpus callosum), which indicates that Whites probably have more activity in the frontal lobes which are thought to be the seat of intelligence. One study found that White cerebrums exhibited 14% more sulsification, or fissuring, as compared with those of Blacks. So, not only are White brains larger, they are also significantly more complex.

      Blacks also have considerably smaller frontal lobes. Frontal lobes are responsible for planning complex cognitive behavior, personality expression, decision making and moderating social behavior.

      This is a genetic trait because even malnourished Asians from poor countries have a larger brain on average than well fed blacks from western countries.

      Sources:

      Willerman et al. (1991) Using MRI obtained r’s ranging from .26 to .56 between IQ and the size of specific brain structures and an overall r of .38 between full-scale IQ and gray matter volume when body size is controlled for. Replications by Raz et al. (1993) and Wickett, Vernon and Lee (1994) found correlations between IQ and brain size of .41 and .47-49. Egan et al. (1994) found an r of .32 between IQ and brain size in a sample whose SD for IQ was 9.3.

      Beals, K. L., Smith, C. L., & Dodd, S. M. (1984). Brain size, cranial morphology, climate, and time machines. Current Anthropology 25, 301–330.

      Jensen, A. R. (1998). The g Factor. Westport, CT: Praeger.

      Rushton, J. P. & Ankney, C. D. (1996). Brain size and cognitive ability: Correlations with age, sex, social class, and race. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 3, 21-36.

      Ho, K. C., Roessmann, U., Straumfjord, J. V., & Monroe, G. (1980). Analysis of brain weight: I and II. Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine 104, 635–645.

      Johnson F. W. & Jensen (1994). Race and sex differences in head size and IQ. Intelligence 18: 309–33

      Rushton JP. (1997). Cranial size and IQ in Asian Americans from birth to age seven. Intelligence 25: 7–20.

      Rushton JP (1991). Mongoloid-Caucasoid differences in brain size from military samples [and NASA]. Intelligence 15: 351–9.

      Cranial Capacities:

      Study                    Black               White                Asian             Black/White

      Ho et al., 1980          1267                1370                                   .92

      Gould, 1981              1356                1426                 1426              .95

      Beals, 1984             1276                1362                 1380              .93

      Herskovits, 1993         1295                1421                 1451              .91

      Ruston (Army) 92         1346                1361                 1403              .98

      Ruston (ILO), 1994       1228                1284                 1312              .95
                  

      ————–

      Abstract:

      Genome-wide association studies establish that human intelligence is highly heritable and polygenic.

      General intelligence is an important human quantitative trait that accounts for much of the variation in diverse cognitive abilities. Individual differences in intelligence are strongly associated with many important life outcomes, including educational and occupational attainments, income, health and lifespan. Data from twin and family studies are consistent with a high heritability of intelligence, but this inference has been controversial. We conducted a genome-wide analysis of 3511 unrelated adults with data on 549 692 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and detailed phenotypes on cognitive traits. We estimate that 40% of the variation in crystallized-type intelligence and 51% of the variation in fluid-type intelligence between individuals is accounted for by linkage disequilibrium between genotyped common SNP markers and unknown causal variants. These estimates provide lower bounds for the narrow-sense heritability of the traits. We partitioned genetic variation on individual chromosomes and found that, on average, longer chromosomes explain more variation. Finally, using just SNP data we predicted ~1% of the variance of crystallized and fluid cognitive phenotypes in an independent sample (P=0.009 and 0.028, respectively). Our results unequivocally confirm that a substantial proportion of individual differences in human intelligence is due to genetic variation, and are consistent with many genes of small effects underlying the additive genetic influences on intelligence.

      Molecular Psychiatry, 2011: 996-1005.

      ~~~~~~~~~~~~

      Three papers looked at how 14 alleles (gene variants) which were previously associated with intelligence, or a proxy for intelligence, varied by race (Piffer 2013) (Piffer 2014) (Piffer and Kirkeggard 2014). In a sample of 101,069, these 10 alleles were each found to predict higher than average educational attainment (Rietveld et al. 2013). The predictive ability of each allele was then re-tested again across 12 samples totaling 25,290 people. All ten alleles used in were found to be associated with intelligence in multiple samples, the the associations were not always statistically significant. Importantly, the samples consisted of only white people which means that no genes arbitrarily associated with race will be falsely thought to associate with education just because race does.

      The other four alleles come from more varied sources. The first is a version of the NPTN gene which is involved in how the brain changes itself (neural outgrowth and synaptic plasticity). A particular allele of this gene has been previously found to predict lower IQ scores and less cortical thickness. The second allele comes from the FNB1L gene and has been associated with high intelligence across multiple studies. The third allele is a version of the CHRM2 gene and has been associated with high intelligence in 4 separate studies.

      Finally, a version of the APOE4 gene has been found to predict better memory, perceptual speed, and general cognitive functioning, in a meta-analyses of 77 previous studies. Each of the studies involving these four genes used different sets of controls and statistical adjustments. Because they have been found to associate with intelligence so consistently, a causal relationship between the allele and intelligence is likely.

      The 14 alleles were found to be patterned such that, based on this genetic data alone, Asians would be predicted to have the highest IQs followed by Whites and ending with Blacks. These differences were statistically significant and were replicated across the three data bases. More extraordinary was the finding that all 14 alleles differed between Blacks and Whites in a way that would predict that Blacks would be less intelligent. This result strongly suggests that the hereditarian viewpoint is the correct one. On the egalitarian viewpoint each allele should have, on average, a 50% probability of existing in a greater frequency among either Blacks or Whites. The probability that this model would predict all 14 alleles examined to favor Whites would be 1-in-16,284.

      ~~~~~~~~~~~~

      Ongoing Adaptive Evolution of ASPM, a Brain Size Determinant in Homo sapiens

      Science 09 Sep 2005:
      Vol. 309, Issue 5741, pp. 1720-1722
      DOI: 10.1126/science.1116815

      The research team showed that there was accelerated evolution in humans among numerous genes, including microcephalin and abnormal spindle-like microcephaly-associated (ASPM). Both of these genes regulate brain size, and therefore “were good candidates to look for signatures of selection. We indeed found such signatures when we compared humans to other species,” he said. “As a natural extension of that, we asked, could it be that selection on these genes is still ongoing in humans?”

      In the two Science papers, the researchers looked at variations of microcephalin and ASPM within modern humans. They found evidence that the two genes have continued to evolve. For each gene, one class of variants has arisen recently and has been spreading rapidly because it is favored by selection. For microcephalin, the new variant class emerged about 37,000 years ago and now shows up in about 70 percent of present-day humans. For ASPM, the new variant class arose about 5,800 years ago and now shows up in approximately 30 percent of today’s humans. These time windows are extraordinarily short in evolutionary terms, indicating that the new variants were subject to very intense selection pressure that drove up their frequencies in a very brief period of time–both well after the emergence of modern humans about 200,000 years ago.

      Each variant emerged around the same time as the advent of “cultural” behaviors. The microcephalin variant appears along with the emergence of such traits as art and music, religious practices, and sophisticated tool-making techniques–which date back to about 50,000 years ago. The ASPM variant coincides with the oldest-known civilization, Mesopotamia, which dates back to 7000 BC. “Microcephalin,” the authors wrote in one of the papers, “has continued its trend of adaptive evolution beyond the emergence of anatomically modern humans. If selection indeed acted on a brain-related phenotype, there could be several possibilities, including brain size, cognition, personality, motor control or susceptibility to neurological/psychiatric diseases.”

      The team also observed geographic differences. For haplogroup D of ASPM, they found that it occurs more frequently in Europeans and surrounding populations including, North Africans, Middle Easterners, and South Asians, and at a lower incidence in East Asians, New World Indians and sub-Saharan Africans. For microcephalin, the researchers found that haplogroup D is more abundant in populations outside of sub-Saharan Africa.

      ~~~

      The Genetical Aspect of Human Brain Evolution
      Suman Pratihar1, Rudra Prasad Nath, Jayanta Kumar Kundu
      EJBS 3 (1) – April-June 2010

      The human brain, particularly the cerebral cortex, has undergone a dramatic increase in its volume during the course of primate evolution. ASPM and MCPH are the major protagonist helped to shape and size of our brain. The developmental biology and genetics is the key to unlocking the mystery of human brain evolution.

      In summary the developmental linkage between comparative brain morphometry and the comparative processes that influence the specification of axonal connectivity suggests that what is uniquely different about human brain is not just their quantitative organization, but more importantly the consequent shifts in connectivity in brain region. For over a century scientists have studied brain evolution as a problem of gross functional morphology. ASPM and MCPH responded to natural selection and the resulting changes contributed to our large brains. But how exactly the ASPM gene produced these changes is not yet entirely clear. It seems to control how many times cells in the cerebral cortex can divide which controls how much space there is for neurons. It is known that a variant of the gene that allowed additional cell divisions gave some hominids the additional neuronal infrastructure that eventually let them develop abstract reasoning and language skills.

      Nature is not democratic. Individuals’ IQs vary. Instead genetic interactions with the environment suggest that enriched environments will help everyone achieve their potential, but not to quality. Our potential seems largely pre determined. That our interpretation of intelligence the brain and heritability has succumbed to a variety of political and social pressures is undeniable. Presumed functional correlates of brain size differences, theories of encephalization and the plausibility of highly modular species specific changes all must be carefully reexamined in the context of this information. Although well-accepted claims about brain evolution in our lineage may be put in question as a result the value of comparative morphological analysis takes on a new significance as a guide to more detailed development and molecular studies of brain.

      Microcephalin 1 (MCPH 1) is one of the most important gene causing primary microcephaly, this condition is characterized by a severely diminished brain. Hence it is assumed that normal variants have a role in brain development, but no effect on mental ability. MCPH 1 is expressed in the fetal brain, in the developing forebrain and on the walls of the lateral ventricles. Cells of this area divide, producing neurons that migrate to eventually from the cerebral cortex (Trimborn, 2004). A derived form of MCPH 1 called haplogroup D appeared about 37000 years ago and has spread become the more common form throughout the world except sub Saharan Africa. The timing of its emergence may have closely preceded the upper Paleolithic, when people started colonizing Europe, although the margin of error is substantial and there is evidence that the transition to the upper Paleolithic occurred in Africa before spreading to Europe. The modern distributions of chromosomes bearing the ancestral forms of the MCPH 1 and MCPH 5 coincide with the incidence of tonal languages, although the nature of the relationship can only be guessed at haplogroup D may have originated from a lineage separated from modern humans approximately 1.1 million years ago and later entered into in humans (Trimborn, 2004).

      ~~~

      Evidence that the adaptive allele of the brain size gene microcephalin introgressed into Homo sapiens from an archaic Homo lineage

      Edited by Henry C. Harpending, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, and approved October 5, 2006 (received for review August 10, 2006)

      At the center of the debate on the emergence of modern humans and their spread throughout the globe is the question of whether archaic Homo lineages contributed to the modern human gene pool, and more importantly, whether such contributions impacted the evolutionary adaptation of our species. A major obstacle to answering this question is that low levels of admixture with archaic lineages are not expected to leave extensive traces in the modern human gene pool because of genetic drift. Loci that have undergone strong positive selection, however, offer a unique opportunity to identify low-level admixture with archaic lineages, provided that the introgressed archaic allele has risen to high frequency under positive selection. The gene microcephalin (MCPH1) regulates brain size during development and has experienced positive selection in the lineage leading to Homo sapiens. Within modern humans, a group of closely related haplotypes at this locus, known as haplogroup D, rose from a single copy ≈37,000 years ago and swept to exceptionally high frequency (≈70% worldwide today) because of positive selection. Here, we examine the origin of haplogroup D. By using the interhaplogroup divergence test, we show that haplogroup D likely originated from a lineage separated from modern humans ≈1.1 million years ago and introgressed into humans by ≈37,000 years ago. This finding supports the possibility of admixture between modern humans and archaic Homo populations (Neanderthals being one possibility). Furthermore, it buttresses the important notion that, through such adminture, our species has benefited evolutionarily by gaining new advantageous alleles. The interhaplogroup divergence test developed here may be broadly applicable to the detection of introgression at other loci in the human genome or in genomes of other species.

      ~~~

      The Microcephalin Ancestral Allele in a Neanderthal Individual
      Martina Lari,

      Published: May 14, 2010

      Microcephalin has been proposed as the target of positive selection in the evolutionary lineage leading from ancestral primates to humans. This observation, coupled with the fact that this gene is a critical regulator of brain size, suggests that the molecular evolution of microcephalin may have contributed to the phenotypic evolution of the human brain. In a recent study, Evans et al. found that a class of haplotypes at the locus, dubbed haplogroup D (all sharing a G37995C transversion in the coding region, that results in the substitution of an aspartate with a histidine), shows a recent coalescence age (point estimate  = 37,000 years) despite a very high worldwide frequency (0.70). There is also a marked difference between Africa (with low D frequencies) and Eurasia (with high D frequencies). Taken at face value, these findings would imply a rapid rise in the frequency of haplogroup D, so rapid indeed to suggest that positive selection, and not only drift or a demographic expansion, has affected the frequency of haplogroup D after the spread from Africa of early modern humans. Evans and colleagues proposed that haplogroup D originated from a lineage separated from modern humans for 1.1 million years and introgressed into the human gene pool by 37,000 years ago, probably from a Neanderthal stock.

      ~~~

      Positive selection at the ASPM gene coincides with brain size enlargements in cetaceans

      Shixia Xu, Yuan Chen, Yuefeng Cheng, Dan Yang, Xuming Zhou, Junxiao Xu, Kaiya Zhou, Guang Yang

      Published 12 September 2012. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2012.1729

      The enlargement of cetacean brain size represents an enigmatic event in mammalian evolution, yet its genetic basis remains poorly explored. One candidate gene associated with brain size evolution is the abnormal spindle-like microcephaly associated (ASPM), as mutations in this gene cause severe reductions in the cortical size of humans. Here, we investigated the ASPM gene in representative cetacean lineages and previously published sequences from other mammals to test whether the expansion of the cetacean brain matched adaptive ASPM evolution patterns. Our analyses yielded significant evidence of positive selection on the ASPM gene during cetacean evolution, especially for the Odontoceti and Delphinoidea lineages. These molecular patterns were associated with two major events of relative brain size enlargement in odontocetes and delphinoids. It is of particular interest to find that positive selection was restricted to cetaceans and primates, two distant lineages both characterized by a massive expansion of brain size. This result is suggestive of convergent molecular evolution, although no site-specific convergence at the amino acid level was found.

      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~

      Intelligence

      Volume 18, Issue 3, May–June 1994, Pages 309–333

      Race and sex differences in head size and IQ
      Arthur R. Jensen, Fred W. Johnson

      Abstract

      An analysis of IQ in relation to head size (and by inference, brain size) was performed on some 14,000 children and their full siblings, almost evenly divided by race (white and black) and sex, on whom data were obtained at ages 4 and 7 years in the National Collaborative Perinatal Project. Within each race × sex group, IQ is significantly correlated with head size, age and body size having been partialed out. A significant positive correlation between IQ × head size exists not only within subjects (at ages 4 and 7) but also within families and between families (at age 7 only). The within-families correlation (at age 7) is consistent with an intrinsic or pleiotropic correlation between the mental and physical variables. No significant positive correlation within families appeared at age 4, despite a significant within-subjects correlation at that age. As yet, there are only speculative explanations of the disparity between the age 4 and 7 within-family correlations of head size with IQ. Although general body size is also correlated with IQ within subjects and between families, the correlation does not exist within families in either age group, which rules out a pleiotropic correlation between body size and IQ. There are both race and sex differences in head size, although the sex difference in IQ is nil. White and black children who are matched on IQ show, on average, virtually zero difference in head size.

    • Rob

      Blacks are violent

      Blacks have mean testosterone levels 19% higher than in whites. This is why 1-in-4 Black men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer but only 1-in-8 White men and 1-in-13 Asian men will. Testosterone is associated with impulsive, aggressive and violent behavior.

      The Black homicide rate is 17 per 100,000, a rate over 9x that of the White rate, and comparable to some of those most murderous countries in the world.

      If the homicide rate for the country as a whole were the White-only rate, the homicide rate would drop 84%, making the U.S. rate comparable to European countries.

      Black males age 18-35 are only 4% of the U.S. population, yet commit 50% of homicides. Black males (all ages) are only 6% of the U.S. population, yet commit 46% of all violent crimes, and 50% of the gun homicides. If Blacks were removed from the equation, the U.S. gun homicide rate would be equal to Great Britain’s, who have some of the most restrictive gun control laws in the world.

      Therefore, the U.S. has a Black problem, not a gun or violent crime problem.

      In 2013, according to FBI statistics, Blacks committed an average of 486,945 violent crimes against Whites, whereas Whites committed only 99,403 violent crimes against Blacks. This means Blacks were the attackers in 84.5 percent of the violent crimes involving Blacks and Whites. By age 23, half of Blacks males have been arrested.

      Model for Significant Predictors of Firearm Homicide Rate Using Standarized Predictor Variables (Percentage Black): for each one standard deviation increase in proportion of Black population, firearm homicide rate is increased by 82.8%.

      Blacks have a very high percentage carrying the dysfunctional form of the MAOA gene which does not produce a protein needed to break down old serotonin in their brains. This causes them to be agitated, aggressive and impulsive. The popular term for this is the “warrior gene” which could be considered propaganda to put a positive spin on those who possess this dysfunctional gene which is highly-correlated to criminality.

      Comprehensive Psychiatry published a large study on the rates at which black and white Americans carry shortened, or dysfunctional, MAOA genes.

      The gene can come in the form of 2, 3, 3.5, 4, or 5 allele. A 3-repeat allele is considered dysfunctional and is what is referred to as the “warrior gene”. A 2-repeat allele is considered very dysfunctional. People with a 2-repeat allele MAOA gene have a permanent chemical imbalance in their brain making the person more likely to be agitated, aggressive, and impulsive.

      According to the study published in Comprehensive Psychiatry, 34.6% of Whites and 53.4% of Blacks have 2-repeat allele or less. However, only .5% of whites have the 2-repeat (2R) allele version compared to 4.7% of blacks.

      That means Blacks are 9.4 times more likely to have the extremely dysfunctional version of the gene than Whites. Considering that Black Americans are 9 times more likely to commit murder, this is very significant.

      Other studies have shown even higher rates of occurrence of the 2-repeat (2R) allele version of the gene in Blacks.

      It was discovered that Black males carrying 2R were more likely to be involved in extreme violence (shooting and stabbing) than Black men with other MAOA variants. The relationship between the rare MAOA version and antisocial behaviors has raised eyebrows because, quite simply, this gene is not distributed equally across ethnic groups. In the Add Health database, 5.5% of African American men, 0.9% of Caucasian men, and 0.00067% of Asian men have 2R.

      The association between 2R and committing a shooting or stabbing crime was statistically significant. The MAOA-2R has become a symbol of a new era in behavioral genetics research — an era that has reintroduced race into the nature versus nurture debate over the source of ethnic behavioral differences

      Notes: There are other genes associated with violent and/or impulsive behavior. The MAOA gene is only one of them. However, the effects of a shortened MAOA gene are well documented. The chemical imbalance its creates can be observed in a laboratory.

      Blacks possess 10x more of the dysfunctional MAOA (or “warrior gene”) that is associated with violent and/or impulsive behavior.

      Blacks are also more likely to have versions of dopamine genes like ANKK1, DAT1, and DRD4 that have been linked to antisocial behavior.

      ~~~~~~~~~~~

      Abstract:

      A line of research has revealed that a polymorphism in the promoter region of the MAOA gene is related to antisocial phenotypes. Most of these studies examine the effects of low MAOA activity alleles (2-repeat and 3-repeat alleles) against the effects of high MAOA activity alleles (3.5-repeat, 4-repeat, and sometimes 5-repeat alleles), with research indicating that the low MAOA activity alleles confer an increased risk to antisocial phenotypes. The current study examined whether the 2-repeat allele, which has been shown to be functionally different from the 3-repeat allele, was associated with a range of antisocial phenotypes in a sample of males drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Analyses revealed that African-American males who carried the 2-repeat allele were, in comparison with other African-American male genotypes, significantly more likely to be arrested and incarcerated. Additional analyses revealed that African-American male carriers of the 2-repeat allele scored significantly higher on an antisocial phenotype index and on measures assessing involvement in violent behaviors over the life course. There was not any association between the 2-repeat allele and a continuously measured psychopathic personality traits scale. The effects of the 2-repeat allele could not be examined in Caucasian males because only 0.1% carried it.

      Authors: Kevin M. Beavera, John Paul Wright, Brian B. Boutwell, J.C. Barnesd, Matt DeLisie, Michael G. Vaughnf

      ~~~

      Monoamine oxidase A genotype is associated with gang membership and weapon use.

      Beaver KM1, DeLisi M, Vaughn MG, Barnes JC.

      ABSTRACT:

      A functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene has been found to be associated with a broad range of antisocial phenotypes, including physical violence. At the same time, it is well known that gang members represent some of the most serious violent offenders. Even so, no research has ever examined the association between MAOA and gang membership.

      RESULTS:

      The low MAOA activity alleles conferred an increased risk of joining a gang and using a weapon in a fight for males but not for females. Moreover, among male gang members, those who used weapons in a fight were more likely to have a low MAOA activity allele when compared with male gang members who do not use weapons in a fight.

      CONCLUSIONS:

      Male carriers of low MAOA activity alleles are at risk for becoming a gang member and, once a gang member, are at risk for using weapons in a fight.

      Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

      PMID: 20152292

      ~~~

      Serum testosterone levels in healthy young black and white men.

      Blacks in the United States have the highest prostate cancer rate in the world and nearly twice that of whites in the United States. The 2:1 black-to-white ratio in prostate cancer rates is already apparent at age 45 years, the age at which the earliest prostate cancer cases occur. This finding suggests that the factor(s) responsible for the difference in rates occurs, or first occurs, early in life. Testosterone has been hypothesized to play a role in the etiology of prostate cancer, because testosterone and its metabolite, dihydrotestosterone, are the principal trophic hormones that regulate growth and function of epithelial prostate tissue. Mean testosterone levels in blacks were 19% higher than in whites, and free testosterone levels were 21% higher. Both these differences were statistically significant. A 15% difference in circulating testosterone levels could readily explain a twofold difference in prostate cancer risk.

      J Natl Cancer Inst. 1986 Jan;76(1):45-8.

      PMID: 3455741

      ~~~~~~~~

      The 2-repeat allele of the MAOA gene confers an increased risk for shooting and stabbing behaviors.

      Beaver KM1, Barnes JC, Boutwell BB.

      Abstract

      There has been a great deal of research examining the link between a polymorphism in the promoter region of the MAOA gene and antisocial phenotypes. The results of these studies have consistently revealed that low activity MAOA alleles are related to antisocial behaviors for males who were maltreated as children. Recently, though, some evidence has emerged indicating that a rare allele of the MAOA gene-that is, the 2-repeat allele-may have effects on violence that are independent of the environment. The current study builds on this research and examines the association between the 2-repeat allele and shooting and stabbing behaviors in a sample of males drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Analyses revealed that African-American males who carry the 2-repeat allele are significantly more likely than all other genotypes to engage in shooting and stabbing behaviors and to report having multiple shooting and stabbing victims. The limitations of the study are discussed and suggestions for future research are offered.

      PMID: 24326626

      ~~~~~~~~

      Barnes, B. Genes, agents and the institution of responsible action. New Genetics and Society 21(3), 291-302 (2003).

      Beaver, K. M. et al. Monoamine oxidase A genotype is associated with gang membership and weapon use. Compr. Psychiatry 51(2), 130-134 (2009).

      Brunner, H. G. et al. Abnormal behavior associated with a point mutation in the structural gene for monoamine oxidase A. Science 262, 578-580. (1993).

      Buchen, L. In their nature. Nature 467, 146-148 (2010).

      Caspi, A. et al. Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children. Science 297(5582), 851-854 (2002a).

      Caspi, A. et al. Supplementary material. Description of methods and measurements used in the Dunedin multidisciplinary health and development study. Science 297 (2002b).

      Denno, D. W. “Behavioral Genetics Evidence in Criminal Cases: 1994–2007” in Farahany N. A. (ed) The impact of behavioral sciences on criminal law (Oxford University Press, chapter 10, 2009).

      Lea, R. & Chambers, G. Monamine oxidase, addiction and the ‘warrior’ gene hypothesis. New Zealand Medical Journal 120, 1250 (2007).

      Levitt, M. Genes, environment and responsibility for violent behaviour: “Whatever genes one has it is preferable that you are prevented from going around stabbing people”. New Genetics and Society 32(1), 4-17 (2013).

      Shih, J. C et al. Monoamine oxidase: from genes to behaviour. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 22,197-217 (1999).

      ~~~~~~~~

      MAOA is an enzyme that degrades neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine in the brain — is coded for by the MAOA gene. Neurotransmitters play a pivotal role in mood, arousal, and emotions, even affecting impulse control. Since the 1990s scientists have identified several versions of the MAOA, which are usually categorized as low-activity or high-activity variants. MAOA genes are classified based on how many times a short sequence — a functional strip of DNA — repeats itself within a variable region of the gene. The most common variant, MAOA-4R, has four repeats and is associated with high-activity breakdown of neurotransmitters. Alternate forms of the MAOA, including the 2-repeat (2R) and 3-repeat (3R) versions, contain fewer repeat sequences.

      The 2R and 3R variants are often lumped together in studies of the low-activity MAOA gene. (Although the 5R version has a large number of repeats, it too is less active than the 4R version.) The two classes of MAOA versions correlate with different behavioral tendencies. Low-activity variants are thought to lead to reduced levels of MAOA in the brain, possibly shifting mood by changing serotonin levels.

      But it was 2R — the “extreme warrior gene” — that captivated researchers searching for a genetic basis of criminal predispositions. Guo’s team analyzed data on male youth from Add Health — a national sample of adolescents in grades 7-12. Their findings showed that the rare variant, 2R, was correlated with higher levels of self-reported serious and violent delinquency.

      More recently, Beaver’s team has focused only on the 2R variant rather than the low-expression variants combined. He and his colleagues have discovered that African American males carrying 2R were more likely to be involved in extreme violence — shooting and stabbing — than African American men with other MAOA variants. The relationship between the rare MAOA version and antisocial behaviors has raised eyebrows because, quite simply, this gene is not distributed equally across ethnic groups. In the Add Health database, 5.5% of African American men, 0.9% of Caucasian men, and 0.00067% of Asian men have 2R. Since the rare MAOA variant is virtually non-existent in whites, all of the males in Beaver’s study were black Americans.

      Beaver’s sample of 133 African American men from the Add Health database included 6% that carried 2R. Overall, 5.6% of the men in the sample reported shooting or stabbing someone at some point in their lifetime. The association between 2R and committing a shooting or stabbing crime was statistically significant. Based on Beaver’s evidence, 2R appears to increase the risk of shooting or stabbing a victim during adolescence or adulthood. For some commentators in the public arena, MAOA-2R has become a symbol of a new era in behavioral genetics research — an era that has reintroduced race into the nature versus nurture debate over the source of ethnic behavioral differences.

      Beaver’s studies have shown that the 2R variant has a robust association with violent behaviors, arrest, and incarceration. His research is applauded by supporters of behavioral genetics, but it has also drawn criticism. It focuses on an antisocial-linked gene that reportedly occurs more frequently in African American men than in males of other ethnic groups. This has led some popular writers to speculate that MAOA-2R might account for — or at least play a significant role in — the relatively higher rates of violent crime in African Americans.

      ~~~~~

      Mass and Serial Killers

      Mass Killers:

      There have been 70 mass shooters since 1982.

      45 by whites, 11 by blacks, 6 by Asians, 4 by Latinos, 3 by Native American.

      Per capita:

      Whites make up 77.7% of the populations and 64% of the shootings -13.7
      Latinos make up 17.1% of the populations and 5.7% of the shootings -11.4
      Blacks make up 13.2% of the populations and 15% of the shootings +1.8
      Asians make up 5.3% of the populations and 8.5% of the shootings +3.2
      Native Americans make up 1.2% of the populations and 4% of the shootings +2.8

      Serial Killers:

      According to the FBI 90 percent of serial killers are male, and 46 percent of those are white.

      Black serial killers have comprised over half of documented serial killers since the dawn of the 21st century at 56 percent, making up a total of 40 percent in years dating back to 1900.

      As Blacks are only 13% of the U.S. population they are heavily over-represented as serial killers.

      Criminal profiler Pat Brown says serial killers are usually reported as white because the media typically focuses on “All-American” white and pretty female victims who were the targets of white male offenders, that crimes among minority offenders in urban communities, where crime rates are higher, are under-investigated, and that minority serial killers likely exist at the same ratios as white serial killers for the population. She believes that the myth that serial killers are always white might have become “truth” in some research fields due to the over-reporting of white serial killers in the media.

      According to some sources, the percentage of serial killers who are African American is estimated to be between 13 and 22 percent. Another study has shown that 16 percent of serial killers are African American, what author Maurice Godwin describes as a “sizeable portion”. However, the 2013 Radford/FGCU Serial Killer Database annual statistics show, for the decades 1900–2010, that the percentage of African American serial killers is 40.7%. Popular racial stereotypes about the lower intelligence of African-Americans, and the stereotype that serial killers are white males with “bodies stacked up in the basement and strewn all over the countryside” may explain the media focus on serial killers that are white and the failure to adequately report on those that are black.

      Child Molesters:

      Myth: Whites Are More Likely to be Pedophiles and Child Molesters

      There is a long-standing myth that Whites are more likely to molest children than any other race. This goes back to some stereotype of the creepy, nerdy, weirdo White guy who can’t get laid so he molests kids.

      % of total child abusers:

      White                            51%
      African American                 25%
      Hispanic                         15%
      American Indian/Alaska Natives    2%
      Asian/Pacific Islanders           1%

      Relative to their population, likelihood of child abuse compared to background population rate:
      American Indian    +100%
      Blacks             +92%
      Hispanics          no difference
      Whites             -35%
      Asian              -67%

      ~~~~~

      FBI Table 43 (2013)

      Blacks are 13 percent of the population and commit 32.5% of all crimes against family and children. That is 2.5 times their population.

      Whites are 66 percent of the population and commit 65% of all crimes against family and children. That is 1 times their population.

      Therefore, a Black is 2.5 times more likely to be a pedophile than a White.

    • Rob

      Google: National IQ Congo

      ….then: IQ Koko the gorilla

      LOL

      IQ correlates strongly to job performance, increased wealth, increased income, economic growth, livability in a U.S. state, cooperation, life expectancy, and infant mortality.

      It is estimated that a minimum IQ of 90 is required just to maintain a modern society (IQ and the Wealth of Nations):

      Black (IQ 67) + White (IQ 100) = IQ 85.

      The more White a society is the more successful (safe and prosperous) it is.

      The following intelligence scores came from work carried out earlier this decade by Richard Lynn, a British psychologist, and Tatu Vanhanen, a Finnish political scientist, who analysed IQ studies from 113 countries, and from subsequent work by Jelte Wicherts, a Dutch psychologist. Lynn and Vanhanen benchmarked their IQ results so that Britain is 100. America scores 98 on this scale, and the world average is 90. IQ`s are assumed to form a normal probability distribution (“bell curve”) with the standard deviation set at 15.

      National IQ correlates at 0.73 with living standard.

      Each 10 point increase in IQ generally doubles economic growth, assuming the country has a market economy.

      Do you observe a pattern?

                •   108      Singapore
                •   106      South Korea
                •   105      Japan
                •   105      China
                •   102      Italy
                •   101      Iceland
                •   101      Mongolia
                •   101      Switzerland
                •   100      Austria
                •   100      Luxembourg
                •   100      Netherlands
                •   100      Norway
                •   100      United Kingdom
                •   99        Belgium
                •   99        Canada
                •   99        Estonia
                •   99        Finland
                •   99        Germany
                •   99        New Zealand
                •   99        Poland
                •   99        Sweden
                •   98        Andorra
                •   98        Australia
                •   98        Czech Republic
                •   98        Denmark
                •   98        France
                •   98        Hungary
                •   98        Latvia
                •   98        Spain
                •   98        United States
                •   97        Belarus
                •   97        Malta
                •   97        Russia
                •   97        Ukraine
                •   96        Moldova
                •   96        Slovakia
                •   96        Slovenia
                •   96        Uruguay
                •   95        Israel
                •   95        Portugal
                •   94        Armenia
                •   94        Georgia
                •   94        Kazakhstan
                •   94        Romania
                •   94        Vietnam
                •   93        Argentina
                •   93        Bulgaria
                •   92        Greece
                •   92        Ireland
                •   92        Malaysia
                •   91        Brunei
                •   91        Cambodia
                •   91        Cyprus
                •   91        Lithuania
                •   91        Thailand
                •   90        Albania
                •   90        Bosnia
                •   90        Chile
                •   90        Croatia
                •   90        Kyrgyzstan
                •   90        Turkey
                •   89        Cook Islands
                •   89        Costa Rica
                •   89        Laos
                •   89        Mauritius
                •   89        Serbia
                •   89        Suriname
                •   88        Ecuador
                •   88        Mexico
                •   88        Samoa
                •   87        Azerbaijan
                •   87        Bolivia
                •   87        Brazil
                •   87        Guyana
                •   87        Indonesia
                •   87        Iraq
                •   87        Myanmar
                •   87        Tajikistan
                •   87        Turkmenistan
                •   87        Uzbekistan
                •   86        Kuwait
                •   86        Philippines
                •   86        Seychelles
                •   86        Tonga
                •   85        Cuba
                •   85        Eritrea
                •   85        Fiji
                •   85        Kiribati
                •   85        Peru
                •   85        Trinidad and Tobago
                •   85        Yemen
                •   84        Afghanistan
                •   84        Bahamas
                •   84        Belize
                •   84        Colombia
                •   84        Iran
                •   84        Jordan
                •   84        Marshall Islands
                •   84        Micronesia
                •   84        Morocco
                •   84        Nigeria
                •   84        Pakistan
                •   84        Panama
                •   84        Paraguay
                •   84        Saudi Arabia
                •   84        Solomon Islands
                •   84        Uganda
                •   84        United Arab Emirates
                •   84        Vanuatu
                •   84        Venezuela
                •   83        Algeria
                •   83        Bahrain
                •   83        Libya
                •   83        Oman
                •   83        New Guinea
                •   83        Syria
                •   83        Tunisia
                •   82        Bangladesh
                •   82        Dominican Republic
                •   82        India
                •   82        Lebanon
                •   82        Madagascar
                •   82        Zimbabwe
                •   81        Egypt
                •   81        Honduras
                •   81        Maldives
                •   81        Nicaragua
                •   80        Barbados
                •   80        Bhutan
                •   80        El Salvador
                •   80        Kenya
                •   79        Guatemala
                •   79        Sri Lanka
                •   79        Zambia
                •   78        Congo
                •   78        Nepal
                •   78        Qatar
                •   77        South Africa
                •   76        Cape Verde
                •   76        Congo
                •   76        Mauritania
                •   76        Senegal
                •   74        Mali
                •   74        Namibia
                •   73        Ghana
                •   72        Tanzania
                •   71        Central African Republic
                •   71        Grenada
                •   71        Jamaica
                •   71        St Vincent, Grenadines
                •   71        Sudan
                •   70        Antigua, Barbuda
                •   70        Benin
                •   70        Botswana
                •   70        Rwanda
                •   70        Togo
                •   69        Burundi
                •   69        Cote d’Ivoire
                •   69        Ethiopia
                •   69        Malawi
                •   69        Niger
                •   68        Angola
                •   68        Burkina Faso
                •   68        Chad
                •   68        Djibouti
                •   68        Somalia
                •   68        Swaziland
                •   67        Dominica
                •   67        Guinea
                •   67        Guinea-Bissau
                •   67        Haiti
                •   67        Lesotho
                •   67        Liberia
                •   67        Saint Kitts
                •   67        Sao Tome
                •   66        Gambia
                •   64        Cameroon
                •   64        Gabon
                •   64        Sierra Leone
                •   64        Mozambique
                •   62        Saint Lucia
                •   59        Equatorial Guinea

      A least developed country (LDC) is a country that, according to the United Nations, exhibits the lowest indicators of socioeconomic development, with the lowest Human Development Index ratings of all countries in the world. A country is classified as a Least Developed Country if it meets three criteria:

      Poverty (adjustable criterion: three-year average GNI per capita of less than US $992, which must exceed $1,190 to leave the list as of 2012)

      Human resource weakness (based on indicators of nutrition, health, education and adult literacy) and

      Economic vulnerability (based on instability of agricultural production, instability of exports of goods and services, economic importance of non-traditional activities, merchandise export concentration, handicap of economic smallness, and the percentage of population displaced by natural disasters)

      34 of the 47 LDCs are sub-Saharan African. There are a combined 48 sub-Saharan countries with a total population of one billion earning an annual per capita GDP of $1,720 in 2014 USD and a life expectancy of 57 years.

      In the 1980s when there was still European colonialism, sub-Saharan Africa’s Human Development Index was equal to Southeast Asia’s. Now with Black rule, it has been left far behind.

    • Rob

      Primitive Traits

      Blacks are a separate species from Whites and Asians

      In addition to brain size are differences in brain shape, fissuration, number of pyramidal neurons and supra-grandular layer thickness. The depth of fissuration is related to superior intelligence and the brains of Whites have deeper fissures in the frontal and occipital regions. The supra-grandular layer of Blacks’ brains is 16% smaller than it is for Whites’ brains.

      Blacks are the only racial group with no DNA from the large-brained Neanderthals, and also the only race without the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which produces increased brain volume.

      Even before birth, population group differences in average brain size are found from the ninth week of intrauterine life with White fetuses averaging larger brain cases and smaller faces than Black fetuses, with the differences becoming more prominent over the course of fetal development.

      Weighing brains at autopsy, Whites averaged heavier brains than Blacks and had more complex convolutions and larger frontal lobes. Subsequent studies have found an average Black–White difference of about 100 g. Studies have found that the more White admixture (judged independently from skin color), the greater the average brain weight in Blacks. In a study of 1,261 American adults, Ho et al. (1980) found that 811 White Americans averaged 1,323 g and 450 Black Americans averaged 1,223 g. Since the Blacks and Whites were similar in body size, differences in body size cannot explain away the differences in brain weight.

      The same three-way pattern of race differences has been found using the simplest culture-free cognitive measures such as reaction time tasks, which 9- to 12-year-old children perform in less than 1 s. Lynn (2006) found that East Asian children from Hong Kong and Japan were faster than European children from Britain and Ireland, who in turn were faster than African children from South Africa. Using similar tasks, this pattern of racial differences was also found in California (Jensen, 1998; Rushton & Jensen, 2005). Within each group, the children with higher IQ scores perform faster those with lower scores.

      Race differences start in the womb. Blacks are born earlier and grow quicker than Whites and Asians. The three-way race pattern occurs in milestones such as sexual maturity, family stability, crime rates, and population growth.

      Black babies mature more quickly than White babies, while Asian babies mature more slowly. Black babies in a sitting position are more able to keep their heads up and backs straight from the start. White babies often need six to eight weeks to do these things. It is unlikely that social factors could produce these differences. A basic law of biology shows that longer infancy is related to greater brain growth.

      Black babies spend the least time in the womb. In America, 51% of Black children have been born by week 39 of pregnancy compared with 33% of White children. In Europe, Black babies of even professional mothers are born earlier than White babies.

      Black children sit, crawl, walk, and put on their own clothes earlier than Whites or Asians. The findings are measured by such tests as Bayley’s Scales of Mental and Motor Development and the Cambridge Neonatal Scales.

      Asian children, on the other hand, mature more slowly than do White children. Asian children often do not walk until 13 months. Walking starts at 12 months for white children and 11 months for Black children.

      In a combination of 19 studies on Black and White brain sizes, every single one shows Whites with a significantly larger brain size than Blacks. The calculated average White brain is 1398g and 1438cc while the average Black brain is 1275g and 1343cc – 91% and 93% of the average White brain. The heritability of brain size is extremely strong at 0.90 and not one study to date has shown larger brain size for Blacks, nor has any study shown anywhere close to equal brain size or structure for Blacks and Whites.

      The White brain has a high degree of fissuring (higher complexity) and the Black brain has a lower degree of fissuring (lower complexity) in the cerebral cortex of their brains, where abstract and conceptual thought is performed.

      Blacks have smaller skulls than Whites and a lower brain capacity. The long, narrow skull of Blacks is superior at dissipating heat and the more spherical skulls of Whites better retains heat which is explainable by the fact that Blacks evolved in a hot climate (Africa) and Whites evolved in a cold climate (Europe).

      Prognathism, the absence of “Facial flatness”, is significantly higher in Blacks than Whites and even higher in apes. The facial angle for Whites is 82°, 70° for Blacks as well as H.Habilis and H.Erectus, and 60° for gorillas. Prognathism is associated with a sloping forehead, which corresponds to a smaller frontal lobe, which is the part of the brain responsible for abstract and conceptual thinking.

      Blacks have higher rates of primitive traits compared to Whites. Blacks have more robust cranial bones, simpler cranial sutures, a higher rate of unclosed sutures, a lower cephalic index, a higher rate of saggital keel, more post-orbital constriction, a more sloped forehead, more rectangular eye sockets, a wider nasal index, less nasal prominence, a higher rate of joined nasal bones, a higher rate of sub-nasal prognathism, a lower facial angle, the presence of the “Simian shelf”, a more rectangular palate, larger and wider-apart teeth, less spinal curvature, shorter spinal length, a lower sacral index, and longer arms and legs.

      One can undeniably attribute the vast majority of these traits more strongly to chimpanzees, gorillas, H.Erectus, and archaic H.Sapiens compared to modern anatomical humans, hence justifying the label “Primitive.”

      The dome of the Asian skull is round and the face is flat. Although the Caucasian skull is a bit longer, it is very similar to the Asian skull, indicating that the Asians and Caucasians did not separate into two races all that long ago, or that there was interbreeding between their lineages.

      The African skull is quite different from the Asian and Caucasian skulls, indicating a much greater genetic distance between Eurasians and Africans than between Europeans and Asians. Compared to Asian and Caucasian skulls, the African skull is narrower. The bones of the skull (and the rest of the body) are denser and thicker. The eye sockets are rounder and proportionately larger and the distance between them is greater. The slight bump at the top of the head suggests a “saggital keel,” a ridge along the top of the head from the forehead to the back of the skull for attaching chewing muscles and strengthening the skull from blows received in fighting. The opening for the nose is wider, the nose bones protrude less, and the teeth more massive, with the incisors meeting at an angle.

      The most noticeable difference is the protruding jaw, a condition known as “prognathism,” a trait found in apes and in ancient human fossil skulls, even those not from Africa. The considerable gap between the cheekbones (“zygomatic arches”) and the indentation on the sides behind the eye sockets (“post-orbital constriction”) indicate that the more massive jaw was serviced by powerful chewing muscles that passed through the gap.

      At birth, Africans have fewer cranial bones than Eurasians. The skull bones (and other bones) in Africans are thicker and denser, even in the fetus, making them more difficult to break, which is an aid in head butting and fighting as blows to the head can easily be fatal. Some anthropologists believe skulls got thicker about 1.6 to 1.8 million years ago when erectus developed clubs as weapons, resulting in more cracked skulls. Denser bones (and less fat) make Africans less buoyant and less capable swimmers, but reduce their susceptibility to osteoporosis.

      The long, narrow skull of the Africans (dolichocephalic) loses heat the fastest and the more spherical skull of the Asians (brachycephalic) better retains heat. Comparing black, white, and Northeast Asian (Mongol) skulls, the black skull is more simian as it is long and narrow. The white and Mongol skulls are rounder and about the same size, but the cheek bones flair out more on the Mongol skull. There is a correlation of 0.37 between cranial capacity and the cephalic index, i.e., the long, narrow skulls of Africans have a smaller cranial capacity.

      The African skulls are very different from the skulls of all the other populations, even the Australian aborigines. The Black skull is smaller, with less space in the forehead, but proportionately more at the back.

      The difference between Eurasians and Africans in their nasal spines is dramatic. The anterior nasal spine is a small bone that extends outward from the middle of the base of the nasal cavity; it supports a nose that protrudes. The nasal spine is prominent in Caucasians, less so in Asians and small or absent in Africans. The race of a skull can be determined by placing a pen across the base of the nasal cavity. If the pen is held in place by the nasal spine, the skull is Caucasian; if it rolls off, the skull is African; chimpanzees and gorillas also lack a true anterior nasal spine.

      Simian prognathism (a protruding jaw with a recessed nose) is a very primitive trait that is characteristic of apes. A jutting jaw is needed if the teeth are large, plus it is an advantage in fighting as it permits a bigger bite and makes the eyes less vulnerable.

      Prognathism, the absence of “facial flatness” can be measured by means of the facial angle, the slope of the face from the forehead to the jaws. The facial angle is 70° for the “Black” (i.e., Congoids); H. habilis and H. erectus also have a facial angle of about 70°. An angle of 60° has been given for the Hottentots and Bushmen, and 66.6° for the Australian aborigines below the nose. Orangutans have a facial angle of 58°. A facial angle of 100° as the epitome of beauty. Africans have “remarkable prognathism.”

      A protruding jaw is usually associated with a sloping forehead which indicates a smaller prefrontal cortex, the area of the brain that handles planning, inhibition, and self control. Thus, the absence of prognathism is seen as less bestial and an indication of higher intelligence.

      In Eurasians, the upper teeth usually overlap the lower incisors, but in Africans the upper incisors are mounted in the jaw at an angle and project forward so that they meet the lower at an angle. The gorilla’s teeth meet at an even greater angle. African teeth are more primitive than Eurasian teeth and there are many other differences in their structures.

      A larger diameter pelvis will be selected for if baby head size, and therefore brain size, increases. Africans, with the smallest skulls, also have the smallest pelvis and give birth more easily. Pelvic measurements can be used not only to distinguish males from females, but even American white males from American black males, with about 75% accuracy.

      The sacral index is the breadth of the sacrum (the five fused vertebrae that are connected to the pelvis) as a percentage of its length. Walking upright increased the sacral index, enabling the sacrum to better support the internal organs, so a low sacral index is more primitive and a high sacral index is more modern. As usual, Blacks are closest to the apes. Note that the Blacks and the Andamenese are close together, especially for the females. The hips of blacks are also narrower, which makes walking and running more efficient for them. Overall Europeans have the highest sexual dimorphism, even before birth, and Asians the lowest.

      Vertebrae can also be used to help determine race. A “simian notch,” a much narrower second sacral vertebra, that is much narrower laterally than the first or third vertebrae, is characteristic of pongids [apes] and is frequent in Africans, among whom it appears to be a primary character.

      The heel bone projects more in Africans and differs in length, breadth, shape, and position, giving Africans a greater ability to sprint and jump. This is one reason why Africans excel in sports that require jumping. African feet are flatter and there is more separation between the first and second toes.

      Blacks have arms which are longer, relative to body height, than those of Whites. This feature, together with their much thicker cranial bones, gives Black athletes an advantage over Whites. The skeletal and muscular peculiarities of Blacks’ lower limbs have given them considerable success as sprinters, but have left them relative undistinguished as distance runners.

      The hair of a Black is black, crispy, and “woolly” in texture, it is flat and elliptical with no central canal or duct like the hair of Whites.

      The nose is thick, broad and flat, often turned up nostrils exposing the red inner lining of the mucous membrane similar to an ape.

      The arms and legs of the Black are relatively longer than the White. The humerus is shorter and the forearm longer thereby approximating the simian form.

      The eyes are prominent, iris black and the orbits large. The eye often has a yellowish sclerotic coat over it like that of a gorilla.

      The Black has a shorter trunk the cross-section of the chest is more circular than Whites. The pelvis is narrower and longer as it is in an ape.

      The mouth is wide with very thick, large and protruding lips.

      Black skin has a thick superficial layer which resists scratching and impedes the penetration of germs.

      The Black has a larger and shorter neck akin to that of anthropoids.

      The cranial sutures are more simple than in the white type and close together earlier.

      The ears of Blacks are roundish, rather small, standing somewhat high and detached thus approaching the simian form.

      The Black is more powerfully developed from the pelvis down and the White more powerfully developed in the chest.

      The jaw is larger and stronger and protrudes outward which, along with lower retreating forehead, gives a facial angle of 68 to 70 degrees as opposed to a facial angle of 80 to 82 degrees for Whites.

      The hands and fingers are proportionally narrower and longer. The wrist and ankles are shorter and more robust.

      The frontal and paricial bones of the cranium are less excavated and less capacious. The skull is thicker especially on the sides.

      The brain of the Black on the average is 9% smaller than Whites.

      The teeth are larger and are wider apart than in the White race.

      The three curvatures of the spine are less pronounced in the Black than in the White and thus more characteristic of an ape.

      The femur of the Black is less oblique, the tibia (shin bone) more curved and bent forward, the calf of the leg high and but little developed.

      The heel is broad and projecting, the foot long and broad but slightly arched causing flat soles, the great toe is shorter than in the White.

      The two bones proper of the nose are occasionally united, as in apes.

      Genetic distance is a measure of the genetic divergence between species or between populations within a species. Populations with many similar genes have small genetic distances. This indicates that they are closely related and have a recent common ancestor.

      Blacks have a genetic distance of 0.23 from Whites and Asians, but only 0.17 from Erectus. That means Blacks are more closely related to archaic hominids than to modern man.

      This is intuitive because we understand that humans evolved from Blacks in Africa.

      For comparison, the genetic distance between Blacks and modern man is greater than the genetic distance between the common chimpanzee and the bonobo (0.103, or half the Black-White distance) and between Gorilla gorilla and the Gorilla beringei (0.04, or 1/6 the Black/White distance) which are classified as separate species.

      So to be consistent and objective with taxonomic classification systems Blacks and Whites should be classified into separate species, or at least into different subspecies.

      The genetic distance between the races of man is also much greater than that between the breeds of dog, and anyone who has experience with dogs knows what a huge difference breed makes, not only in physical appearance but also in behavior and intelligence.

      Blacks are the only race with no DNA from the large-brain Neanderthal (Blacks have 2% archaic admixture). Whites are hybridized with Neanderthal, and Asians have both Neanderthal and Denisovan DNA.

      Modern man has on average 5% Neanderthal DNA, therefore he would be an F4 (4th filial generation from full purebred Neanderthal). That is about the same as most claiming Cherokee ancestors today.

      It is equivalent to having one Neanderthal great-great-great-grandparent. Blacks also coexisted and interbred with archaic hominids (heidelbergensis) for longer than those who left Africa.

      Blacks also the only race without the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which produces increased brain volume.

    • Read this, and understand.

      https://www.theatlantic.com/national/archive/2013/05/why-people-keep-misunderstanding-the-connection-between-race-and-iq/275876/

      TLDR: the disparity between IQ and race is not due to genetic inferiority or superiority, rather, socioeconomic position. The more opportunity someone has to learn, the more they will learn.

      Edit: Given what you’re trying to prove, some of the sources for this are horrifically outdated. Can you bring something with attribution only to sources within the last ten years?

      • Rob

        IQ studies norm for every conceivable variable — including SES.

        These have been supported by twins and trans-racial adoptions studies.

        You are confusing knowledge and intelligence.

        This is not difficult to understand; modern man has larger, denser, faster, and more complex brain than Blacks.

        • Did you receive my last comment? At first I thought it was a spambot with false-positives, but now I think it’s a site owner or mod censoring dissenting opinions. If the person responsible would kindly step forward and explain what was wrong with my post either here or via PM, I would be grateful.

          I mean, if there’s nothing wrong with my format or language, I’d certainly reach out to as many social media hubs as possible to ensure the world knows that The Alternate Hypothesis seeks to scrub free speech. I sincerely hope that I’ve come to that conclusion in error, and present the opertunity to assuage my concerns.

          Screenshot of original reply: https://uploads.disquscdn.com/images/6c04bb691c90a07af30e0bf51ded3a020e34c13329b6605c1cbf9a25d3419fa9.png

          • Rob

            “You’ll also note that as the years drag on, minority IQ rates are increasing due to greater socio economic potential.”

            The 1.1 SD IQ gap between Whites and American Blacks (average 24% White admixture) is unchanged.

            Interestingly, in the 20-year period from 1994-2014, the Black-White difference increased on the SAT-verbal from .91 to .96 SDs, and on the SAT-math from .95 to 1.03 SDs, despite substantial resources targeted to reducing this gap.

          • Not speaking of gaps, I’m speaking of general increases. The situation for all races are increasing with tech and education advancement. Also, show me the links to your information, please.

            When test scores falter, socioeconomic position is the root (as I’ve said before) Please purview this link. https://fivethirtyeight.com/features/black-and-hispanic-students-are-making-meaningful-gains-but-its-hard-to-tell/

            Gaps stay in place due to the system of advantages and disadvantages that comes from a country with a higher nurture quality for the majority race.

          • Rob

            You’re referring to the Flynn Effect.

            As I stated, the 1.1 SD IQ gap is still present — and that includes tests such as Raven’s, digit span, and mental chronometry. As I posted, SATs are highly correlated to IQ and that gap is constant too.

            The Flynn Effect shows an increase in average intelligence but the major component of the increase comes from the lowest quartile. The reported gains of the Flynn Effect decrease with increasing IQ until they become flat at the highest levels.

            So what it amounts to is that smart people aren’t getting any smarter, in fact, their IQ may even be trending down lately. But a large number of people in the very lowest category have had significant gains to their IQ, which raises the average.

            This lowest IQ category includes people whose brain development was depressed for physical reasons, i.e., childhood malnutrition and childhood disease. Since increasing wealth and better medical care have reduced the prevalence of both malnutrition and disease, it seems reasonable that this would raise the average IQ as well.

            In support of this, many studies report that the Flynn Effect stopped in the 1980’s – 90’s for many industrialized countries, and average IQ is no longer increasing. This could be because childhood malnutrition and disease have become non-factors there; they have already been improved as far as they will go and so average IQ has stopped rising and yet the racial IQ gap after renorming remains the same.

            An October 2006 study, based on large standardisation samples for four major IQ tests (Wonderlic Personnel Test, the Kaufmann Assessment Battery for Children, the Woodcock-Johnson test, and the Differential Ability Scale), showed an IQ gain of less than 1 point for blacks in IQ over the last 30 years.

            The Black-White IQ difference in the United States has remained at 15 to 18 points, or 1.1 standard deviations, for a century. It was first clearly established in 1917 by an analysis in the U.S. Army of 23,596 Black draftees who had an IQ of 83, versus 100 for Whites. Military samples continued to show the same gap during World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War era.

            The bottom line is, in the 100 year history of intelligence tests Blacks have always scored one SD lower than Whites.

            Look up the term “measure invariance”. The Black-White score gap is measure invariant. The generational gap is not. The former represents in full a latent ability gap. The latter does not. Here is the important part: Modern statistical modeling allows one to determine if score differences represent latent ability differences. It has been shown that the Black-White gap represents in full a LATENT ABILITY gap and that the generational gap does not. Here is an excerpt from one important paper:

            “Flynn effect has been regarded to have large implications for the comparison of these B–W differences (e.g., Flynn, 1987, 1999c). Because the current approach (MGCFA) was previously applied in U.S. B–W comparisons, we have the opportunity to compare those B–W analyses to the current analyses of different cohorts. Here, we use results from Dolan (2000) and Dolan and Hamaker (2001), who investigated the nature of racial differences on the WISC-R and the K-ABC scales. We standardized the AIC values of Models 1 to 4a within each of the seven data sets to compare the results of the tests of factorial invariance on the Flynn effects and the racial groups. These standardized AIC values are reported in Fig. 2……It appears therefore that the
            nature of the Flynn effect is qualitatively different from the nature of B–W differences in the United States. Each comparison of groups should be investigated separately. IQ gaps between cohorts do not teach us anything about IQ gaps between contemporary groups, except that each IQ gap should not be confused with real (i.e., latent) differences in intelligence. Only after a proper analysis of measurement invariance of these IQ gaps is conducted can anything be concluded concerning true differences between groups.”

            Your analyses are interesting but uninformative, because none of them determined if the various group score differences were true differences.

            Refer to:

            Wicherts et al. Are intelligence tests measurement invariant over time? Investigating the nature of the Flynn effect

            Lubke et al. On the relationship between sources of within-and between-group differences and measurement invariance in the common factor model

          • Rob

            “When test scores falter, socioeconomic position is the root (as I’ve said before) …..”

            You just keeping making stuff up.

            THE GROWING CORRELATION BETWEEN RACE AND SAT SCORES:

            NEW FINDINGS FROM CALIFORNIA

            October 2015

            Saul Geiser

            Center for Studies in Higher Education

            University of California, Berkeley

            ABSTRACT

            This paper presents new and surprising findings on the relationship between race and SAT scores. The findings are based on the population of California residents who applied for admission to the University of California from 1994 through 2011, a sample of over 1.1 million students. The UC data show that socioeconomic background factors – family income, parental education, and race/ethnicity – account for a large and growing share of the variance in students’ SAT scores over the past twenty years. More than a third of the variance in SAT scores can now be predicted by factors known at students’ birth, up from a quarter of the variance in 1994. Of those factors, moreover, race has become the strongest predictor. Rather than declining in salience, race and ethnicity are now more important than either family income or parental education in accounting for test score differences. It must be cautioned that these findings are preliminary, and more research is needed to determine whether the California data reflect a broader national trend. But if these findings are representative, they have important implications for the ongoing debate over both affirmative action and standardized testing in college admissions.

          • Rob

            So again………….. do you have any evidence of racial intellectual parity?

          • Indeed I do. The lag is caused by, I reiterate yet again, socioeconomic constructs. http://www.hoover.org/research/racial-parity-hits-wall

            Actually, are you even reading any of the links I’m providing? It doesn’t seem like you are.

          • Rob

            “Actually, are you even reading any of the links I’m providing? It doesn’t seem like you are.”

            Provide an excerpt from that link which you believes demonstrates that Blacks are as intelligent and modern man.

            I don’t think YOU are reading your own links.

          • Rob

            “Modern man includes every member of human society today, every person who qualifies as a homo sapien. That includes blacks.”

            LOL….. you know we can see them, right? They even look like apes!

            Blacks are a separate species from Whites and Asians

            In addition to brain size are differences in brain shape, fissuration, number of pyramidal neurons and supra-grandular layer thickness. The depth of fissuration is related to superior intelligence and the brains of Whites have deeper fissures in the frontal and occipital regions. The supra-grandular layer of Blacks’ brains is 16% smaller than it is for Whites’ brains.

            Blacks are the only racial group with no DNA from the large-brained Neanderthals, and also the only race without the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which produces increased brain volume.

            Even before birth, population group differences in average brain size are found from the ninth week of intrauterine life with White fetuses averaging larger brain cases and smaller faces than Black fetuses, with the differences becoming more prominent over the course of fetal development.

            Weighing brains at autopsy, Whites averaged heavier brains than Blacks and had more complex convolutions and larger frontal lobes. Subsequent studies have found an average Black–White difference of about 100 g. Studies have found that the more White admixture (judged independently from skin color), the greater the average brain weight in Blacks. In a study of 1,261 American adults, Ho et al. (1980) found that 811 White Americans averaged 1,323 g and 450 Black Americans averaged 1,223 g. Since the Blacks and Whites were similar in body size, differences in body size cannot explain away the differences in brain weight.

            The same three-way pattern of race differences has been found using the simplest culture-free cognitive measures such as reaction time tasks, which 9- to 12-year-old children perform in less than 1 s. Lynn (2006) found that East Asian children from Hong Kong and Japan were faster than European children from Britain and Ireland, who in turn were faster than African children from South Africa. Using similar tasks, this pattern of racial differences was also found in California (Jensen, 1998; Rushton & Jensen, 2005). Within each group, the children with higher IQ scores perform faster those with lower scores.

            Race differences start in the womb. Blacks are born earlier and grow quicker than Whites and Asians. The three-way race pattern occurs in milestones such as sexual maturity, family stability, crime rates, and population growth.

            Black babies mature more quickly than White babies, while Asian babies mature more slowly. Black babies in a sitting position are more able to keep their heads up and backs straight from the start. White babies often need six to eight weeks to do these things. It is unlikely that social factors could produce these differences. A basic law of biology shows that longer infancy is related to greater brain growth.

            Black babies spend the least time in the womb. In America, 51% of Black children have been born by week 39 of pregnancy compared with 33% of White children. In Europe, Black babies of even professional mothers are born earlier than White babies.

            Black children sit, crawl, walk, and put on their own clothes earlier than Whites or Asians. The findings are measured by such tests as Bayley’s Scales of Mental and Motor Development and the Cambridge Neonatal Scales.

            Asian children, on the other hand, mature more slowly than do White children. Asian children often do not walk until 13 months. Walking starts at 12 months for white children and 11 months for Black children.

            In a combination of 19 studies on Black and White brain sizes, every single one shows Whites with a significantly larger brain size than Blacks. The calculated average White brain is 1398g and 1438cc while the average Black brain is 1275g and 1343cc – 91% and 93% of the average White brain. The heritability of brain size is extremely strong at 0.90 and not one study to date has shown larger brain size for Blacks, nor has any study shown anywhere close to equal brain size or structure for Blacks and Whites.

            The White brain has a high degree of fissuring (higher complexity) and the Black brain has a lower degree of fissuring (lower complexity) in the cerebral cortex of their brains, where abstract and conceptual thought is performed.

            Blacks have smaller skulls than Whites and a lower brain capacity. The long, narrow skull of Blacks is superior at dissipating heat and the more spherical skulls of Whites better retains heat which is explainable by the fact that Blacks evolved in a hot climate (Africa) and Whites evolved in a cold climate (Europe).

            Prognathism, the absence of “Facial flatness”, is significantly higher in Blacks than Whites and even higher in apes. The facial angle for Whites is 82°, 70° for Blacks as well as H.Habilis and H.Erectus, and 60° for gorillas. Prognathism is associated with a sloping forehead, which corresponds to a smaller frontal lobe, which is the part of the brain responsible for abstract and conceptual thinking.

            Blacks have higher rates of primitive traits compared to Whites. Blacks have more robust cranial bones, simpler cranial sutures, a higher rate of unclosed sutures, a lower cephalic index, a higher rate of saggital keel, more post-orbital constriction, a more sloped forehead, more rectangular eye sockets, a wider nasal index, less nasal prominence, a higher rate of joined nasal bones, a higher rate of sub-nasal prognathism, a lower facial angle, the presence of the “Simian shelf”, a more rectangular palate, larger and wider-apart teeth, less spinal curvature, shorter spinal length, a lower sacral index, and longer arms and legs.

            One can undeniably attribute the vast majority of these traits more strongly to chimpanzees, gorillas, H.Erectus, and archaic H.Sapiens compared to modern anatomical humans, hence justifying the label “Primitive.”

            The dome of the Asian skull is round and the face is flat. Although the Caucasian skull is a bit longer, it is very similar to the Asian skull, indicating that the Asians and Caucasians did not separate into two races all that long ago, or that there was interbreeding between their lineages.

            The African skull is quite different from the Asian and Caucasian skulls, indicating a much greater genetic distance between Eurasians and Africans than between Europeans and Asians. Compared to Asian and Caucasian skulls, the African skull is narrower. The bones of the skull (and the rest of the body) are denser and thicker. The eye sockets are rounder and proportionately larger and the distance between them is greater. The slight bump at the top of the head suggests a “saggital keel,” a ridge along the top of the head from the forehead to the back of the skull for attaching chewing muscles and strengthening the skull from blows received in fighting. The opening for the nose is wider, the nose bones protrude less, and the teeth more massive, with the incisors meeting at an angle.

            The most noticeable difference is the protruding jaw, a condition known as “prognathism,” a trait found in apes and in ancient human fossil skulls, even those not from Africa. The considerable gap between the cheekbones (“zygomatic arches”) and the indentation on the sides behind the eye sockets (“post-orbital constriction”) indicate that the more massive jaw was serviced by powerful chewing muscles that passed through the gap.

            At birth, Africans have fewer cranial bones than Eurasians. The skull bones (and other bones) in Africans are thicker and denser, even in the fetus, making them more difficult to break, which is an aid in head butting and fighting as blows to the head can easily be fatal. Some anthropologists believe skulls got thicker about 1.6 to 1.8 million years ago when erectus developed clubs as weapons, resulting in more cracked skulls. Denser bones (and less fat) make Africans less buoyant and less capable swimmers, but reduce their susceptibility to osteoporosis.

            The long, narrow skull of the Africans (dolichocephalic) loses heat the fastest and the more spherical skull of the Asians (brachycephalic) better retains heat. Comparing black, white, and Northeast Asian (Mongol) skulls, the black skull is more simian as it is long and narrow. The white and Mongol skulls are rounder and about the same size, but the cheek bones flair out more on the Mongol skull. There is a correlation of 0.37 between cranial capacity and the cephalic index, i.e., the long, narrow skulls of Africans have a smaller cranial capacity.

            The African skulls are very different from the skulls of all the other populations, even the Australian aborigines. The Black skull is smaller, with less space in the forehead, but proportionately more at the back.

            The difference between Eurasians and Africans in their nasal spines is dramatic. The anterior nasal spine is a small bone that extends outward from the middle of the base of the nasal cavity; it supports a nose that protrudes. The nasal spine is prominent in Caucasians, less so in Asians and small or absent in Africans. The race of a skull can be determined by placing a pen across the base of the nasal cavity. If the pen is held in place by the nasal spine, the skull is Caucasian; if it rolls off, the skull is African; chimpanzees and gorillas also lack a true anterior nasal spine.

            Simian prognathism (a protruding jaw with a recessed nose) is a very primitive trait that is characteristic of apes. A jutting jaw is needed if the teeth are large, plus it is an advantage in fighting as it permits a bigger bite and makes the eyes less vulnerable.

            Prognathism, the absence of “facial flatness” can be measured by means of the facial angle, the slope of the face from the forehead to the jaws. The facial angle is 70° for the “Black” (i.e., Congoids); H. habilis and H. erectus also have a facial angle of about 70°. An angle of 60° has been given for the Hottentots and Bushmen, and 66.6° for the Australian aborigines below the nose. Orangutans have a facial angle of 58°. A facial angle of 100° as the epitome of beauty. Africans have “remarkable prognathism.”

            A protruding jaw is usually associated with a sloping forehead which indicates a smaller prefrontal cortex, the area of the brain that handles planning, inhibition, and self control. Thus, the absence of prognathism is seen as less bestial and an indication of higher intelligence.

            In Eurasians, the upper teeth usually overlap the lower incisors, but in Africans the upper incisors are mounted in the jaw at an angle and project forward so that they meet the lower at an angle. The gorilla’s teeth meet at an even greater angle. African teeth are more primitive than Eurasian teeth and there are many other differences in their structures.

            A larger diameter pelvis will be selected for if baby head size, and therefore brain size, increases. Africans, with the smallest skulls, also have the smallest pelvis and give birth more easily. Pelvic measurements can be used not only to distinguish males from females, but even American white males from American black males, with about 75% accuracy.

            The sacral index is the breadth of the sacrum (the five fused vertebrae that are connected to the pelvis) as a percentage of its length. Walking upright increased the sacral index, enabling the sacrum to better support the internal organs, so a low sacral index is more primitive and a high sacral index is more modern. As usual, Blacks are closest to the apes. Note that the Blacks and the Andamenese are close together, especially for the females. The hips of blacks are also narrower, which makes walking and running more efficient for them. Overall Europeans have the highest sexual dimorphism, even before birth, and Asians the lowest.

            Vertebrae can also be used to help determine race. A “simian notch,” a much narrower second sacral vertebra, that is much narrower laterally than the first or third vertebrae, is characteristic of pongids [apes] and is frequent in Africans, among whom it appears to be a primary character.

            The heel bone projects more in Africans and differs in length, breadth, shape, and position, giving Africans a greater ability to sprint and jump. This is one reason why Africans excel in sports that require jumping. African feet are flatter and there is more separation between the first and second toes.

            Blacks have arms which are longer, relative to body height, than those of Whites. This feature, together with their much thicker cranial bones, gives Black athletes an advantage over Whites. The skeletal and muscular peculiarities of Blacks’ lower limbs have given them considerable success as sprinters, but have left them relative undistinguished as distance runners.

            The hair of a Black is black, crispy, and “woolly” in texture, it is flat and elliptical with no central canal or duct like the hair of Whites.

            The nose is thick, broad and flat, often turned up nostrils exposing the red inner lining of the mucous membrane similar to an ape.

            The arms and legs of the Black are relatively longer than the White. The humerus is shorter and the forearm longer thereby approximating the simian form.

            The eyes are prominent, iris black and the orbits large. The eye often has a yellowish sclerotic coat over it like that of a gorilla.

            The Black has a shorter trunk the cross-section of the chest is more circular than Whites. The pelvis is narrower and longer as it is in an ape.

            The mouth is wide with very thick, large and protruding lips.

            Black skin has a thick superficial layer which resists scratching and impedes the penetration of germs.

            The Black has a larger and shorter neck akin to that of anthropoids.

            The cranial sutures are more simple than in the white type and close together earlier.

            The ears of Blacks are roundish, rather small, standing somewhat high and detached thus approaching the simian form.

            The Black is more powerfully developed from the pelvis down and the White more powerfully developed in the chest.

            The jaw is larger and stronger and protrudes outward which, along with lower retreating forehead, gives a facial angle of 68 to 70 degrees as opposed to a facial angle of 80 to 82 degrees for Whites.

            The hands and fingers are proportionally narrower and longer. The wrist and ankles are shorter and more robust.

            The frontal and paricial bones of the cranium are less excavated and less capacious. The skull is thicker especially on the sides.

            The brain of the Black on the average is 9% smaller than Whites.

            The teeth are larger and are wider apart than in the White race.

            The three curvatures of the spine are less pronounced in the Black than in the White and thus more characteristic of an ape.

            The femur of the Black is less oblique, the tibia (shin bone) more curved and bent forward, the calf of the leg high and but little developed.

            The heel is broad and projecting, the foot long and broad but slightly arched causing flat soles, the great toe is shorter than in the White.

            The two bones proper of the nose are occasionally united, as in apes.

            Genetic distance is a measure of the genetic divergence between species or between populations within a species. Populations with many similar genes have small genetic distances. This indicates that they are closely related and have a recent common ancestor.

            Blacks have a genetic distance of 0.23 from Whites and Asians, but only 0.17 from Erectus. That means Blacks are more closely related to archaic hominids than to modern man.

            This is intuitive because we understand that humans evolved from Blacks in Africa.

            For comparison, the genetic distance between Blacks and modern man is greater than the genetic distance between the common chimpanzee and the bonobo (0.103, or half the Black-White distance) and between Gorilla gorilla and the Gorilla beringei (0.04, or 1/6 the Black/White distance) which are classified as separate species.

            So to be consistent and objective with taxonomic classification systems Blacks and Whites should be classified into separate species, or at least into different subspecies.

            The genetic distance between the races of man is also much greater than that between the breeds of dog, and anyone who has experience with dogs knows what a huge difference breed makes, not only in physical appearance but also in behavior and intelligence.

            Blacks are the only race with no DNA from the large-brain Neanderthal (Blacks have 2% archaic admixture). Whites are hybridized with Neanderthal, and Asians have both Neanderthal and Denisovan DNA.

            Modern man has on average 5% Neanderthal DNA, therefore he would be an F4 (4th filial generation from full purebred Neanderthal). That is about the same as most claiming Cherokee ancestors today.

            It is equivalent to having one Neanderthal great-great-great-grandparent. Blacks also coexisted and interbred with archaic hominids (heidelbergensis) for longer than those who left Africa.

            Blacks also the only race without the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which produces increased brain volume.

          • http://www.upright-health.com/race.html

            Dolichocephalic skulls are not a trait unique to blacks.

            Also, I have yet to see the widely accepted, peer reviewed scholarly article that said those of African origin were not members of modern humanity. I’m absolutely certain that such a revelation would make waves.

          • Rob

            “I have yet to see the widely accepted, peer reviewed scholarly article that said those of African origin were not members of modern humanity.”

            No one will stated it directly, but look at the differences in genetic distance.

            The fact is., modern man was created by the hybridization with Neanderthals.

            Blacks are the only race with no DNA from the large-brain Neanderthals. That’s why Blacks have small brains and got left behind evolutionarily.

          • Rob

            Do you have any evidence of racial intellectual parity?

          • Rob

            Name a civilization (or even a written language) ever created by Blacks.

          • Atall Nobody

            Nok empire, Songhai empire, Mali empire, Timbuktu, Kingdom of Ghana, Axum empire and Mossi kingdoms. Your clearly not intelligent because you didn’t know this. You could have by researching this ONLINE, but instead you gave a claim with no evidence to back it up.

          • Robbie Smith

            “Nok empire, Songhai empire, Mali empire, Timbuktu, Kingdom of Ghana, Axum empire and Mossi kingdoms.”

            Just because you call something an empire or a kingdom doesn’t make it a civilization.

            No pre-contact Black society ever created a written language, or weaved cloth, or forged steel, or invented the wheel, or plow, or devised a calendar, or code of laws, or system of measurement, or math, or built a multi-story structure, or sewer, or drilled a well, or irrigated, or created any agriculture, or built a road, or sea-worthy vessel. They never domesticated animals, or exploited underground natural resources, or produced anything that could be considered a mechanical device.

            Timbuktu (University of Sankore) was only created in the 1300s. It was designed and constructed by architects from Spain and Cairo. The language of the university was Arabic. It’s not exactly a secret as the manuscripts still exist.

            Sub-Saharan Africans never created a written language.

            That “university” is what today we would call a madrasa, or an “Islamic learning center”.

          • Atall Nobody

            Kingdom of Benin To the south and west of Ife, near the delta of the Niger River, lay the kingdom of Benin (buh•NIHN). Like the Yoruba peo- ple of Ife and Oyo, the people of Benin made their homes in the forest. The first kings of Benin date from the 1200s. Like the Yoruba kings, the oba, or ruler, of Benin based his right to rule on claims of descent from the first king of Ife.In the 1400s, the oba named Ewuare made Benin into a major West African state. He did so by building a powerful army. He used it to control an area that by 1500 stretched from the Niger River delta in the east to what is today Lagos, Nigeria. Ewuare also strengthened Benin City by building walls around it. Inside the city, broad streets were lined by neat rows of houses.The huge palace contained many courtyards and works of art. Artists work-
            ing for the oba created magnificent brass heads of the royal family and copper figurines. Brass plaques on the walls and columns of the royal palace of the oba showed legends, historical scenes, and the deeds of the oba and his nobles. According to tradition, Benin artists learned their craft from an Ife artist brought to Benin by the oba to teach them.In the 1480s, Portuguese trading ships began to sail into Benin’s port at Gwatto. The Portuguese traded with Benin merchants for pepper, leopard skins, ivory, and enslaved persons. This began several centuries of European interference in Africa, during which they enslaved Africans and seized African territories for colonies. Meanwhile, East Africans—discussed in Section 3—prospered from trade and developed thriving cities and empires.

          • Atall Nobody

            The Ghana empire had a traded items of gold and salt. They mined the gold they mined the gold from shafts as deep as 100 feet. By the year 800 Ghana had become the land of gold. The king would demand taxes from the chiefs around the land. After wards the empire of Ghana was influenced by islamic religions and the reverted to Islamic beliefs. By the year 1235 the kingdom of Mali emerged.

          • Atall Nobody

            By 1235 the kingdom of Mali had emerged. Its founders were Mande-speaking people, who lived south of Ghana. Mali’s wealth, like Ghana’s, was built on gold. As Ghana remained weak, people who had been under its control began to act inde- pendently. In addition, miners found new gold deposits farther east. This caused the most impor- tant trade routes to shift eastward, which made a new group of people—the people of Mali— wealthy. It also enabled them to seize power.

          • Atall Nobody

            Sundiata Conquers an Empire Mali’s first great leader, Sundiata came to power by crushing a cruel, unpopular leader. Then, in the words of a Mande oral tradition, “the world knew no other master but Sundiata.” Sundiata became Mali’s mansa, or emperor. Through a series of military victories, he took over the kingdom of Ghana and the trading cities of Kumbi and Walata. A period of peace and prosperity followed. Mansa Musa Expands Mali Sundiata died in 1255. Some of Mali’s next rulers became Muslims. These African Muslim rulers built mosques, attended public prayers, and supported the preaching of Muslim holy men. The most famous of them was Mansa Musa who may have been Sundial’s grandnephew. Mansa Musa ruled from about 1312 to 1332.

          • Atall Nobody

            In 1324, Mansa Musa left Mali for the hajj to Mecca. On the trip, he gave away enormous amounts of gold. Because of this, Europeans learned of Mali’s wealth. In 1375, a Spanish mapmaker created an illustrated map showing Mansa Musa’s kingdom in western Africa. Drawn on the map is Mansa Musa holding a gold nugget.At the top of the map is Spain. At the bottom of Spain, the Mediterranean meets the Atlantic Ocean at the Strait of Gibraltar. South of Gibraltar is Africa. Filling most of the map is North Africa, with the Mediterranean extending east and the Atlantic west of Gibraltar.

          • Atall Nobody

            Even European s recongnized Mansa Musa empire.

          • Rob

            Name a single contribution from sub-Saharan Africans to the world.

            Blacks are the only race incapable of even providing for themselves.

            Whites have to provide food, medical, financial, and engineering aid to every Black nation. Blacks cannot survive without White charity. Blacks became an out-of-control invasive species after Whites domesticated them.

          • Rob

            “Have a laundary list of contributions…….”

            You didn’t comprehend what I wrote.

            I asked for a contribution from sub-Saharan Africans to the world.

            As I stated earlier, Blacks can only achieve because they are mixed with White genes or because they reside in White societies. Too few of them are smart enough to even build sufficient infrastructure to allow the Black intellectual elite to achieve.

            Also, Google: Black invention myths

          • Mali, one of the countries on the list is in Sub Saharan Africa. Also, the argument isn’t whether that region contributes to humanity. Not in the context of this dialogue. It’s the intelligence of blacks as a whole, yes? Look for no further proof than authors such as Maya Angelou or Obama, or any other upstanding man or woman of African descent.

            Just don’t try to move the goalposts, it’s petulant.

          • Rob

            “Just don’t try to move the goalposts, it’s petulant.”

            AGAIN you didn’t comprehend my challenge.

            Nonetheless, I’ll bite. What about Mali do you believe is a civilization?

          • David Seneder

            I dunno, I think this is a dead-end conversation wise.

            It’s a tangent as well.

          • It was an empire: http://www.sahistory.org.za/article/empire-mali-1230-1600

            I urge you, again, to read the links. I doubt you’d be bringing up such things if you did. Also @davidseneder:disqus if it is a tangent, it was formed by Rob, who asked about sub saharan african contributions in the first place, which in and of itself would not be an indicator of black “dumbness”. Not with the intelligent blacks that inhabit other parts of the world.

            I shouldn’t need to draw a bead on the bad faith arguments you’re putting up here,

          • Rob

            “It was an empire…..”

            Huh?

            Blacks never even created a written language.

            And that “empire” was created post-contact.

            What about Mali impressed you?

          • Haven’t studied Mali, don’t need to to know that it was a civilization whether it impressed me or not wasn’t in your original request.

            At this point, I have trouble believing that further conversation with you will be even remotely intellectually stimulating. On both ends, we have gone the path of “Nuh uh!” “Uh huh!”. I think you are wrong. You think I am wrong. And neither of us, I believe, will budge.

            Strangely enough, I’m not irritated at that. I appreciate your time investment, nonetheless. You’ve served to ward off my boredom for a bit.

          • Rob

            “Haven’t studied Mali……..”

            ROTFLAMO!!!

            Of course not. Yet you provided that to me as evidence of a Black civilization. Just like that other link you gave me to demonstrate racial intellectual parity and it did no such thing.

            The fact is, Whites are only 10% of the world’s population, yet are the most industrious and innovative race the world has known. Whites unlocked the secrets of DNA, and relativity, launched satellites, created automation, discovered electricity and nuclear energy, invented automobiles, aircraft, submarines, radio, television, computers, medicine, telephones, light bulbs, photography, and countless other technological miracles. Whites were the first to circumnavigate the planet by ship, and orbit it by spacecraft, to walk on the moon, probe beyond the solar system, climb the highest peaks, reach both poles, exceed the sound barrier, descend to the oceans depths… yet Blacks still can’t even feed themselves.

            Whites have to provide food, medical, financial, and engineering aid to every Black nation. Blacks cannot survive without White charity. Blacks became an out-of-control invasive species after Whites domesticated them.

            No pre-contact Black society ever created a written language, or weaved cloth, or forged steel, or invented the wheel, or plow, or devised a calendar, or code of laws, or system of measurement, or math, or built a multi-story structure, or sewer, or drilled a well, or irrigated, or created any agriculture, or built a road, or sea-worthy vessel. They never domesticated animals, or exploited underground natural resources, or produced anything that could be considered a mechanical device.

            Blacks were still living in the Stone Age when Whites discovered them just 400 years ago.

          • Atall Nobody
          • Atall Nobody

            A black man created the fastest computer. You wouldn’t have been in space if it wasn’t for a black womans math calculations. Open heart surgery was created by a black person. Light bulbs wouldn’t last long without a filament, which a black man created. Who created tragic lights to help your dangerous cars stay safe? Let me answer that for you since you don’t know: a black man. Harrieta lacks, a black woman, had cells that never died out so they used her cells to create medicine for many illnesses and cured many people; including white people.

          • Atall Nobody

            You wouldn’t have air conditioning, the refrigerator, 3D movies, laser cartaract surgery,blood banks closed circuit tv,mops, ELEVATOR, lawn mower,sprinkler and gas mask without a BLACK PERSON.

          • Atall Nobody

            There’s no such thing as a smart racist because there stupid. They don’t know African history at all to talk about anything. Talk to an educated black person and see how very much human he/she is from you.

          • Atall Nobody

            We had agriculture. Trading routes and a government also:https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economic_history_of_Africa

          • Atall Nobody

            The reason why Ancient Europe because of influences also. The we’re living g it caves until the MOORS brought them back up. And the ROMANS built empires for them. You wouldn’t have had guns if it was not for the Chinese that created gunpowder for you. Everythin. You created was because of influences from other cultures just like us.

          • David Seneder

            As someone who has had the spam filter on them here as well, it’s just the way the comments are sometimes. Especially if you comment a lot

            A friend of mine has also reported having the issue and we’re both race realists

            The software for the comments here is not very good. For instance the comments on the PC I am on are a solid block of text rather than the way disqus normally presents them. So I am using my phone

          • I see, duly noted.

          • Lisa Gillen

            Do you feel Blacks were incapable of taking care of themselves, or providing for themselves before they were taken from Africa and brought to America to be slaves? And if so, do you have proof whites had to take care of them in Africa?

          • Rob

            Blacks survived fine in African as hunter-gatherers.

            Blacks cannot survive in a modern society, which is why Whites have to support them.

            Blacks never created a civilization (or even a written language) — they are far too stupid for that.

          • Lisa Gillen

            So Blacks survived just fine in Africa until whites came along. Got it.

          • Rob

            “So Blacks survived just fine in Africa until whites came along. Got it.”

            You missed my point. Blacks survived fine living like animals, but they cannot survive in a civilization.

            The proof is, Blacks never created a civilization; when Whites did that for them Whites, they were unable to provide for themselves. Whites have to support every Blacks nation.

          • Rob

            Blacks are dumb.

            IQ tests measure the innate and immutable mental capability that involves abstract thinking, logical reasoning, ability to solve novel problems and comprehend complex ideas.

            Intelligence is inherited and not equally distributed among the races.

            IQ by race:

                     •   Ashkenazi Jews = 115
                     •   East Asians = 106
                     •   Whites = 102
                     •   Inuits and Eskimos = 91
                     •   South-East Asians = 87
                     •   American Indians = 87
                     •   Non-White Hispanics = 86
                     •   American Blacks = 85 (average 24% White admixture)
                     •   Middle East and North Africans = 84
                     •   African Blacks = 67 (only 2% of Whites score this low)
                     •   Australian Aborigines = 62
                     •   Kalahari Bushman = 54
                     •   Congo Pygmies = 54

            Asian IQ scores cluster around the mean; thus, the cognitive variation among Whites produces more geniuses, but also more morons.

            IQ studies are normed for every conceivable variable and have been conducted on twins and trans-racial adoptions, but the racial IQ gap persists, including on non-verbal tests such Raven’s Matrices, digit span, and mental chronometry.

            No Black civilization has ever independently developed. No modern creations exist in sub-Saharan Africa that were not brought there by Whites. Without continuous intervention, Blacks cannot even maintain what Whites gave them.

            19 of the 20 poorest countries are sub-Saharan African.

            There are no White Third-World nations, but all Black ones are.

            Highest National IQs:

                     •   108      Singapore
                     •   106      South Korea
                     •   105      Japan
                     •   105      China
                     •   102      Italy
                     •   101      Iceland
                     •   101      Switzerland
                     •   100      Austria
                     •   100      Netherlands
                     •   100      Norway

            Lowest National IQs:

                     •   68        Somalia
                     •   67        Guinea
                     •   67        Haiti
                     •   67        Liberia
                     •   66        Gambia
                     •   64        Cameroon
                     •   64        Gabon
                     •   64        Sierra Leone
                     •   64        Mozambique
                     •   59        Equatorial Guinea

            Blacks are proto-humans; modern man evolved from Blacks by hybridizing with the large-brain Neanderthals:

                     •   Blacks   =   2% Archaic admixture
                     •   Whites   =   4% Neanderthal
                     •   Asians   =   5% Neanderthal + Denisovan

            Genetic distance is a measure of the genetic divergence between populations. Blacks have a genetic distance of 0.23 from Whites and Asians, but only 0.17 from Erectus. That means Blacks are more genetically proximate to archaic man than to modern man.

            Blacks are the only race with no DNA from the large-brain Neanderthals. Civilizations didn’t begin until the Neanderthal hybridization created the larger brains in modern man:

            Brain Size by Race:

                     •   Blacks   =   1267 cm
                     •   Whites   =   1347 cm
                     •   Asians   =   1364 cm

            Whites’ brains are faster, larger, denser, and more complex than Blacks’ brains:

                     •   7% larger
                     •   126 grams heavier
                     •   deeper fissuration in the frontal and occipital regions
                     •   more complex convolutions
                     •   larger frontal lobes
                     •   more pyramidal neurons
                     •   16% thicker supra-grandular layer
                     •   one standard deviation more cerebrum
                     •   react faster on mental chronometry tests
                     •   600 million more neurons

            Whites are only 10% of the world’s population, yet are the most industrious and innovative race the world has known. Whites unlocked the secrets of DNA, and relativity, launched satellites, created automation, discovered electricity and nuclear energy, invented automobiles, aircraft, submarines, radio, television, computers, medicine, telephones, light bulbs, photography, and countless other technological miracles. Whites were the first to circumnavigate the planet by ship, and orbit it by spacecraft, to walk on the moon, probe beyond the solar system, climb the highest peaks, reach both poles, exceed the sound barrier, descend to the oceans depths… yet Blacks still can’t even feed themselves.

            Whites have to provide food, medical, financial, and engineering aid to every Black nation. Blacks cannot survive without White charity. Blacks became an out-of-control invasive species after Whites domesticated them.

            No pre-contact Black society ever created a written language, or weaved cloth, or forged steel, or invented the wheel, or plow, or devised a calendar, or code of laws, or system of measurement, or math, or built a multi-story structure, or sewer, or drilled a well, or irrigated, or created any agriculture, or built a road, or sea-worthy vessel. They never domesticated animals, or exploited underground natural resources, or produced anything that could be considered a mechanical device.

            Blacks were still living in the Stone Age when Whites discovered them just 400 years ago.

            Blacks are the oldest race, so they should be the most advanced — but they never advanced at all. Blacks lived alone in Africa, a vast continent with temperate climates and abundant resources for 60,000 years; so they cannot blame slavery, racism, colonialism, culture, environment, or anything else for their failures.

            Simply, life is an IQ test.

            In 156 American studies that have reported the IQ means of a Black and a White sample, the mean Black-White difference is 1.1 standard deviations (SDs), or about sixteen IQ points.

            In 1980, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth administered the largest and most carefully selected national sample of 6,502 Whites and 3,022 Blacks an IQ test and found a difference of 1.2 SDs.

            An IQ gap of at least 1.1 SDs for American Blacks (average 24% White admixture) and Whites has been present for the entire 100+ year history of IQ tests. The gap between African Blacks and Whites is 2.0 SDs.

            Black-White IQ Distribution:

            Blacks:
                             5% above 110 IQ
                             16% above 100 IQ
                             40% above 90 IQ
                             60% above 80 IQ
                             40% below 80 IQ
                             18% below 75 IQ
                             10% below 70 IQ

            Whites:
                             10% above 120 IQ
                             18% above 115 IQ
                             27% above 110 IQ
                             40% above 105 IQ
                             50% above 100 IQ
                             60% below 105 IQ
                             35% below 95 IQ
                             15% below 85 IQ

            As the New York Times put it, “…the difference in IQ points between the groups is quite significant. It means that the top sixth of Blacks score only as well on IQ tests as do the top half of Whites.”

            The least intelligent 10% of Whites have IQs below 80 (low functioning); 40% of Blacks do.

            Only one Black in six is more intelligent than the average White; five Whites out of six are more intelligent than the average Black.

            Incidently, Black female IQ is 2.4 points higher than Black male IQ. There are twice as many Black females as Black males with IQs over 120, and five times as many Black females as Black males with IQs over 140.

            About 2.3% of Whites have an IQ of at least 130 (gifted), 20 times greater than the percentage of Blacks who do; only 0.00044% of African Blacks have an IQ over 130. 80% of gifted American Blacks have White admixture.

            Geniuses by Race (IQ 140 or higher):
                  
                      •   African Blacks                 1:3,500,000            (0.000003%)
                      •   American Blacks             1:218,000               (0.0004%) 
                      •   Whites                             1:83                        (1.2%)             

            So, the per capita genius rate for Whites is 41,000 times higher than it is for African Blacks.  

            If all Whites in America were replaced by Blacks, the number of geniuses in the country would fall from about 2.4 million to only about 1,000.

            The so-called “achievement gap” by SAT scores:

                   Year              White             Black             Gap
                   1985              1038               839               199
                   1990              1031               849               185
                   1995              1052               857               195
                   2000              1060               859               201
                   2005              1061               863               197
                   2010              1063               855               208
                   2015              1047               846               201

            This gap is so significant that colleges award Blacks 230 SAT “race bonus” points to help them qualify for admission. The Black-only National Achievement Scholarship was created because Blacks are not competitive for the National Merit Scholarship.

            IQ by Race and Highest Degree Earned (1972 — 2014):

            Highest Degree                      White IQ               Black IQ               Gap
            High School Drop-out:                 89                         82                      7
            High School Diploma                   98                         90                      8
            Junior College Degree               102                         95                      7
            Bachelor’s Degree                      108                       100                     8
            Graduate Degree                        113                       102                    11

            Therefore, a Black with a graduate degree has an IQ equivalent to a White with a junior college degree.

            Blacks can only achieve because they are mixed with White genes or because they reside in White societies. Too few of them are smart enough to even build sufficient infrastructure to allow the Black intellectual elite to achieve.

            The American Psychological Association declares, “…large differences do exist between the average IQ scores of Blacks and Whites, and that these differences cannot be attributed to biases in test construction.”

          • Rob

            Blacks are violent

            Blacks have mean testosterone levels 19% higher than in Whites. This is why 1-in-4 Black men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer, but only 1-in-8 White men and 1-in-13 Asian men will. Testosterone is associated with impulsive, aggressive, and violent behavior.

            A high percentage of Blacks have low repeat versions of the androgen receptor gene which reacts to hormones like testosterone. This receptor is a key part of the mechanism by which testosterone has its effects throughout the body and brain.

            This dysfunctional form of the MAOA gene is highly correlated to criminality. The gene does not produce a protein needed to break down old serotonin in their brains, and causes them to be agitated, aggressive, and impulsive.

            The gene can come in the form of 2, 3, 3.5, 4, or 5 allele. A 3-repeat allele is considered dysfunctional and is what is referred to as the “warrior gene”. A 2-repeat (2R) allele is considered very dysfunctional.

            The 2-repeat allele doubles the rate of violence of the 3R without needing an environmental interaction mechanism. People with a 2-repeat allele MAOA gene have a permanent chemical imbalance in their brain making the person more likely to be agitated, aggressive, and impulsive.

            Only 0.00067% of Asians and .5% of Whites have the 2-repeat allele version, compared to 4.7% of Blacks.

            That means Blacks are 9.4 times more likely to have the dysfunctional version of the MAOA gene than Whites. Considering that Blacks are ten times more likely to be involved in extreme violence and anti-social behavior than Whites, this is very significant.

            Blacks are also more likely to have versions of dopamine genes like ANKK1, DAT1, and DRD4 that have been linked to antisocial behavior.

            The Black homicide rate is 17 per 100,000, a rate over 9x that of the White rate, and comparable to some of those most murderous countries in the world.

            If the homicide rate for the U.S. were the White-only rate, the homicide rate would drop 84%, making the U.S. rate comparable to European countries.

            Black males age 18-35 are only 3.3% of the U.S. population, yet commit 52% of homicides. Black males (all ages) are only 6% of the U.S. population, yet commit 46% of all violent crimes, and 50% of the gun homicides. If Blacks were removed from the equation, the U.S. gun homicide rate would be equal to Great Britain’s, who have some of the most restrictive gun control laws in the world.

            Despite making up just 13% of the population, Blacks committed half of homicides in the United States for nearly 30 years. DOJ statistics show that between 1980 and 2008, Blacks committed 52% of homicides.

            In 2012, White males were 38 percent of the population and committed 4,582 murders. That same year, Black males were just 6.6 percent of the population but committed a staggering 5,531 murders.

            For each one standard deviation increase in proportion of Black population, firearm homicide rate is increased by 82.8%.

            Therefore, the U.S. has a Black problem, not a gun or violent crime problem.

            Data reported in a 2008 study on a general population sample by the most widely-used psychopathy test reported that Blacks scored on average 3.86 versus 1.7 for Whites.

            Murder is the leading cause of death for Black men, ages 15 to 34. Their murderers are almost always other Black men; 93 percent of Black homicide victims are killed by other Blacks.

            High crime rates among Blacks are not limited to the United States. Statistics released by the Metropolitan Police in London, England, show that in 2009-10, Blacks accounted for 54 percent of arrests for street crimes, 59 percent for robbery, and 67 percent for gun crimes. Blacks accounted for just over 12 percent of London’s population of 7.5 million. In 2002, Blacks were 8.1 percent of the population of Toronto, Canada, but accounted for 27 percent of all charges for violent crimes.

                     •   Blacks are seven times more likely than people of other races to commit murder, and eight times more likely to commit robbery.

                     •   When Blacks commit crimes of violence, they are nearly three times more likely than non-Blacks to use a gun, and more than twice as likely to use a knife.

                     •   The single best indicator of violent crime levels in an area is the percentage of the population that is Black.

                     •   Of the nearly 770,000 violent interracial crimes committed every year involving Blacks and Whites, Blacks commit 85 percent and Whites commit 15 percent.

                     •   Blacks commit more violent crime against Whites than against Blacks. Forty-five percent of their victims are White, forty-three percent are Black. When Whites commit violent crime, only three percent of their victims are Black.

                     •   Blacks are an estimated 39 times more likely to commit a violent crime against a White than vice versa, and 136 times more likely to commit robbery.

                     •   Blacks are 2.25 times more likely to commit officially-designated hate crimes against Whites than vice versa.

                     •   Blacks are 15 times more likely than Whites to be members of gangs.

                     •   In 2013, a Black was six times more likely than a non-Black to commit murder, and 12 times more likely to murder someone of another race than to be murdered by someone of another race.

                     •   In 2013, of the approximately 660,000 crimes of interracial violence that involved Blacks and Whites, Blacks were the perpetrators 85 percent of the time. This meant a Black was 27 times more likely to attack a White person than vice versa.

                     •   If New York City were all White, the murder rate would drop by 91 percent, the robbery rate by 81 percent, and the shootings rate by 97 percent. In an all-White Chicago, murder would decline 90 percent, rape by 81 percent, and robbery by 90 percent.

            According to the FBI 90 percent of serial killers are male, and 46 percent of those are White. Black serial killers have comprised over half of documented serial killers since the dawn of the 21st century at 56 percent, making up a total of 40 percent in years dating back to 1900.

            One study stated that Blacks constituted 44% of the known serial killers during the 1995-2004 period and another that Blacks constituted 38.2% of all multiple murderers (serial, mass, and spree combined) during 1976-1998 period.

            During the 2000-2010 decade, 62% of serial killers were Black.

            White men and women who choose to date or marry Blacks are much more likely to suffer abuse from their partners, particularly spousal homicide.

            The highest risk of death by spousal homicide is incurred by White women married to Black men.

            A White woman married to a Black man is over 12 times as likely to be murdered by her husband as a White woman married to a White man. A White man married to a Black woman is 21 times as likely to be murdered by his wife as a White man married to a White woman.

            According the Department of Justice, in 2005, 37,460 White women were raped by Blacks. Other non-Whites accounted for 21,852 rapes. About 57% of all White female victims of rape in 2005 were raped by a non-White. The number of Black women and other women raped by White men that year is statistically zero in both category. That means there were “10 or fewer cases”.

            Despite being outnumbered by Whites five-to-one, Blacks commit eight times more crimes against Whites than vice-versa, according to FBI statistics from 2007. A Black male is 40 times as likely to assault a White person as the reverse. These figures also show that interracial rape is almost exclusively Black-on-White.

            In 2013, 42 percent of cop killers were Black. In 2015, 986 people were shot and killed by police. Of that number, 495 were White (50 percent), and 258 were Black (26 percent). Liberals portray shootings by police as racist attacks on Blacks. To solve this problem, they want police departments to hire more Black police officers. It turns out that the U.S. Justice Department has found that Black police officers are likelier than Whites to shoot and use force against Black suspects.

          • Lisa Gillen

            Some blacks are stupid, some whites are stupid (as in your case) So here is some reading material for you. http://atlantablackstar.com/2014/08/08/11-ancient-african-writing-systems-demolish-myth-black-people-illiterate/

          • Rob

            “Some blacks are stupid, some whites are stupid (as in your case) …”

            Not at equal rates — that’s the point.

            Blacks can only achieve because they are mixed with White genes or because they reside in White societies. Too few of them are smart enough to even build sufficient infrastructure to allow the Black intellectual elite to achieve.

            About 2.3% of Whites have an IQ of at least 130 (gifted), 20 times greater than the percentage of Blacks who do; only 0.00044% of African Blacks have an IQ over 130. 80% of gifted American Blacks have White admixture.

            Geniuses by Race (IQ 140 or higher):
                  
                      •   African Blacks                 1:3,500,000            (0.000003%)
                      •   American Blacks             1:218,000               (0.0004%) 
                      •   Whites                             1:83                        (1.2%)             

            So, the per capita genius rate for Whites is 41,000 times higher than it is for African Blacks.  

            If all Whites in America were replaced by Blacks, the number of geniuses in the country would fall from about 2.4 million to only about 1,000.

          • Rob

            “So here is some reading material for you.”

            “atlantablackstar” — LOL

            Nsibidi was first used in the 5th century. A written language is the representation of a language by means of a writing system, but there is no such thing as Nsibidi spoken language. Nsibidi symbols are simply icons, much like having a gender figure on a restroom door or the “no symbol” to indicate a banned action. Yet Nsibidi symbols could still not be understood without a trained member of a secret society acting them out in pantomime and in conjunction with the placement of objects to convey the idea. They are classified as ideograms because the symbols do not represent sounds or letters as with phonetic written languages such as alphabetic scripts, Chinese characters and Egyptian hieroglyphics. Nsibidi symbols are not associated with any spoken language and no linguist classifies them as writing. They have no development history but were first used in the 5th century and soon died out. They are not a pre-contact creation and they are not a written language any more than a cave painting of a bison is.

            Mande in not a written language. It was tried to create a written system on it based on Arabic and Roman alphabets, but it was not successful because the language is tonal.

            Ga was first written by the son of a Danish soldier and an Ga woman in about 1764. The orthography has been revised a number of times.

            Igbo is written in Latin script and was introduced by British colonialists.

            Yoruba orthography originated in the early work of missionaries working among the Aku (Yoruba) of Freetown and uses Latin letters.

            The Vai syllabary was invented in about 1820, in Liberia.

            Ge’ez (Amharic) comes from the Arabs in Yeman and wasn’t used in Africa until the 5th Century. The oldest known written script of Ge’ez is on the Hawulti obelisk dated 4th century AD. The Phoenicians (Whites) circumnavigated, colonized and established trading posts (goods and slaves) in Africa 3,000 years ago. And considering that they were living right next to the Egyptians for 2,500 years before adopting this written language, it is rather startling.

            Ajami wasn’t used in Africa until the 15th Century and is Arabic.

            Fante/Akan/Twe used ideograms, which are merely symbols to represent ideas or concepts (not words). It is not a written language. During colonization the language was translated into Latin letters.

            Wolof is post-contact and was first written with a version of the Arabic script known as Wolofal.

            The south Arabian immigrants brought the Sabean language into Ethiopia sometime early in the first millennium BCE by the Aguezat settlers.

            Ancient Nubian is Greek-based. Meroitic used Egyptian hieroglyphics and later a Greek-based cursive alphabet. And this was not a sub-Saharan culture.

            There is no such written language a “proto-Saharan”.

          • Rob

            Are Blacks as smart as Whites?

          • Lisa Gillen

            Some are, but most have much lower IQ’s, I get that. You’re theory was Blacks have not written a language, ever, and that is false. Since we spoke last, I did a bit of research (I think the exact same research as you provided here) and I must say it was an eye opener. I believe everyone is a little bit racists, there is even a song in a play that points this out, lol..and I am certainly no exception. What I dis not know is that there is scientific evidence that shows why Blacks have less self control, and get more violent easier than whites or any other race. Really quite fascinating!

          • Rob

            “You’re theory was Blacks have not written a language, ever, and that is false.”

            False. Blacks never created a written language.

            Everyone one of those form the website you provided are either Egyptian or bogus (as I refuted in my reply).

          • Rob

            “You’re theory was Blacks have not written a language, ever, and that is false.”

            Here’s the rebuttal list again-

            Nsibidi was first used in the 5th century. A written language is the representation of a language by means of a writing system, but there is no such thing as Nsibidi spoken language. Nsibidi symbols are simply icons, much like having a gender figure on a restroom door or the “no symbol” to indicate a banned action. Yet Nsibidi symbols could still not be understood without a trained member of a secret society acting them out in pantomime and in conjunction with the placement of objects to convey the idea. They are classified as ideograms because the symbols do not represent sounds or letters as with phonetic written languages such as alphabetic scripts, Chinese characters and Egyptian hieroglyphics. Nsibidi symbols are not associated with any spoken language and no linguist classifies them as writing. They have no development history but were first used in the 5th century and soon died out. They are not a pre-contact creation and they are not a written language any more than a cave painting of a bison is.

            Mande in not a written language. It was tried to create a written system on it based on Arabic and Roman alphabets, but it was not successful because the language is tonal.

            Ga was first written by the son of a Danish soldier and an Ga woman in about 1764. The orthography has been revised a number of times.

            Igbo is written in Latin script and was introduced by British colonialists.

            Yoruba orthography originated in the early work of missionaries working among the Aku (Yoruba) of Freetown and uses Latin letters.

            The Vai syllabary was invented in about 1820, in Liberia.

            Ge’ez (Amharic) comes from the Arabs in Yeman and wasn’t used in Africa until the 5th Century. The oldest known written script of Ge’ez is on the Hawulti obelisk dated 4th century AD. The Phoenicians (Whites) circumnavigated, colonized and established trading posts (goods and slaves) in Africa 3,000 years ago. And considering that they were living right next to the Egyptians for 2,500 years before adopting this written language, it is rather startling.

            Ajami wasn’t used in Africa until the 15th Century and is Arabic.

            Fante/Akan/Twe used ideograms, which are merely symbols to represent ideas or concepts (not words). It is not a written language. During colonization the language was translated into Latin letters.

            Wolof is post-contact and was first written with a version of the Arabic script known as Wolofal.

            The south Arabian immigrants brought the Sabean language into Ethiopia sometime early in the first millennium BCE by the Aguezat settlers.

            Ancient Nubian is Greek-based. Meroitic used Egyptian hieroglyphics and later a Greek-based cursive alphabet. And this was not a sub-Saharan culture.

            There is no such written language as “proto-Saharan”.

          • Rob

            Blacks are violent

            Blacks have mean testosterone levels 19% higher than in Whites. This is why 1-in-4 Black men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer, but only 1-in-8 White men and 1-in-13 Asian men will. Testosterone is associated with impulsive, aggressive and violent behavior.

            Meta-analyses show that testosterone is correlated with aggression among humans and animals (Book, Starzyk, and Quinsey, 2001). Artificially increasing the amount of testosterone in a person’s blood has been shown to lead to increases in their level of aggression (Burnham 2007; Kouri et al. 1995). A study of Rhesus monkeys found that injecting female fetuses with testosterone caused them to behave just as aggressively as young males (Book, Starzyk, and Quinsey, 2001). Finally, people in prison have higher than average rates of testosterone (Dabbs et al., 2005).

            Richard et al. (2014) meta-analyzed data from 14 separate studies and found that Blacks had higher levels of free floating testosterone in their blood than Whites suggesting that testosterone levels may predispose Blacks towards higher rates of crime.

            Compunding this problem is the fact that Blacks are more likely than Whites to have low repeat versions of the androgen receptor gene. The androgen reception (AR) gene codes for a cell receptor by the same name which reacts to hormones like testosterone. This receptor is a key part of the mechanism by which testosterone has its effects throughout the body and brain.

            Blacks have a very high percentage carrying the dysfunctional form of the MAOA gene which is highly correlated to criminality. The gene does not produce a protein needed to break down old serotonin in their brains. This causes them to be agitated, aggressive, and impulsive.

            The gene can come in the form of 2, 3, 3.5, 4, or 5 allele. A 3-repeat allele is considered dysfunctional and is what is referred to as the “warrior gene”. A 2-repeat allele is considered very dysfunctional. People with a 2-repeat allele MAOA gene have a permanent chemical imbalance in their brain making the person more likely to be agitated, aggressive, and impulsive.

            34% of Whites and 49% of Blacks have 3-repeat allele. However, only 0.00067% of Asians and .5% of Whites have the 2-repeat (2R) allele version compared to 4.7% of Blacks.

            That means Blacks are 9.4 times more likely to have the dysfunctional version of the gene than Whites. Considering that Black Americans are 9 times more likely to commit murder and be involved in extreme violence (shooting and stabbing) and anti-social behavior than Whites, this is very significant.

            Versions of this gene with fewer than average numbers of repeats lead to increased testosterone activity and has been associated many times with crime and aggression (Last, 2016C).

            Four separate studies have shown that low repeat alleles of the AR gene are more common among Blacks than among Whites (Irvine et al 1995, Wang et al. 2013, Bennet et al. 2002, and Shibalev et al. 2013). Given this, it is highly likely that low repeat AR alleles increase Black crime rates by enhancing Black people’s reactivity to testosterone.

            Different versions of the MAOA gene have also been linked to crime. Many studies have found that “low repeat” versions of this gene (repeats of a different kind of DNA strand than the repeats in the AR gene) predict aggression and crime in humans, and genetic engineering studies on mice have definitively shown that these gene variants causes aggression (Bryd and Manuch, 2013; Ficks and Waldman, 2014; Roux 2014; Vaughn et al., 2009; Beaver et al., 2009; Beaver et al., 2013; Cases et al., 1995; Scott et al., 2008; Vishnivetskaya et al., 2007; Mejia, 2002).

            Racial differences in MAOA genotypes are well established. Blacks are far more likely than Whites to carry these low repeat crime associated variants of the gene (Last, 2016C). Thus, the MAOA gene is a well-established genetic explanation for the Black-White crime gap.

            The Black homicide rate is 17 per 100,000, a rate over 9x that of the White rate, and comparable to some of those most murderous countries in the world.

            If the homicide rate for the U.S. were the White-only rate, the homicide rate would drop 84%, making the U.S. rate comparable to European countries.

            Black males age 18-35 are only 3.3% of the U.S. population, yet commit 52% of homicides. Black males (all ages) are only 6% of the U.S. population, yet commit 46% of all violent crimes, and 50% of the gun homicides. If Blacks were removed from the equation, the U.S. gun homicide rate would be equal to Great Britain’s, who have some of the most restrictive gun control laws in the world.

            For each one standard deviation increase in proportion of Black population, firearm homicide rate is increased by 82.8%.

            Therefore, the U.S. has a Black problem, not a gun or violent crime problem.

            93 percent of Black homicide victims are killed by other Blacks.

            Blacks commit violent crimes at 10 times the rate that Whites do.

            Blacks committed 52 percent of homicides between 1980 and 2008, despite composing just 13 percent of the population. Across the same timeframe, Whites committed 45 percent of homicides while composing 77% of the population, according to the Bureau of Justice Statistics.

            In 2013, a Black was six times more likely than a non-Black to commit murder, and 12 times more likely to murder someone of another race than to be murdered by someone of another race.

            In 2013, of the approximately 660,000 crimes of inter-racial violence that involved Blacks and Whites, Blacks were the perpetrators 85% of the time. This means a Black was 27 times more likely to attack a White than vice versa. A non-White Hispanic was eight times more likely to attack a White than vice versa.

            Blacks are 10 percent of the population in Los Angeles, CA, but commit 42 percent of its robberies and 34 percent of its felonies. Whites make up 29 percent of the city’s population, and commit 5 percent of its robberies and 13 percent of its felonies.

            In New York City, Blacks committed 75 percent of all shootings, 70 percent of all robberies, and 66 percent of all violent crime despite only composing 23 percent of the population. Additionally, 2009 Bureau of Justice Statistics numbers show that in 2009, Blacks were charged with 62 percent of robberies, 57 percent of murders and 45 percent of assaults in the 75 biggest counties in the country, despite only comprising roughly 15 percent of the population in these counties.

            In 2014 in New York City, a Black was 31 times more likely than a White to be arrested for murder, and a non-White Hispanic was 12.4 times more likely. For the crime of “shooting” — defined as firing a bullet that hits someone — a Black was 98.4 times more likely than a White to be arrested, and a non-White Hispanic was 23.6 times more likely.

            If New York City were all White, the murder rate would drop by 91%, the robbery rate by 81%, and the shootings rate by 97%.

            In an all-White Chicago, murder would decline 90%, rape by 81%, and robbery by 90%.

            White men and women who choose to date or marry Blacks are much more likely to suffer abuse from their partners, particularly spousal homicide.

            The highest risk of death by spousal homicide is incurred by White women married to Black men.

            A White woman married to a Black man is over 12 times as likely to be murdered by her husband as a White woman married to a White man. A White man married to a Black woman is 21 times as likely to be murdered by his wife as a White man married to a White woman.

          • Once again, you mistake correlation with causation.

            “Mr. Sampson, who planned to attend the opening day of the justice institute conference, said that “sociology has nothing to fear from genetic research,” but he maintained that the most interesting questions about crime, like why some communities have a higher crime rate than others, are not traceable at all to genetics. “The more sophisticated the genetic research, the more it will show the importance of social context,” he said.”

            Here’s the full article: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/20/arts/genetics-and-crime-at-institute-of-justice-conference.html

            You’re using an antiquated line of logic. Also, it would behoove you to be less inflammatory. (Still waiting on your links.)

          • Rob

            “….. like why some communities have a higher crime rate than others, are not traceable at all to genetics.”

            You have no idea what you’re talk about.

            Google: MAOA gene by race.

            The rate of the dysfunctional form of it exactly correlates with the violent crime rate by race.

            Blacks are violent

            Blacks have mean testosterone levels 19% higher than in Whites. This is why 1-in-4 Black men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer, but only 1-in-8 White men and 1-in-13 Asian men will. Testosterone is associated with impulsive, aggressive and violent behavior.

            Meta-analyses show that testosterone is correlated with aggression among humans and animals (Book, Starzyk, and Quinsey, 2001). Artificially increasing the amount of testosterone in a person’s blood has been shown to lead to increases in their level of aggression (Burnham 2007; Kouri et al. 1995). A study of Rhesus monkeys found that injecting female fetuses with testosterone caused them to behave just as aggressively as young males (Book, Starzyk, and Quinsey, 2001). Finally, people in prison have higher than average rates of testosterone (Dabbs et al., 2005).

            Richard et al. (2014) meta-analyzed data from 14 separate studies and found that Blacks had higher levels of free floating testosterone in their blood than Whites suggesting that testosterone levels may predispose Blacks towards higher rates of crime.

            Compunding this problem is the fact that Blacks are more likely than Whites to have low repeat versions of the androgen receptor gene. The androgen reception (AR) gene codes for a cell receptor by the same name which reacts to hormones like testosterone. This receptor is a key part of the mechanism by which testosterone has its effects throughout the body and brain.

            Blacks have a very high percentage carrying the dysfunctional form of the MAOA gene which is highly correlated to criminality. The gene does not produce a protein needed to break down old serotonin in their brains. This causes them to be agitated, aggressive, and impulsive.

            The gene can come in the form of 2, 3, 3.5, 4, or 5 allele. A 3-repeat allele is considered dysfunctional and is what is referred to as the “warrior gene”. A 2-repeat allele is considered very dysfunctional. People with a 2-repeat allele MAOA gene have a permanent chemical imbalance in their brain making the person more likely to be agitated, aggressive, and impulsive.

            34% of Whites and 49% of Blacks have 3-repeat allele. However, only 0.00067% of Asians and .5% of Whites have the 2-repeat (2R) allele version compared to 4.7% of Blacks.

            That means Blacks are 9.4 times more likely to have the dysfunctional version of the gene than Whites. Considering that Black Americans are 9 times more likely to commit murder and be involved in extreme violence (shooting and stabbing) and anti-social behavior than Whites, this is very significant.

            Versions of this gene with fewer than average numbers of repeats lead to increased testosterone activity and has been associated many times with crime and aggression (Last, 2016C).

            Four separate studies have shown that low repeat alleles of the AR gene are more common among Blacks than among Whites (Irvine et al 1995, Wang et al. 2013, Bennet et al. 2002, and Shibalev et al. 2013). Given this, it is highly likely that low repeat AR alleles increase Black crime rates by enhancing Black people’s reactivity to testosterone.

            Different versions of the MAOA gene have also been linked to crime. Many studies have found that “low repeat” versions of this gene (repeats of a different kind of DNA strand than the repeats in the AR gene) predict aggression and crime in humans, and genetic engineering studies on mice have definitively shown that these gene variants causes aggression (Bryd and Manuch, 2013; Ficks and Waldman, 2014; Roux 2014; Vaughn et al., 2009; Beaver et al., 2009; Beaver et al., 2013; Cases et al., 1995; Scott et al., 2008; Vishnivetskaya et al., 2007; Mejia, 2002).

            Racial differences in MAOA genotypes are well established. Blacks are far more likely than Whites to carry these low repeat crime associated variants of the gene (Last, 2016C). Thus, the MAOA gene is a well-established genetic explanation for the Black-White crime gap.

            The Black homicide rate is 17 per 100,000, a rate over 9x that of the White rate, and comparable to some of those most murderous countries in the world.

            If the homicide rate for the U.S. were the White-only rate, the homicide rate would drop 84%, making the U.S. rate comparable to European countries.

            Black males age 18-35 are only 3.3% of the U.S. population, yet commit 52% of homicides. Black males (all ages) are only 6% of the U.S. population, yet commit 46% of all violent crimes, and 50% of the gun homicides. If Blacks were removed from the equation, the U.S. gun homicide rate would be equal to Great Britain’s, who have some of the most restrictive gun control laws in the world.

            For each one standard deviation increase in proportion of Black population, firearm homicide rate is increased by 82.8%.

            Therefore, the U.S. has a Black problem, not a gun or violent crime problem.

            93 percent of Black homicide victims are killed by other Blacks.

            Blacks commit violent crimes at 10 times the rate that Whites do.

            Blacks committed 52 percent of homicides between 1980 and 2008, despite composing just 13 percent of the population. Across the same timeframe, Whites committed 45 percent of homicides while composing 77% of the population, according to the Bureau of Justice Statistics.

            In 2013, a Black was six times more likely than a non-Black to commit murder, and 12 times more likely to murder someone of another race than to be murdered by someone of another race.

            In 2013, of the approximately 660,000 crimes of inter-racial violence that involved Blacks and Whites, Blacks were the perpetrators 85% of the time. This means a Black was 27 times more likely to attack a White than vice versa. A non-White Hispanic was eight times more likely to attack a White than vice versa.

            Blacks are 10 percent of the population in Los Angeles, CA, but commit 42 percent of its robberies and 34 percent of its felonies. Whites make up 29 percent of the city’s population, and commit 5 percent of its robberies and 13 percent of its felonies.

            In New York City, Blacks committed 75 percent of all shootings, 70 percent of all robberies, and 66 percent of all violent crime despite only composing 23 percent of the population. Additionally, 2009 Bureau of Justice Statistics numbers show that in 2009, Blacks were charged with 62 percent of robberies, 57 percent of murders and 45 percent of assaults in the 75 biggest counties in the country, despite only comprising roughly 15 percent of the population in these counties.

            In 2014 in New York City, a Black was 31 times more likely than a White to be arrested for murder, and a non-White Hispanic was 12.4 times more likely. For the crime of “shooting” — defined as firing a bullet that hits someone — a Black was 98.4 times more likely than a White to be arrested, and a non-White Hispanic was 23.6 times more likely.

            If New York City were all White, the murder rate would drop by 91%, the robbery rate by 81%, and the shootings rate by 97%.

            In an all-White Chicago, murder would decline 90%, rape by 81%, and robbery by 90%.

            White men and women who choose to date or marry Blacks are much more likely to suffer abuse from their partners, particularly spousal homicide.

            The highest risk of death by spousal homicide is incurred by White women married to Black men.

            A White woman married to a Black man is over 12 times as likely to be murdered by her husband as a White woman married to a White man. A White man married to a Black woman is 21 times as likely to be murdered by his wife as a White man married to a White woman.

          • Rob

            Blacks have a very high percentage carrying the dysfunctional form of the MAOA gene which does not produce a protein needed to break down old serotonin in their brains. This causes them to be agitated, aggressive and impulsive. The popular term for this is the “warrior gene” which could be considered propaganda to put a positive spin on those who possess this dysfunctional gene which is highly-correlated to criminality.

            Comprehensive Psychiatry published a large study on the rates at which black and white Americans carry shortened, or dysfunctional, MAOA genes.

            The gene can come in the form of 2, 3, 3.5, 4, or 5 allele. A 3-repeat allele is considered dysfunctional and is what is referred to as the “warrior gene”. A 2-repeat allele is considered very dysfunctional. People with a 2-repeat allele MAOA gene have a permanent chemical imbalance in their brain making the person more likely to be agitated, aggressive, and impulsive.

            According to the study published in Comprehensive Psychiatry, 34.6% of Whites and 53.4% of Blacks have 2-repeat allele or less. However, only .5% of whites have the 2-repeat (2R) allele version compared to 4.7% of blacks.

            That means Blacks are 9.4 times more likely to have the extremely dysfunctional version of the gene than Whites. Considering that Black Americans are 9 times more likely to commit murder, this is very significant.

            Other studies have shown even higher rates of occurrence of the 2-repeat (2R) allele version of the gene in Blacks.

            It was discovered that Black males carrying 2R were more likely to be involved in extreme violence (shooting and stabbing) than Black men with other MAOA variants. The relationship between the rare MAOA version and antisocial behaviors has raised eyebrows because, quite simply, this gene is not distributed equally across ethnic groups. In the Add Health database, 5.5% of African American men, 0.9% of Caucasian men, and 0.00067% of Asian men have 2R.

            The association between 2R and committing a shooting or stabbing crime was statistically significant. The MAOA-2R has become a symbol of a new era in behavioral genetics research — an era that has reintroduced race into the nature versus nurture debate over the source of ethnic behavioral differences

            Notes: There are other genes associated with violent and/or impulsive behavior. The MAOA gene is only one of them. However, the effects of a shortened MAOA gene are well documented. The chemical imbalance its creates can be observed in a laboratory.

            Blacks possess 10x more of the dysfunctional MAOA (or “warrior gene”) that is associated with violent and/or impulsive behavior.

            Blacks are also more likely to have versions of dopamine genes like ANKK1, DAT1, and DRD4 that have been linked to antisocial behavior.

            ~~~~~~~~~~~

            Abstract:

            A line of research has revealed that a polymorphism in the promoter region of the MAOA gene is related to antisocial phenotypes. Most of these studies examine the effects of low MAOA activity alleles (2-repeat and 3-repeat alleles) against the effects of high MAOA activity alleles (3.5-repeat, 4-repeat, and sometimes 5-repeat alleles), with research indicating that the low MAOA activity alleles confer an increased risk to antisocial phenotypes. The current study examined whether the 2-repeat allele, which has been shown to be functionally different from the 3-repeat allele, was associated with a range of antisocial phenotypes in a sample of males drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Analyses revealed that African-American males who carried the 2-repeat allele were, in comparison with other African-American male genotypes, significantly more likely to be arrested and incarcerated. Additional analyses revealed that African-American male carriers of the 2-repeat allele scored significantly higher on an antisocial phenotype index and on measures assessing involvement in violent behaviors over the life course. There was not any association between the 2-repeat allele and a continuously measured psychopathic personality traits scale. The effects of the 2-repeat allele could not be examined in Caucasian males because only 0.1% carried it.

            Authors: Kevin M. Beavera, John Paul Wright, Brian B. Boutwell, J.C. Barnesd, Matt DeLisie, Michael G. Vaughnf

            ~~~

            Monoamine oxidase A genotype is associated with gang membership and weapon use.

            Beaver KM1, DeLisi M, Vaughn MG, Barnes JC.

            ABSTRACT:

            A functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene has been found to be associated with a broad range of antisocial phenotypes, including physical violence. At the same time, it is well known that gang members represent some of the most serious violent offenders. Even so, no research has ever examined the association between MAOA and gang membership.

            RESULTS:

            The low MAOA activity alleles conferred an increased risk of joining a gang and using a weapon in a fight for males but not for females. Moreover, among male gang members, those who used weapons in a fight were more likely to have a low MAOA activity allele when compared with male gang members who do not use weapons in a fight.

            CONCLUSIONS:

            Male carriers of low MAOA activity alleles are at risk for becoming a gang member and, once a gang member, are at risk for using weapons in a fight.

            Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

            PMID: 20152292

            ~~~

            Serum testosterone levels in healthy young black and white men.

            Blacks in the United States have the highest prostate cancer rate in the world and nearly twice that of whites in the United States. The 2:1 black-to-white ratio in prostate cancer rates is already apparent at age 45 years, the age at which the earliest prostate cancer cases occur. This finding suggests that the factor(s) responsible for the difference in rates occurs, or first occurs, early in life. Testosterone has been hypothesized to play a role in the etiology of prostate cancer, because testosterone and its metabolite, dihydrotestosterone, are the principal trophic hormones that regulate growth and function of epithelial prostate tissue. Mean testosterone levels in blacks were 19% higher than in whites, and free testosterone levels were 21% higher. Both these differences were statistically significant. A 15% difference in circulating testosterone levels could readily explain a twofold difference in prostate cancer risk.

            J Natl Cancer Inst. 1986 Jan;76(1):45-8.

            PMID: 3455741

            ~~~~~~~~

            The 2-repeat allele of the MAOA gene confers an increased risk for shooting and stabbing behaviors.

            Beaver KM1, Barnes JC, Boutwell BB.

            Abstract

            There has been a great deal of research examining the link between a polymorphism in the promoter region of the MAOA gene and antisocial phenotypes. The results of these studies have consistently revealed that low activity MAOA alleles are related to antisocial behaviors for males who were maltreated as children. Recently, though, some evidence has emerged indicating that a rare allele of the MAOA gene-that is, the 2-repeat allele-may have effects on violence that are independent of the environment. The current study builds on this research and examines the association between the 2-repeat allele and shooting and stabbing behaviors in a sample of males drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Analyses revealed that African-American males who carry the 2-repeat allele are significantly more likely than all other genotypes to engage in shooting and stabbing behaviors and to report having multiple shooting and stabbing victims. The limitations of the study are discussed and suggestions for future research are offered.

            PMID: 24326626

            ~~~~~~~~

            Barnes, B. Genes, agents and the institution of responsible action. New Genetics and Society 21(3), 291-302 (2003).

            Beaver, K. M. et al. Monoamine oxidase A genotype is associated with gang membership and weapon use. Compr. Psychiatry 51(2), 130-134 (2009).

            Brunner, H. G. et al. Abnormal behavior associated with a point mutation in the structural gene for monoamine oxidase A. Science 262, 578-580. (1993).

            Buchen, L. In their nature. Nature 467, 146-148 (2010).

            Caspi, A. et al. Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children. Science 297(5582), 851-854 (2002a).

            Caspi, A. et al. Supplementary material. Description of methods and measurements used in the Dunedin multidisciplinary health and development study. Science 297 (2002b).

            Denno, D. W. “Behavioral Genetics Evidence in Criminal Cases: 1994–2007” in Farahany N. A. (ed) The impact of behavioral sciences on criminal law (Oxford University Press, chapter 10, 2009).

            Lea, R. & Chambers, G. Monamine oxidase, addiction and the ‘warrior’ gene hypothesis. New Zealand Medical Journal 120, 1250 (2007).

            Levitt, M. Genes, environment and responsibility for violent behaviour: “Whatever genes one has it is preferable that you are prevented from going around stabbing people”. New Genetics and Society 32(1), 4-17 (2013).

            Shih, J. C et al. Monoamine oxidase: from genes to behaviour. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 22,197-217 (1999).

            ~~~~~~~~

            MAOA is an enzyme that degrades neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine in the brain — is coded for by the MAOA gene. Neurotransmitters play a pivotal role in mood, arousal, and emotions, even affecting impulse control. Since the 1990s scientists have identified several versions of the MAOA, which are usually categorized as low-activity or high-activity variants. MAOA genes are classified based on how many times a short sequence — a functional strip of DNA — repeats itself within a variable region of the gene. The most common variant, MAOA-4R, has four repeats and is associated with high-activity breakdown of neurotransmitters. Alternate forms of the MAOA, including the 2-repeat (2R) and 3-repeat (3R) versions, contain fewer repeat sequences.

            The 2R and 3R variants are often lumped together in studies of the low-activity MAOA gene. (Although the 5R version has a large number of repeats, it too is less active than the 4R version.) The two classes of MAOA versions correlate with different behavioral tendencies. Low-activity variants are thought to lead to reduced levels of MAOA in the brain, possibly shifting mood by changing serotonin levels.

            But it was 2R — the “extreme warrior gene” — that captivated researchers searching for a genetic basis of criminal predispositions. Guo’s team analyzed data on male youth from Add Health — a national sample of adolescents in grades 7-12. Their findings showed that the rare variant, 2R, was correlated with higher levels of self-reported serious and violent delinquency.

            More recently, Beaver’s team has focused only on the 2R variant rather than the low-expression variants combined. He and his colleagues have discovered that African American males carrying 2R were more likely to be involved in extreme violence — shooting and stabbing — than African American men with other MAOA variants. The relationship between the rare MAOA version and antisocial behaviors has raised eyebrows because, quite simply, this gene is not distributed equally across ethnic groups. In the Add Health database, 5.5% of African American men, 0.9% of Caucasian men, and 0.00067% of Asian men have 2R. Since the rare MAOA variant is virtually non-existent in whites, all of the males in Beaver’s study were black Americans.

            Beaver’s sample of 133 African American men from the Add Health database included 6% that carried 2R. Overall, 5.6% of the men in the sample reported shooting or stabbing someone at some point in their lifetime. The association between 2R and committing a shooting or stabbing crime was statistically significant. Based on Beaver’s evidence, 2R appears to increase the risk of shooting or stabbing a victim during adolescence or adulthood. For some commentators in the public arena, MAOA-2R has become a symbol of a new era in behavioral genetics research — an era that has reintroduced race into the nature versus nurture debate over the source of ethnic behavioral differences.

            Beaver’s studies have shown that the 2R variant has a robust association with violent behaviors, arrest, and incarceration. His research is applauded by supporters of behavioral genetics, but it has also drawn criticism. It focuses on an antisocial-linked gene that reportedly occurs more frequently in African American men than in males of other ethnic groups. This has led some popular writers to speculate that MAOA-2R might account for — or at least play a significant role in — the relatively higher rates of violent crime in African Americans.

            ~~~~~

            Mass and Serial Killers

            Mass Killers:

            There have been 70 mass shooters since 1982.

            45 by whites, 11 by blacks, 6 by Asians, 4 by Latinos, 3 by Native American.

            Per capita:

            Whites make up 77.7% of the populations and 64% of the shootings -13.7
            Latinos make up 17.1% of the populations and 5.7% of the shootings -11.4
            Blacks make up 13.2% of the populations and 15% of the shootings +1.8
            Asians make up 5.3% of the populations and 8.5% of the shootings +3.2
            Native Americans make up 1.2% of the populations and 4% of the shootings +2.8

            Serial Killers:

            According to the FBI 90 percent of serial killers are male, and 46 percent of those are white.

            Black serial killers have comprised over half of documented serial killers since the dawn of the 21st century at 56 percent, making up a total of 40 percent in years dating back to 1900.

            As Blacks are only 13% of the U.S. population they are heavily over-represented as serial killers.

            Criminal profiler Pat Brown says serial killers are usually reported as white because the media typically focuses on “All-American” white and pretty female victims who were the targets of white male offenders, that crimes among minority offenders in urban communities, where crime rates are higher, are under-investigated, and that minority serial killers likely exist at the same ratios as white serial killers for the population. She believes that the myth that serial killers are always white might have become “truth” in some research fields due to the over-reporting of white serial killers in the media.

            According to some sources, the percentage of serial killers who are African American is estimated to be between 13 and 22 percent. Another study has shown that 16 percent of serial killers are African American, what author Maurice Godwin describes as a “sizeable portion”. However, the 2013 Radford/FGCU Serial Killer Database annual statistics show, for the decades 1900–2010, that the percentage of African American serial killers is 40.7%. Popular racial stereotypes about the lower intelligence of African-Americans, and the stereotype that serial killers are white males with “bodies stacked up in the basement and strewn all over the countryside” may explain the media focus on serial killers that are white and the failure to adequately report on those that are black.

            Child Molesters:

            Myth: Whites Are More Likely to be Pedophiles and Child Molesters

            There is a long-standing myth that Whites are more likely to molest children than any other race. This goes back to some stereotype of the creepy, nerdy, weirdo White guy who can’t get laid so he molests kids.

            % of total child abusers:

            White                            51%
            African American                 25%
            Hispanic                         15%
            American Indian/Alaska Natives    2%
            Asian/Pacific Islanders           1%

            Relative to their population, likelihood of child abuse compared to background population rate:
            American Indian    +100%
            Blacks             +92%
            Hispanics          no difference
            Whites             -35%
            Asian              -67%

            ~~~~~

            FBI Table 43 (2013)

            Blacks are 13 percent of the population and commit 32.5% of all crimes against family and children. That is 2.5 times their population.

            Whites are 66 percent of the population and commit 65% of all crimes against family and children. That is 1 times their population.

            Therefore, a Black is 2.5 times more likely to be a pedophile than a White.

          • David Seneder

            Issues with the spam filter are not uncommon here even for race realists (ie people who agree with the author) I think you just got filtered.

            It’s happened to me and my friend. Both Race Realists. So it’s not ideological censorship.

            Also you’ve been able to continue commenting since then

      • Rob

        Blacks are dumb.

        IQ tests measure the innate and immutable mental capability that involves abstract thinking, logical reasoning, ability to solve novel problems and comprehend complex ideas.

        Intelligence is inherited and not equally distributed among the races.

        IQ by race:

                 •   Ashkenazi Jews = 115
                 •   East Asians = 106
                 •   Whites = 100
                 •   Inuits and Eskimos = 91
                 •   South-East Asians = 87
                 •   American Indians = 87
                 •   Non-White Hispanics = 86
                 •   American Blacks = 85 (average 24% White admixture)
                 •   Middle East and North Africans = 84
                 •   African Blacks = 67 (only 2% of Whites score this low)
                 •   Australian Aborigines = 62
                 •   Kalahari Bushman = 54
                 •   Congo Pygmies = 54

        Asian IQ scores cluster around the mean; thus, the cognitive variation among Whites produces more geniuses, but also more morons.

        IQ studies are normed for every conceivable variable and have been conducted on twins and trans-racial adoptions, but the racial IQ gap persists, including on non-verbal tests such Raven’s Matrices, digit span, and mental chronometry.

        No Black civilization has ever independently developed. No modern creations exist in sub-Saharan Africa that were not brought there by Whites. Without continuous intervention, Blacks cannot even maintain what Whites gave them.

        19 of the 20 poorest countries are sub-Saharan African.

        There are no White Third-World nations, but all Black ones are.

        Highest National IQs:

                 •   108      Singapore
                 •   106      South Korea
                 •   105      Japan
                 •   105      China
                 •   102      Italy
                 •   101      Iceland
                 •   101      Switzerland
                 •   100      Austria
                 •   100      Netherlands
                 •   100      Norway

        Lowest National IQs:

                 •   68        Somalia
                 •   67        Guinea
                 •   67        Haiti
                 •   67        Liberia
                 •   66        Gambia
                 •   64        Cameroon
                 •   64        Gabon
                 •   64        Sierra Leone
                 •   64        Mozambique
                 •   59        Equatorial Guinea

        Blacks are proto-humans; modern man evolved from Blacks by hybridizing with the large-brain Neanderthals:

                 •   Blacks   =   2% Archaic admixture
                 •   Whites   =   4% Neanderthal
                 •   Asians   =   5% Neanderthal + Denisovan

        Genetic distance is a measure of the genetic divergence between populations. Blacks have a genetic distance of 0.23 from Whites and Asians, but only 0.17 from Erectus. That means Blacks are more genetically proximate to archaic man than to modern man.

        Blacks are the only race with no DNA from the large-brain Neanderthals. Civilizations didn’t begin until the Neanderthal hybridization created the larger brains in modern man:

        Brain Size by Race:

                 •   Blacks   =   1267 cm
                 •   Whites   =   1347 cm
                 •   Asians   =   1364 cm

        Whites’ brains are faster, larger, denser, and more complex than Blacks’ brains:

                 •   7% larger
                 •   126 grams heavier
                 •   deeper fissuration in the frontal and occipital regions
                 •   more complex convolutions
                 •   larger frontal lobes
                 •   more pyramidal neurons
                 •   16% thicker supra-grandular layer
                 •   one standard deviation more cerebrum
                 •   react faster on mental chronometry tests
                 •   600 million more neurons

        Whites are only 10% of the world’s population, yet are the most industrious and innovative race the world has known. Whites unlocked the secrets of DNA, and relativity, launched satellites, created automation, discovered electricity and nuclear energy, invented automobiles, aircraft, submarines, radio, television, computers, medicine, telephones, light bulbs, photography, and countless other technological miracles. Whites were the first to circumnavigate the planet by ship, and orbit it by spacecraft, to walk on the moon, probe beyond the solar system, climb the highest peaks, reach both poles, exceed the sound barrier, descend to the oceans depths… yet Blacks still can’t even feed themselves.

        Whites have to provide food, medical, financial, and engineering aid to every Black nation. Blacks cannot survive without White charity. Blacks became an out-of-control invasive species after Whites domesticated them.

        No pre-contact Black society ever created a written language, or weaved cloth, or forged steel, or invented the wheel, or plow, or devised a calendar, or code of laws, or system of measurement, or math, or built a multi-story structure, or sewer, or drilled a well, or irrigated, or created any agriculture, or built a road, or sea-worthy vessel. They never domesticated animals, or exploited underground natural resources, or produced anything that could be considered a mechanical device.

        Blacks were still living in the Stone Age when Whites discovered them just 400 years ago.

        Blacks are the oldest race, so they should be the most advanced — but they never advanced at all. Blacks lived alone in Africa, a vast continent with temperate climates and abundant resources for 60,000 years; so they cannot blame slavery, racism, colonialism, culture, environment, or anything else for their failures.

        Simply, life is an IQ test.

        In 156 American studies that have reported the IQ means of a Black and a White sample, the mean Black-White difference is 1.1 standard deviations (SDs), or about sixteen IQ points.

        In 1980, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth administered the largest and most carefully selected national sample of 6,502 Whites and 3,022 Blacks an IQ test and found a difference of 1.2 SDs.

        An IQ gap of at least 1.1 SDs for American Blacks (average 24% White admixture) and Whites has been present for the entire 100+ year history of IQ tests. The gap between African Blacks and Whites is 2.0 SDs.

        Black-White IQ Distribution:

        Blacks:
                         5% above 110 IQ
                         16% above 100 IQ
                         40% above 90 IQ
                         60% above 80 IQ
                         40% below 80 IQ
                         18% below 75 IQ
                         10% below 70 IQ

        Whites:
                         10% above 120 IQ
                         18% above 115 IQ
                         27% above 110 IQ
                         40% above 105 IQ
                         50% above 100 IQ
                         60% below 105 IQ
                         35% below 95 IQ
                         15% below 85 IQ

        As the New York Times put it, “…the difference in IQ points between the groups is quite significant. It means that the top sixth of Blacks score only as well on IQ tests as do the top half of Whites.”

        The least intelligent 10% of Whites have IQs below 80 (low functioning); 40% of Blacks do.

        Only one Black in six is more intelligent than the average White; five Whites out of six are more intelligent than the average Black.

        Incidently, Black female IQ is 2.4 points higher than Black male IQ. There are twice as many Black females as Black males with IQs over 120, and five times as many Black females as Black males with IQs over 140.

        About 2.3% of Whites have an IQ of at least 130 (gifted), 20 times greater than the percentage of Blacks who do; only 0.00044% of African Blacks have an IQ over 130. 80% of gifted American Blacks have White admixture.

        Geniuses by Race (IQ 140 or higher):
              
                  •   African Blacks                 1:3,500,000            (0.000003%)
                  •   American Blacks             1:218,000               (0.0004%) 
                  •   Whites                             1:83                        (1.2%)             

        So, the per capita genius rate for Whites is 41,000 times higher than it is for African Blacks.  

        If all Whites in America were replaced by Blacks, the number of geniuses in the country would fall from about 2.4 million to only about 1,000.

        The so-called “achievement gap” by SAT scores:

               Year              White             Black             Gap
               1985              1038               839               199
               1990              1031               849               185
               1995              1052               857               195
               2000              1060               859               201
               2005              1061               863               197
               2010              1063               855               208
               2015              1047               846               201

        This gap is so significant that colleges award Blacks 230 SAT “race bonus” points to help them qualify for admission. The Black-only National Achievement Scholarship was created because Blacks are not competitive for the National Merit Scholarship.

        IQ by Race and Highest Degree Earned (1972 — 2014):

        Highest Degree                      White IQ               Black IQ               Gap
        High School Drop-out:                 89                         82                      7
        High School Diploma                   98                         90                      8
        Junior College Degree               102                         95                      7
        Bachelor’s Degree                      108                       100                     8
        Graduate Degree                        113                       102                    11

        Therefore, a Black with a graduate degree has an IQ equivalent to a White with a junior college degree.

        Blacks can only achieve because they are mixed with White genes or because they reside in White societies. Too few of them are smart enough to even build sufficient infrastructure to allow the Black intellectual elite to achieve.

        The American Psychological Association declares, “…large differences do exist between the average IQ scores of Blacks and Whites, and that these differences cannot be attributed to biases in test construction.”

        • Atall Nobody
        • Atall Nobody
        • Atall Nobody
        • Atall Nobody
        • Atall Nobody
          • Robbie Smith

            Benin Art?
            LOL…….. that is way post-contact. Blacks never even created a written language. Everything Blacks have was given to them by Whites.

        • Atall Nobody

          Whites didn’t create thugs out of the top of there head. Every race contributes and developed fro my previous inventions.

          • Robbie Smith

            “Whites didn’t create thugs out of the top of there head. Every race contributes and developed fro my previous inventions.”

            Whites were the first to create everything.

            The ancient Egyptians were Whites:

            Nature | International Weekly Journal of Science
            June 1, 2017

            • Mummy DNA unravels ancestry of ancient Egyptians
            • Genetic analysis reveals a close relationship with Middle Easterners, not central Africans.

            This is the first glimpse of the genetic history of Egypt. Strikingly, the mummies were more closely related to ancient Europeans than to modern Egyptians. Both types of genomic material recovered showed that ancient Egyptians shared little DNA with modern sub-Saharan Africans.

            The tombs of ancient Egypt have yielded golden collars and ivory bracelets, but another treasure — human DNA — has proved elusive. Now, scientists have captured sweeping genomic information from Egyptian mummies. It reveals that mummies were closely related to ancient Middle Easterners, hinting that northern Africans might have different genetic roots from people south of the Sahara desert.

            Egypt’s searing climate and the ancient practice of embalming bodies has made the recovery of intact genetic material daunting. The first DNA sequences thought to be from a mummy were probably the result of modern contamination, and many scientists are sceptical of purported genetic information acquired from the mummy of King Tutankhamun.

            The latest analysis succeeded by bypassing soft tissue — often abundant in Egyptian mummies — to seek DNA from bone and teeth. Researchers carefully screened the DNA to rule out contamination from anyone who had handled the mummies since their excavation a century ago in the ancient town of Abusir el-Meleq.

            The team succeeded where previous studies on Egyptian mummies have failed or fallen short.

            The researchers say that there was probably a pulse of sub-Saharan African DNA into Egypt roughly 700 years ago. The mixing of ancient Egyptians and Africans from further south means that modern Egyptians can trace 8% more of their ancestry to sub-Saharan Africans than can the mummies from Abusir el-Meleq.

            https://www.nature.com/news/mummy-dna-unravels-ancient-egyptians-ancestry-1.22069

            http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms15694

    • Atall Nobody

      Who caused the most major world war wars.

    • Atall Nobody

      The things you use were created by black people and you are completely oblivious. You must be living under a cave or stuck in your house.who did the most rapes, lynching and murdering in the past just because of skin color.

    • Atall Nobody

      Look up Black Wall Street. A famous city and community run by black people that were striving in America until jealous racists(kkk) burned it down and killed thousands of people.https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greenwood,_Tulsa

    • Atall Nobody

      You are clearly the most insecure, pathetic and ignorant human being that uses other people who have similar features to make yourself seem superior. It doesn’t matter who have higher IQs as long as you reach your own achievement. Did you create any achievement YOURSELF instead of hanging on others? Is putting people down because of less achievements give you the right to take away their humanity? The world is still going and more races are creating things. Numbers will change.

    • Atall Nobody

      Africa( sub Saharan Africans did have written language by the way:Nsibidi is an ancient script used to write various languages in West Central Africa. Most notably used by the Uguakima and Ejagham (Ekoi) people of Nigeria and Cameroon, nsibidi is also used by the nearby Ebe, Efik, Ibibio, Igbo and Uyanga people.

      The nsibidi set of symbols is independent of Roman, Latin or Arabic influence, and is believed by some scholars to date back to 5000 B.C., but the oldest archaeological evidence ever found (monoliths in Ikom, Nigeria) dates it to 2000 B.C.

      • Robbie Smith

        “The nsibidi set of symbols is independent of Roman, Latin or Arabic influence, and is believed by some scholars to date back to 5000 B.C., but the oldest archaeological evidence ever found (monoliths in Ikom, Nigeria) dates it to 2000 B.C.”

        Huh? 2,000 B.C.??? You just made that up! prove it.

        The fact is, Nsibidi is derived from the Egyptian (White) Medu Neter (they share many of the same symbols) and was first used in the 16th century. Nsibidi has no development history and was short-lived. A written language is the representation of a spoken language by means of a writing system, but there is no such thing as Nsibidi spoken language. Nsibidi symbols could still not be understood without a trained member of a secret society acting them out in pantomime and in conjunction with the placement of objects to convey the idea. They are classified as ideograms because the symbols do not represent sounds or letters. No linguist classifies them as writing.

    • Atall Nobody

      Rock paintings dating as far back as 3000 B.C. at Oued Mertoutek in southern Algeria show the earliest signs of a “Lybico-Berber” or early tifinagh writing system.The Amajegh a-Mazigh (Tuaregs), the Black people who mainly inhabit a vast area of West Africa, including present-day Mali, Niger, Chad, Burkina Faso, southern Algeria and southern Libya, still use the tifinagh script and are the only known group of Tamazight speakers who have used it continuously since antiquity.

      However, the larger Tamazight-speaking community of the Sahara region has begun to adopt the tifinagh script.

    • Atall Nobody

      Vai is one of the world’s oldest alphabetic scripts in continuous use, with more than 150,000 users in present-day Liberia and Sierra Leone.t’s a highly advanced syllabary writing system with more than 210 distinct characters representing various consonants and vowel sounds used in the Vai language (a descendant of ancient Mande).The popular story told about Vai is that it’s a wholly unique script invented circa 1830 by a West African whose friends helped him remember the writing system in a dream. However, evidence of its antiquity comes from inscriptions from Goundaka, Mali, that date to 3000 B.C.

      • Robbie Smith

        “Vai is one of the world’s oldest alphabetic scripts in continuous use…..”

        The Vai syllabary was invented in about 1820, in Liberia.

        “The popular story told about Vai is that it’s a wholly unique script invented circa 1830 by a West African whose friends helped him remember the writing system in a dream. However, evidence of its antiquity comes from inscriptions from Goundaka, Mali, that date to 3000 B.C.”
        LOL………… so, prove it.
        Idiot.

    • Atall Nobody

      The so-called “Old Nubian” script is a descendant of both ancient Napatan and Coptic, and the Old Nubian tongue is an ancestor of the modern-day Nubian languages, such as Nobiin, Mahasi–Fadijja and Dongolawi.

      It was used throughout the medieval Christian kingdom of Makuria and its satellite Nobadia. The language is preserved in at least 100 pages of documents, mostly of a religious nature.

      • Robbie Smith

        “The so-called “Old Nubian” script is a descendant of both ancient Napatan and Coptic…”

        There is no written language called “old Nubian”.

        Are you referring to Ge’ez?

        Ge’ez (Amharic) comes from the Arabs (Sabaeans) in Yeman and wasn’t used in the region now known as Ethiopia (Kingdom of Axum in ancient times) until the 5th Century. The oldest known written script of Ge’ez is on the Hawulti obelisk dated 4th century AD. The Phoenicians (Whites) circumnavigated, colonized and established trading posts (goods and slaves) in Africa 3,000 years ago. And considering that they were living right next to the Egyptians (Whites) for 2,500 years before adopting this written language, it is rather startling.

    • Atall Nobody
    • Atall Nobody

      Why do you keep bringing up written languages so much many people got their written language from others does that still count them as primitive. Does not having a written language make you automatically superior or better. Why does it have to be s competition. The world is still going and we’re still here all of us. We still have time to create and invent things and probaly over time one “race” by create more the others but it not because of completion but for the good of others.

      • Robbie Smith

        “Why do you keep bringing up written languages so much….”

        Because written language is what separates humans from animals. Blacks never created a written language, or any civilization.

    • Atall Nobody

      I don’t want to talk to you anymore because this will be going on forever. We will be arguing like kids on which has the most candy but it really wouldn’t matter at the end of the day because that wa the past.

    • Atall Nobody

      I’m serious STOP commenting to me it’s not good for my health to argue with a racist that know nothing of who i am as a person.