April 30, 2017

Re: Why Do Black People Commit More Crime?

(If you would rather listen/watch the video presentation of this, it can be found here.)

The YouTube user “Sargon of Akkad” has recently made a video entitled “Why Do Black People Commit More Crime?” in which he looks to poverty, family structure, and gang culture to explain the high rates of crime seen among African Americans.

In Sargon’s video, he correctly points out that African Americans commit crime more often than members of other races do, and that the same is true of poor people and people from single parent homes. Moreover, Blacks are far more likely to be both poor and from single parent homes than White people and so, Sargon argues, these variables explain why Blacks have such high crime rates. (I am being simplistic. If you want a fuller picture of his argument, watch his video.)

Poverty and Single Motherhood Probably Don’t Cause Crime

Though it is true that poverty and family structure correlate with crime, neither has been shown to cause crime. A non-causal relationship between crime and these variables is suggested by the fact that changes in a population’s degree of poverty and single motherhood overtime do not predict change’s in that population’s crime rate in the way that Sargon’s viewpoint would lead you to expect.

For instance, looking at the last 50 years of American history, we see that crime actually tended to decrease when the poverty rate increased (1).

9

10

11

This evidence coheres well with a review of 28 studies in the Handbook of Crime Correlates which found that the majority of studies showed that crime actually rises when the economy improves.

National crime and wealth.JPG

Thus, most of the longitudinal data available does not support the notion that poverty causes crime. When more people become poor, crime does not rise. This suggests that the correlation between poverty and crime is best explained by the view that there is a certain segment of the population which tends to be poor and criminal not because one variable causes the other but, rather, because some other variable, or set of variables, causes people to be both poor and criminal.

Unfortunately, I am not aware of much high quality data on the longitudinal relationship between family structure and crime. However, if we look at how these two variables changed between 1960 and 2009 we clearly do not see strong support for a causal relationship.

Since Mothers and Violent Crime 1960-2009

 Luscombe (2012)

In order to address the lack of good evidence on this question, I, along with Martin Alexander of the blog OfPsychandSoceity, analyzed data from the FBI and the census on how violent crime, family structure, poverty, and racial demographics changed in 197 American cities between the years 2006 and 2014. (See notes 3 and 4 for data links).

As can be seen below, changes in the proportion of a city that was Black was the only significant predictor of changes in violent crime. Moreover, both single motherhood and poverty were negatively correlated with violent crime over time, meaning that they tended to decrease when when crime rose and rise when crime fell.

change correlations.JPG

Thus, the relevant longitudinal evidence does not seem to support the contention that differences in family structure, or poverty, cause differences in crime.

Race Predicts Crime After Controlling for Poverty and Family Structure

Even if family structure and poverty do have a causal role in crime, and therefore do contribute something to the Black/White crime gap, they do not explain anywhere near the totality of the gap. We know this because the proportion of an area which is Black continues to predict its crime rate even after regional differences in family structure and poverty are controlled for.

Land, McCall, and Cohen (1990) collected data on the homicide rates of cities, standard metropolitan statistical areas (SMSAs), and states for the years 1960, 1970, and 1980. In each year they included all 50 states and every city and SMSA included in the census. They then looked at how well the following 11 variables predicted crime variation between these areas: population size, population density, percent black, percentage aged between 15 and 29, percent divorced, percent of kids without two parents, median family income, the poverty rate, income inequality, the unemployment rate, and whether or not the city/SMSA/State was in the south. All of these variables were entered into a single regression model, meaning that the estimated effect size for each variable held all other 10 variables constant. This analysis thus produced 9 total models explaining crime variation in cities, SMSAs, and states, across 3 decades. In all but one model, the proportion of an area that was Black continued to have a strong relationship with crime even after the other 10 variables in the study were held constant.

Similarly, Kposowa, Breault, and Harrison (1995) analyzed crime variation across 2,078 U.S counties and found that the proportion of the county that was Black continued to predict crime even after controlling for county differences in poverty, divorce rates, income inequality, religiosity, population density, age, and education.

2

3

I can add to this literature two analyses that I recently did (again, with substantial help from Martin Alexander, who runs the blog “Of Psych and Society“).

In the first analysis, using data from the Census and the FBI, data on the racial demographics, violent crime, poverty and education levels, and family structure of 306 American cities in the year 2014 was analyzed. Violent crime rates were put through a log transformation to correct for non-normality. The percent of a city that was Black continued to predict its violent crime level after holding poverty, education, and family structure constant (2).

2014 regression.JPG

Similarly, in the second analysis data on 231 American cities in the year 2006 was analyzed. Once again, the proportion of a city that was Black continued to predict its crime rate even after controlling for city differences in poverty, education, and family structure (3).

2006.JPG

In both models, the introduction of these multivariate controls reduced the bivariate relationship between % Black and violent crime by about half. Some might interpret this to suggest that half of the Black/White crime gap can be causally explained by single parenthood and poverty. However, this would be incorrect. % Black’s association with crime may be reduced by controlling for poverty and single motherhood because these variables cause crime, because these variables are caused by crime, or because Blacks tend to be poor, criminal, and from single parent homes due to some confounding variable. Thus, these analyses only provide us with an estimate of the maximum proportion of the relationship between race and crime which is attributable to single parenthood and poverty, and that maximum estimate is half.

Another source of evidence comes from the relationship between racial differences in wealth and crime over time. Over the 20th century, the Black/White wage gap has lessened while the Black/White crime gap has widened (4).

4

Finally, Zaw and Darity (2016) looked at how crime varied among individuals of different races and varying amounts of net wealth. As can be seen, the results of this analysis also cast serious doubt on the idea that poverty can explain racial crime gaps.

Incarceration by net worth decile

Chart from Ehrenfreund (2016) data from Zaw and Darity (2016)

Given the uniformity of the results across these analyses, we can say with a reasonable degree of confidence that a significant proportion of the relationship between race and crime cannot be explained by poverty or family structure.

Racial Differences in Family Structure, Crime, and Poverty are geographically and temporally consistent

Sargon also talks about gangs as a cause of Black crime rates. Here, we can find some agreement: it is almost certainly true that Blacks would be less criminal if they were not involved in gangs. However, this proposition naturally leads us to wonder why it is that Blacks are so involved with gangs in the first place.

Sargon would likely say that this has to do with poverty and family structure but, as we’ve already seen, these variables cannot explain the Black/White crime gap.

It would also be reasonable for us to wonder why it is that Blacks are so much more likely to have children outside of marriage and to be poor. Neither of these facts about American life are new, nor are they exclusively American. The same can be said of crime.

If we look back in American history we can see that, relative to African Americans, Whites have always, though to varying degrees, been richer:

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Less likely to have a child outside of marriage:

non martial births by race 1930 to 2008

And more likely to be criminal (5):

Black Crime over Time.PNG

This mirrors what we see around the world. Black nations have higher rates of both crime and poverty than White and East Asian nations do:

Crime and GDP by race

Rushton and Whitney (2002)

worl compare.JPG

(6)

Similarly, African nations have the highest rates of single parent households:

chart 7

As it turns out, the explanation for why Blacks, around the world, have such high crime rates also explains part of why Blacks, around the world, have high rates of poverty and single parenthood.

The Alternative Hypothesis

This Alternative Hypothesis is that, for partially genetic reasons, Blacks are more likely than Whites to exhibit  various personality traits which in turn causes them to have high rates of crime, poverty, and single parenthood.

Those unfamiliar with behavioral genetics may be surprised by such an explanation because they are uncomfortable with the idea that behavioral differences between people have a genetic basis. However, twin studies done over several decades have shown that variation in virtually all human traits is partly caused by genetics (Polderman et al. 2015). Traits studied in these studies include criminality, income, and family structure.

Trait Heritability Source
Violent Crime 55% Frisell et al. (2012)
Anti-social personality 50% Mason and Frick (1994)
Income 42% Hyytinen et al. (2013)
Divorce 32% Jerskey et al. (2010)

Others will be uneasy with the idea that there are genetic differences between the races. We all recognize genetic differences in non mental traits such as height and skin color. For political reasons, we resist applying this same thinking to mental traits. From a genetics standpoint, this inconsistency is even more problematic that it might at first seem because the genes that differ the most between races are ones involved in the brain.

http://i0.wp.com/static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1471-2148-11-16/MediaObjects/12862_2010_Article_1625_Fig1_HTML.jpg?w=678&ssl=1

Wu and Zhang (2011)

With that being said, let’s start with racial differences in personality traits related to crime and then work our way back to genes.

Racial Differences in Aggression

The personality trait most obviously associated with crime is aggression. There are several lines of evidence suggesting that Blacks are more aggressive than Whites. First, Blacks are more likely than Whites to get into fights at school.

22_fig2

Child Trends Database

Secondly, Blacks are more likely than Whites to bully people at school (Wang, 2013).

Thirdly, the more violent a crime is the more heavily African Americans tend to be overrepresented in it.

Black Crime Rate.png

Thus, there is good reason to think that Blacks are more aggressive than Whites are.

Racial differences in self control

Blacks are also more impulsive than Whites are. Self control is experimentally measured by having people choose between a reward they can get now and a larger reward they can get later. People who choose to receive a larger reward later have a greater ability to delay gratification and, so, more self control.

Such studies have shown that low self control predicts criminality and poverty even after controlling for IQ and parental socio-economic status (Moffitt et al. 2010). Moreover, racial differences in self control have been found many times. For instance:

Michel (1958) conducted the first experiment on self control on a sample of 53 children aged 7-9 living in Trinidad. He found Black children had less self-control than Asian children.

Herzberger and Dweck (1978) looked at a sample of 100 4rth grade American school children and found that Blacks had lower self-control than Whites even after controlling for socio-economic status.

Warner and Pleeter (2001) took advantage of a semi-natural experiment which came about due to the military. In the mid 1990’s the U.S Government offered sufficiently experienced military personnel two options when they retired: they could take a large lump sum of money now or agree to get a yearly payment from the military for the rest of their lives which, over time, would add up to far more than the lump sum. Warner and Pleeter were able to find data on the choices of 66,000 individuals and found that Blacks were 15% more likely than non-Blacks to take the lump-sum while.

Wany, Rieger, and Hens (2011) utilized a sample of 5,291 university students from 45 countries and gave participants a chance to choose an immediate monetary reward or a larger long term reward. The chart below shows the proportion of people from different regions that chose the larger and less immediate reward:

Wait by Country.JPG

Castillo, Ferraro, Jordan, and Petrie (2011) had a sample consisting of 82% of the student population of 4 middle schools in a poor Georgia school district. As they write “In our experiment, subjects are asked, orally and in writing, to make twenty decisions in total. For each decision, subjects are asked if they would prefer $49 one month from now or $49+$X seven months from now. The amount of money, $X, is strictly positive and increases over the twenty decisions.” Using this design, they were able to measure at what point people began to prefer the later reward and, thus, the strength of their preference for immediate gratification. Blacks were found to have significantly less self-control than Whites.

Borgo (2013) looked at data on 25,820 American households and found that Black homes had lower savings rates than White homes even after controlling for differences in income, age, family size, education, region of residence, and marriage. Normally, using savings rates as a measure of self-control would be problematic because it is obviously easier to save money if you have a large income, but this study utilized an impressive set of controls and so can be taken as a valid measure of self-control.

Finally, Andrade and Petry (2014) looked at a sample of 317 individuals with gambling problems and found that White gambling addicts had more self-control than Black gambling addicts even after controlling for education, drug problems, and income.

Thus, racial differences in self control have been shown to exist across many studies. Said differences exist around the world, in children and adults, and cannot be explained by racial differences in socio-economic status. These differences likely contribute to racial differences in crime, poverty, and non-marital birth rates.

Some people may note that Sargon cited a study, the Edinburgh Study of Youth Transitions and Crime, which claimed to find an association between poverty and crime even after controlling for differences in impulsivity. This, in turn, may be taken as evidence against my view that self control significantly confounds the relationship between poverty and crime.

I do not take this to be compelling evidence against my viewpoint for a four reasons. First, it is only one study. Secondly, the study utilized a self report measure of self control (Smith et al., 2001). Specifically, participants were asked to rate the degree to which they agreed with the following statements to measure impulsiveness:

  • Planning takes the fun out of things
  • I get into trouble because I do things without thinking
  • I put down the first answer that comes into my head on a test, and often forget to check it later
  • I get involved in things that I later wish I could get out of
  • I sometimes break rules because I do things without thinking
  • I get so excited about doing new things that I forget to think about problems that might happen

Asking people such questions obviously opens the door for problems stemming from social desirability bias.

Thirdly, several items on this scale do not obviously relate to the time preference (preference for immediate rewards over future ones) based notion of self control that is used in most (not all) of the studies I have cited. Given this, individuals may be equal in their scores on this scale but differ in time preference.

Finally, if it is true that poverty correlates with crime independently of self control, it does not follow that self control does not also cause poverty and crime. Stated differently, the fact that self control does not explain all of the association between poverty and crime would not imply that it doesn’t explain some, or even most, of it.

Racial Differences in Psychopathic Personality

Blacks also score higher than Whites on measures of psychopathic personality. Lynn (2002) described a common measure of psychopathic personality, the Psychopathic Deviate Scale:

“This was constructed by writing a number of questions, giving them to criterion groups of those manifesting psychopathic behaviour and ‘‘normals’’, and selecting for the scale the questions best differentiating the two groups. The criterion group manifesting psychopathic behaviour consisted of 17–24 year olds appearing before the courts and referred for psychiatric examination because of their ‘‘long histories of delinquenttype behaviours such as stealing, lying, alcohol abuse, promiscuity, forgery and truancy’’ (Archer, 1997, p. 20). The common feature of this group has been described as their failure to ‘‘learn those anticipatory anxieties which operate to deter most people from committing anti-social behaviour’’ (Marks, Seeman, & Haller, 1974, p. 25). The manual describes those scoring high on the scale as follows: irresponsible, antisocial, aggressive, having recurrent marital and work problems, and underachieving (Hathaway & McKinley, 1989). A number of subsequent studies have shown that the Psychopathic Deviate scale differentiates delinquents and criminals from nondelinquents and non-criminals (e.g. Elion & Megargee, 1975).”

Lynn then reviewed 5 studies comparing racial groups on this measure. In White, Asian, and African countries it was found that Blacks scored higher than average in psychopathic personality:

Psychopathy.JPG

Lynn (2002)

Two later meta-analyses on Black/White differences in psychopathic personality came to the conclusion that Blacks did have higher levels of psychopathy than Whites but that this difference, while statistically significant, was not  large enough to be practically significant (Skeem et al., 2004; McCoy and Edens, 2006). However, whether or not this difference is practically significant on its own tells us nothing about whether or not it is one among the many factors which contributes to racial crime disparities. Further more, all the samples used in these meta-analyses were either clinical or correctional in nature. Because of this, the reported mean differences in these studies may be significantly less than what would be found were the sample taken from the general population.

In sum, differences in psychopathic personality likely make some contribution to racial differences in crime, poverty, and non-marital birth rates.

Racial Differences in Stress and Anxiety

Another feature shared by both Blacks and criminals is low levels of stress. Criminologists have explained the association between low levels of stress and crime by positing that many people would be deterred from committing a crime even if they wanted to by the level of anxiety, stress, and nervousness, that attempting to commit said crime would cause, which is why having a less active stress response would predispose people towards criminality.

Having a slow heart beat and a low level of cortisol are both biological markers of this phenomena which have been independently linked to criminality and shown to be more common among Blacks than among Whites. (Aggarwal, 2013; Easton, 2000; “Race and Stress“; Murray et al., 2016Higginbotham et al., 1991; Gillum, 1988). Blacks also self report generally having lower levels of stress than White people do.

Hormone (ng/dl) Male Female White Black Hispanic
Epinephrine 156.66 97.4 107.44 159.57 113.87
Norepinephrine 2830.18 2073.89 2157.9 2921.6 2261.87
Cortisol 1099.79 904.43 1101.61 963.09 1062.74

Masi et al. (2004)

In conclusion, several aspects of Black personality, including higher levels of aggression, impulsivity, and psychopathy, as well as lower levels of stress, likely predispose them to crime.

With this understanding of the proximate causes of Black criminality in place, let’s now turn to analyzing more distal or ultimate causes.

Racial Differences in Testosterone

We’ve already seen that the hormone cortisol may play a role in racial crime differences. Blacks have lower levels of cortisol and this, in turn, makes them have lessened biological stress responses. Low levels of cortisol may also predispose Blacks towards crime because cortisol blocks the action of the hormone testosterone. Having less cortisol means that testosterone will be more active in Blacks.

Testosterone activity has been linked many times to aggression and crime. Meta-analyses show that testosterone is correlated with aggression among humans and non human animals (Book, Starzyk, and Quinsey, 2001). Women who suffer from a disease known as congenital adrenal hyperplasia are exposed to abnormally high amounts of testosterone and are abnormally aggressive. Artificially increasing the amount of testosterone in a person’s blood has been shown to lead to increases in their level of aggression (Burnham 2007Kouri et al. 1995). In fact, a study of Rhehus monkeys found that injecting female fetuses with testosterone caused them to behave just as aggressively as young males (Book, Starzyk, and Quinsey, 2001). Finally, people in prison have higher than average rates of testosterone (Dabbs et al., 2005). Thus, testosterone seems to cause both aggression and crime.

To return to race, Richard et al. (2014) meta-analyzed data from 14 separate studies and found that Blacks have higher levels of free floating testosterone in their blood than Whites do. Thus, both testosterone levels and cortisol’s interaction with testosterone likely contributes to crime.

Exacerbating this problem even further is the fact that Blacks are more likely than Whites to have low repeat versions of the androgen receptor gene. The androgen reception (AR) gene codes for a receptor by the same name which reacts to androgenic hormones such as testosterone. This receptor is a key part of the mechanism by which testosterone has its effects throughout the body and brain.

All versions of this gene have several repeats of a CAG nucleotide sequence. Variants between people differ in the number of these repeats. Versions of this gene with fewer than average numbers of repeats lead to increased androgen activity and has been associated many times with crime and aggression. For instance:

Rajender et al. (2008) analyzed data on 645 men including 241 convicted rapists, 107 convicted murders, and 26 men convicted for both rape and murder. They found that those incarcerated for both rape and murder had the shortest average number of CAG repeats followed by murderers, followed by rapists. The non criminal controls had the longest CAG repeats.

AR Length.JPG

Butovskaya et al. (2013) conducted a study in Tanzania in which an association between anger, aggression, and AR genotype was found among 138 adult men.

CAG 1Cag 2

Commings et al. (2003) found an association between AR genotype and the probability that a person’s parents were divorced and that their father was present in the first 7 years of life. They also found the expected correlations between AR genotype and agression, but, possibly due to small sample size, they were not statistically significant

cag 4

Similarly, Pichard et al. (2007) found that AR genotype predicted anti-social personality in a sample of 1,007 men

Hurd et al. (2010) found a significant correlation between AR genotype an anger and physical aggression, and insignificant but positive relationships with verbal aggression and hostility in a sample of 188 men.

Jonsson et al. (2001) found non-significant relationships with aggression and impulsivity in a sample of 335 Swedes.

Cheng et al. (2006) study found that violent criminals were more likely than controls to have short CAG repeats. However, the difference in means, while in the expected direction, was not statistically significant.

Cag 9.JPG

What we see in this literature then is a mix of positive and significant effects and positive and insignificant effects for the relationship between shorter AR genes and aggression/crime. This distribution of effect sizes strongly suggests that the true mean effect is real and positive. On a theoretical level, this finding makes a great deal of sense in light of the role of testosterone in aggression and crime and what we know about the function of the AR gene.

Four separate studies have shown that low repeat alleles of the AR gene are more common among Blacks than among Whites (Irvine et al 1995Wang et al. 2013, Bennet et al. 2002, and Shibalev et al. 2013). Given this, it is highly likely that low repeat AR alleles increase Black crime rates by increasing the impact of testosterone. Due to testosterone’s impact on sexuality, these same mechanisms may also explain why Blacks have such high rate of single parenthood. This is especially likely in light of the fact that, as seen above, low repeat AR alleles predict family structure.

Monoamine Oxidase-A

The best established crime related gene is the mono-amine oxidase A gene (MAO-A). This gene is involved in aggression, impulsivity, and crime and is known to differ racially.

The MAO-A gene produces an enzyme by the same name. The enzyme MAO-A breaks down a class of neurotransmitter called mono-amines in the brain. These neurotransmitters include ones which are well known to effect behavior such as dopamine and serotonin. Some versions of the MAO-A gene lead to lower levels of MAO-A the enzyme and, therefore, more mono-amine activity in the brain.

The molecular difference between different versions of the MAO-A gene lies in the number of times a certain section of its promoter region is repeated. Three repeat alleles lead to lower than average levels of the enzyme MAO-A. The two repeat allele leads to even lower levels of MAO-A.

Beginning in the 1990’s, researchers started to suspect that variation in MAO-A levels might be related to traits like aggression and criminal behavior. This suspicion arose following a study on a particular family which carried a rare mutation that led to extremely low levels of the enzyme MAO-A. This family contained rapists, arsonists, and other violent criminals (Brunner et al. 1993).

Later, geneticists raised rats with an artificial version of the MAO-A gene which lead to low MAO-A production. This was found to cause the rats to act far more aggressive than is typical (Cases et al. 1995, Scott et al. 2008Vishnivetskaya et al. 2007, and Mejia 2002).

The first direct link between common MAO-A alleles and violence in humans came from Caspi et al 2002. This study found that people with either the 2R or 3R version of the MAO-A gene tended to be more aggressive than average, but only if they had difficult upbringings. Based on these results,  it was hypothesized that low activity MAO-A genes might cause people to have stronger reactions to negative experiences than people with high activity versions of the gene. Since then, a meta-analyses has confirmed that this interaction between MAO-A genotype and childhood trauma has been well replicated in male subjects (Bryd and Manuch 2013).

Caspi

Caspi et al. (2002)

Since then, researchers have found that low activity MAO-A also predict higher levels of anti-social personality even among those who have not experienced child abuse (Ficks and Waldman 2014). These versions of the gene have also been linked to high levels of credit card debt and obesity (Camarena et al. 2004Neve and Flower 2009Need et al. 2005, and Feummeler 2008). Low activity versions of the gene have also been shown to significantly increase the risk that someone will end up in prison (Roux 2014Vaughn et al. 2009Beaver et al. 2009, and Beaver et al. 2013).

Finally, multiple studies have shown that the races differ in the frequency of both MAO-L alleles. Here is a review of the literature on the 2R allele:

Study Sample Size Sample Type Sex Black 2R % White 2R %
Beaver et al. (2013) 2574 Whites

164 Blacks

Nationally Representative Sample (ADD Health) Male 5.2 0.1
Widom and Brzustowicz (2006) 180 Whites

98 Non-Whites

Abuse victims Male 6.12 0.6
Widom and Brzustowicz (2006) 196 Whites

143 Non Whites

Abuse Victims Female 2.6 7
Reti et al. (2011) 365 Whites

232 Blacks

Psychiatric Patients Both 4.7 .5
Choe et al. (2014) 106 Whites

86 Blacks

N/A Male 6.0 0

And here is data on the 3R allele:

Study Sample Size Sample Type Sex Black 3R% White 3R%
Beaver et al. (2013) 2574 Whites

164 Blacks

Nationally representative sample (Add Health) Male 52.3 37
Widom and Brzustowicz (2006) 180 Whites

98 Non-Whites

Abuse victims Male 35.7 41.1
Widom and Brzustowicz (2006) 196 Whites

143 Non-Whites

Abuse victims Female 74.1 62.8
Rosenberg et al. (2006) 274 Whites

37 Blacks

N/A Male 54.1 36.1
Reti et al. (2011) 365 Whites

232 Blacks

Psychiatric patients Both 48.7 34.1
Choe et al. (2014) 106 Whites

83 Blacks

Low income Male 42.2 30
Sabol, Hu, and Hamer, (1998) 539 Whites

52 Blacks

Various combined samples Both 59.1 33.1

These differences constitute strong evidence that genetics plays a role in racial differences in aggression, self control, and crime.

Racial Differences in IQ Related Genes

Racial differences in IQ related genes are also relevant to this discussion. There is a significant genetic correlation between IQ and self control, meaning that the same genes which explain variation in self control also explain variation in IQ (Polderman et al., 2009). Moreover, self control and IQ are positively correlated (Shamosh and Gray, 2008). In conjunction, these facts should lead us to suspect that genes which predispose people towards low IQ will often also predispose them towards low self control.

Piffer (2015) was the first major attempt to compare the frequency of IQ related genes across the races. It was found that, for every gene examined, Whites were more likely than Blacks to possess the allele associated with higher intelligence.

IQ related genes new shart.PNG

Piffer (2015)

Given this, it seems likely that the genes which predispose Blacks towards low IQ also predispose them towards low self control which in turn predisposes them towards crime, poverty, and single parenthood.

A Unifying Explanation

It is not my view that genes explain the entirety of the Black/White crime gap. Environmental variables, such as lead exposure and child abuse rates, likely play a role too. However, I doubt that these variables explain as much of the Black/White crime gap as genes do.

A genetic explanation has the benefit of offering an extremely parsimonious explanation for a wide range of data. Racial differences in crime are seen around the world. As I noted earlier, Black nations have higher crime rates than European nations do. Moreover, official crime statistics have replicated the African/White crime disparity in many nations all over the earth including, but not limited to, Canada, Britain, Australia, France, Israel, Brazil and Japan. (Ellis, Beaver, and Wright, 2009Macimo, 2004; Ministry of Justice, 2012; Murray et al., 2013; Ray, 1985).

The racial crime gap is also known to start early in life. This can most obviously be seen by looking at juvenile arrest rates by race:

Child Crime.png

Further evidence of this comes from data on school punishments. Getting in trouble in school is similar to getting in trouble with the police, both involve rule breaking and, often, violence. The Department of Education has repeatedly shown that Blacks are far more likely than Whites to get in trouble even as early as preschool.

Further still, as already noted, Blacks are more likely than Whites to bully and get into fights in school.

As also already noted, the racial crime gap has existed for a long time. It even shows up in studies using data from the 19th century (Ellis, Wright, and Beaver 2009).

This general picture fits a genetic explanation well. It is hard to see how culture could cause a difference that follows a population through time and around the world. (Unless, of course, this cultural difference itself had genetic origins). It is even harder to think of a more parsimonious explanation for Black crime. This is especially true given that, in light of the genetic evidence presented above, total egalitarianism about race and crime is not a reasonable position to take.

This hypothesis, that Blacks are genetically predisposed towards violence and low self control, also explains why poverty and weak families are present among Africans all over the world. It also explains why people don’t become more criminal when the economy tanks. After all, the economy tanking doesn’t magically change people’s character. However, there will always be an aggressive and impulsive fraction of society which, due to these personality traits, are poor and are having children out of wed lock. This segment of society will then cause correlations between these variables when you look at the total population.

In conclusion, I do not think that poverty and family structure play a very huge role in racial crime differences. Even if they do play some role, a large difference remains when their influence is statistically controlled for and this is an estimate of the largest possible contribution they could have. The immediate cause of racial differences in crime significantly consists of racial differences in aggression, anxiety, and self control. These differences, in turn, are probably partially caused by genetic differences between Blacks and Whites. Other environmental variables are likely involved as well, but this post have concentrated on genetic causes because they are the causes most often ignored.

 

 

Notes

1. Poverty rates were taken from the Census and crime from the Uniform Crime Report

2. Crime data was taken from the 2014 Uniform Crime Report Table 8 and all other data came from the Census Fact Finder. The data came from 1 year estimates of the American Community Survey. “Geographies” was set to “All places within the United States”

3. Crime data was taken from the 2006 Uniform Crime Report Table 8 and all other data came from the Census Fact Finder.  The data came from 1 year estimates of the American Community Survey.“Geographies” was set to “All places within the United States”

4. Poverty rates were taken from the Census and crime from the Uniform Crime Report

5. Incarceration data was patched together by combining many of years of the DOJ’s “Prisoners” reports in conjunction with data from Langan (1986)

6. Data was taken from the World Bank for the year 2014. The regions were defined by the World Bank. Not me.

 

Facebook Comments
  • Jared Huggins

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    • Hayus

      Tell me more on how Blacks need more of what started as a cult formed around a raving peasant Jew.

    • Maple Curtain

      Why does the above article threaten your Christian worldview?

      Can you explain?

      • Fred

        It doesn’t. It makes me concerned for his lack of understand about human behavior. Men especially, need authority, mission, tribe, purpose. Without it we devolve into cults formed around raving peasants (thanks Hayus), that’s why.

        • Maple Curtain

          Assuming you are absolutely correct in your second sentence, you still haven’t said anything in your comments that would lead anyone reading to think the author is wrong about bio-diversity and genetics.

          Given that the Old Testament is full of stories about the Jews fighting against the hated other (i.e. other tribes), why are you attacking this author for suggesting that different tribes/races have differing capabilities and behavioural tendencies, independent of the factors that you cite in your second sentence?

          It seems to me that HBD and Christianity are not at odds, but complementary to one another.

          Where in the Bible does it say that all men are created with equal capabilities and behavioural tendencies?

          • Gbaby

            The bible says that God created man in his own image.

          • Maple Curtain

            “Image.”

            And?

            Do elaborate.

          • Fred

            Good points.

          • Maple Curtain

            Thank you.

        • Kris Polk

          Maybe Black men and White men would both benefit from authority, mission, tribe, purpose,” but this is beyond the scope of the article.
          The issue is that across a wide variety of environments Blacks have a greater underlying tendency for violent crime for various reasons discussed above.

          • Fred

            “…this is beyond the scope of the article. The issue is that across a wide variety of environments…”

            So you want to discuss “your” environments and not all environments including Gods. Pfft, some academic researcher.

          • Kris Polk

            I know what all the individual words in your statement mean, but I don’t know what the statement means as a whole.
            By “environments including Gods,” do you mean Heaven?
            Okay, I guess only the good Blacks went to Heaven so there’s no crime gap there. Glad we got that settled.
            Back on Earth however….

        • It makes me concerned for his lack of understand about human behavior. Men especially, need authority, mission, tribe, purpose. Without it we devolve into cults formed around raving peasants (thanks Hayus), that’s why.

          You don’t understand human behavior.

  • CanIGetaDrop?

    This joke of a study is so hilariously biased towards the writer’s narrative. Of course, it doesn’t even take into consideration things like job discrimination, education gaps between Whites and Blacks in the US, and how the war on drugs targets more minorities than it does Whites. It’s also worth noting that those stupid African immigrants are the most educated group of people in the US, as multiple studies have shown.

    And also lol at “Whites have higher IQs than Blacks.” Even though these tests have been proven to be bullshit, I’m supposed to believe that any or most White people could be Neil DeGrasse-Tyson or Ben Carson.

    • dc.sunsets

      The only job discrimination I ever witnessed was, over and over, non-Asian minorities being hired and promoted, in some cases over whites with far more experience, as Johnson & Johnson (the employer in this anecdote) tried desperately to hit “diversity quotas.”

      • CanIGetaDrop?

        Yet Blacks have higher unemployment rates than Whites (real unemployment rates are possibly far higher), despite those “diversity quotas.” Meaning the irrational fears about “affirmative action” are also bullshit. Affirmative Action was actually designed to correct employment disparities between Whites and minorities, and actually benefit White women more than minorites.

        • Ryan Faulk

          Right, without their privileges, blacks would be more like the blacks in Africa.

          Blacks have it easy, they have advantages, but are still worse off than whites despite those advantages. And there are genetic explanations for this.

          • CanIGetaDrop?

            Privileges, such as?

          • Jeff
          • CanIGetaDrop?

            Both of which I have already debunked.

          • Jeff

            It has not been debunked. Ryan Faulk provided the evidence in this comment section.

          • Gbaby

            If Blacks have high unemployment rates, how does affirmative action privilege them in anyway?

          • Jeff

            I’ll quote Ryan Faulk:

            “Right, without their privileges, blacks would be more like the blacks in Africa.

            Blacks have it easy, they have advantages, but are still worse off than whites despite those advantages. And there are genetic explanations for this.”

          • zerospacer

            Privilege is a matter of INDIVIDUALS being replaced/favored over other INDIVIDUALS. You can’t fix one problem by shifting the (perceived) injustice down the line. A fix would be, say, communities organizing to make their neighborhoods safer for business and children getting more support for completing school. And fixing the economy in general, like our trade policies which have been selling out our economy for decades.
            Ultimately, it’s not a benefit to the individual being privileged or to society to favor them in disregard of their merit, but the opposite. And it treats them like children, which is patronizing and racist.
            The leftist approach is to never look for reasons, just “fix” it down the line, which doesn’t work and then violates equal opportunity for other people. Over time these policies cause greater and greater damage.
            There are more whites in colleges than black because there are alot more white people in the population.

          • dc.sunsets

            Scott Adams (who writes Dilbert cartoons) also writes of what he calls the Diversity Ceiling, where a white male has no hope of promotion. I’ve seen it myself while working for J&J. You can debunk it all you want.

          • Q Ball

            The government needs to help out black people if this is true, to help them cope with their unfair genetics. Maybe lower tax rates and more social security for black people. Its only fair. We do the same with other people who have disadvantaged genes and rare diseases..

        • Kris Polk

          Ryan already linked this, but I suspect you didn’t read it.
          http://thealternativehypothesis.org/index.php/2016/04/15/white-privilege-the-callback-myth/
          Affirmative action creates many Blacks with inflated credentials. This is shown in the adult literacy tests linked in the article above. As a result, businesses probably begin to notice that educational credentials do not predict performance equally for Blacks and Whites.
          Most of the Blacks receiving affirmative action would have gone to college anyway, but now they’re going to mismatched colleges and probably studying something less useful. Is a promising Black student *really* better off studying Black Studies at Duke than studying civil engineering at North Carolina Central?
          I used to feel sorry for Blacks who are mismatched like this, since no one tells them why they’re at the bottom of their class at their mismatched schools, but that was before I realized that most of them think the way you do.

        • dc.sunsets

          Explain to me how hiring less competent people over more competent people is good, or do you think jobs just “exist” independent of what those who are employed are supposed to produce? Are jobs just sinecures to be handed out like LINK cards and Obamaphones?

          • Kris Polk

            Bingo.
            One argument I’ve heard is that ‘SAT score is not a good predictor of academic success in university,’ which is used to implicitly suggest that success in school and jobs is basically random, so why *not* go ahead and turn it into a social engineering lab? They’re just jobs, after all.
            This is true, of course, within students at the same university. That is, among a set of students who have been pre-selected for SAT scores in a similar range, other factors predict success once admitted. Not surprising at all, since you’ve limited your data set.
            Granted if you get a set of public high schools students – which is much more representative of the population as a whole – their SAT scores predict success in college much more, especially if you’re also considering what colleges they go to. But if you link to a study that points this out, people will just say that’s false and link another study which uses a different data set.
            The progressive blog ‘slatestarcodex’ recently had a post about this and it addresses how this problem often confuses medical outcome studies, if anyone needs a link for people who are extremely source-paranoid.

    • dc.sunsets

      So, you’re walking down a poorly lit city street and notice three young males may be following you. Are you going to claim you are as or more concerned about them being white or Asian, rather than if they’re clearly black? Seriously? Take a stroll in Chicago’s Englewood neighborhood.

      • CanIGetaDrop?

        What’s your point? I could take a stroll through a rough, predominantly-White neighborhood and feel just as unsafe.

        • Ryan Faulk

          Yes you are saying that here but you are definitely lying.

          • CanIGetaDrop?

            You ever been to Dundalk?

          • Maple Curtain

            Whites don’t kill Blacks for kicks, but Blacks kill Whites for kicks every day.

          • CanIGetaDrop?

            White people cut off the dicks of Black men and strung them up on trees for shits and giggles.

          • Maple Curtain

            Really?

            Source?

          • CanIGetaDrop?
          • Jeff
          • Ryan Faulk

            Right, you linked pictures of blacks that were executed. Hanging was a very common form of execution.

            I write about the lynching myth here, looking at studies about that:
            http://thealternativehypothesis.org/index.php/2016/04/19/segregation/

            I’m sorry that you are so angry and have bought into civil rights propaganda, but the data on lynching is quite clear.

          • CanIGetaDrop?

            Lol, lynching is execution. Lol I’m done.

          • Ryan Faulk

            Correct, it’s execution. The people lynched were accused of rape and murder and cattle stealing mostly. There’s no reason to assume that the people who were hanged didn’t deserve it in a systemic basis.

            Maybe you can find an individual who didn’t deserve it, but you can find individuals from court trials who were killed and later found innocent too.

          • Gbaby

            This is one of the worst examples of revisionist history I’ve ever seen.

          • Ryan Faulk

            What’s to revise though? Where did the idea that the hangings in the former CSA were racially biased come from? I present you data, you present testimony, memoirs and claims. You never should have had an opinion on “lynchings” in the first place.

          • Ryan Faulk

            Just stop. These tales of “dangerous white neighborhoods” are always overblown. The most dangerous white area is safer than the average black area.

        • dc.sunsets

          Are you aware that young black males (perhaps 3% of the US population) account for 50% of violent crime? “Just as unsafe”? Really? I mean, really? Just as unsafe in a poor part of Appalachia as you would in Chicago’s Englewood? Ever been to heyjackass.com? I know, I know… it’s all due to racism….(facepalm.)

          • 3 percent of the population (young black males) account for 42 percent of the murders.

          • dc.sunsets

            What a waste of time. If America is so bad, why aren’t blacks streaming back to Africa? Why are Mestizos, Somalis, Chinese, Indians and every other clown streaming here by the trainload? You and I know what neither they nor their Caucasian pathological altruist apologists can’t face. The golden eggs desired by all are the exclusive product of genetically Western people laboring under Western Civilization. They hate us for it, too.

            Sooner or later we (or our descendants) will separate from the rest, leaving them to wallow in the best they can do without us. I hope to live long enough to see it.

      • Fred

        Wrong question. You see a group of males coming toward you. Are you less concerned because they follow Jesus and fear God?

        • Hayus

          Christianity has been discredited since Darwin.

        • dc.sunsets

          If they just came out of a church (without the collection plate, that is), then yes, I’d be less concerned. I’d be more concerned if they had facial tattoos. I’d be less concerned if they were dressed in coats and ties. But let’s try, even slightly, to be intellectually honest here. Young black males are vastly overrepresented in violent crime commission. I know numbers hurt, and the truth hurts, but aligning ones understanding with reality is the foundation of sanity. http://www.colorofcrime.com/2016/03/the-color-of-crime-2016-revised-edition/

    • Ryan Faulk

      It’s more than one. But we have dealt with the job discrimination myth:
      http://thealternativehypothesis.org/index.php/2016/04/15/white-privilege-the-callback-myth/

      On the drug laws myth, scroll down after the 5th chart on this post:
      http://thealternativehypothesis.org/index.php/2016/07/09/black-lives-matter-and-the-lies-that-caused-the-police-shootings-in-dallas-and-elsewhere/

      However, we have data on incarceration rate by crime, and blacks have higher incarceration rates for violent crimes as well.

      – Or just do a ctrl+f and drugs and you will see that the idea that drug laws are used to target blacks.

      On education, yes, there is an education gap. However, this has nothing to do with school quality:
      http://thealternativehypothesis.org/index.php/2016/04/15/school-quality-as-a-cause-of-racial-iq-gaps/
      http://thealternativehypothesis.org/index.php/2016/05/16/follow-up-on-vouchers/

      And actually on African immigrants, that is a myth:
      http://thealternativehypothesis.org/index.php/2016/04/15/black-immigrants-to-the-us-and-the-uk-blacks/

      30.7% of native-born whites have college degrees, and 38.1% of white immigrants have degrees.
      16.5% of native-born blacks have college degrees, and 25.8% of african immigrants have degrees.

      However, consider that universities are heavily biased toward blacks:
      http://thealternativehypothesis.org/index.php/2016/04/16/racism-in-university-admissions/

      They are also biased in favor of foreigners, and a black foreigner thus has an extremely easy time of getting into a US college, so even if black immigrants did have higher levels of college degrees, it doesn’t necessarily mean anything about intelligence.

      Regarding IQ tests, they are both reliable (the give similar results over multiple testings) and have a high degree of predictive validity:
      http://thealternativehypothesis.org/index.php/2016/04/15/the-validity-of-iq/

      They are an excellent predictor of perceived intelligence, and the correlation between a person’s IQ and how smart other people think he is increases the longer they spend around him. It’s also a better predictor of job performance and income than education level is. So no, IQ is an extremely valid metric; it’s a better predictor of what kind of person you are than your degree is, especially considering that white college dropouts score higher on tests of basic job skills (understanding documents, ability to write and understand basic math) than black PhDs do, as shown in the first article I linked you here.

      Neil Tyson is one person, and he would be smart enough to know what an “average” and a “normal distribution” is. But here’s an image that may explain the concept to you:

      • CanIGetaDrop?

        Sources, all based on blogs written on this website.

        • Maple Curtain

          You already lost. You can go away now.

          • CanIGetaDrop?

            What a compelling argument.

        • Jeff

          Yes, that’s because they have heard all the arguments from the “anti-racists” before so they put all the refutations on this site. None of your arguments are new. It’s the same recycled crap that has been debunked many times before. You are boring and predictable. Run along now.

        • Ryan Faulk

          They are articles that link to hundreds of studies that we have read. Each thing you just rattled off is a topic of extensive study. They are common talking points all smushed together by activists talking to each other that have filtered down to people like you.

          They became popular talking points because of their political impact, and because they enrage and animate blacks and thus spread particularly fast among blacks (look in the mirror), not because of their truth.

          How all of these anti-white ideas you hold spread? Look in the mirror. How are you emotionally reacting to my much simpler message: that blacks are not and were never particularly oppressed, and the entirety of black-white life differences are due to genetic differences.

          And of course there have to be some genetic differences; we evolved in different places. How implausible it would be if they ended up with the same genetic intelligence. If you were saying that blacks were actually genetically smarter than whites – that would be an intellectual advancement on your part.

          While that is clearly and obviously wrong, at least you would then be somewhat dealing in reality and putting forth an idea that could possibly be true, not the religious delirium of “equality”.

          • CanIGetaDrop?

            So that means I could quote the NAACP, the Urban League, and the ACLU?

            How do all of these anti-Black ideas you hold spread? Fear? Insecurity? A lack of any significant accomplishments in your own personal life that leads you to attach yourself to your socially-constructed Whiteness in order to feign greatness? You rednecks are all the same.

          • Jeff

            You could quote them, but that wouldn’t make it true. This website has all the refutations to what the NAACP, the Urban League, and the ACLU have to say.

          • Ryan Faulk

            You’re trying to copy but it doesn’t work. Your lame old lines about the pathologies of “racists” are increasingly thin and ham-fisted. All of the predictions of the “NAACP” and “Urban League” and similar black nationalist organizations have all failed, and so they invent ever newer, ever more unfalsifiable, ever more exotic forms of “white supremacy”.

            Look, the one demanding power and control over another race is you, not me. I don’t get my rocks off white people being better than black people any more than I am satisfied knowing that we’re better than chimps or gorillas. The one bringing up status is you. It is blacks who are status-obsessed, and you imagine that I’m the same way.

            Status-obsessed people don’t push heterodox political views; they always hold totally stock, plumbline opinions like you do, because that gives them the most friends and the most positive reinforcement from others. Saying what I say just brings on scorn and hate.

            And you do it based on bogus grievance claims that never end, and it will never end because there are some people who achieve great money and status doing it, and there are people like you who get super emotional and animated because it’s your people.

            It’s a very easy game; nothing gets you more hopped up than believing YOUR group is being attacked by this OTHER group. As a result you have very, very little skepticism about these claims.

            But the great irony is that the only reason this works is because white people are overwhelmingly kind to blacks; if they weren’t, there wouldn’t have been segregation because the blacks would have either been sent back to Africa in 1865 or killed outright.

            If whites had just exterminated all the blacks in 1865, there would be no NAACP, BLM, Urban League, SPLC or any anti-white movement at all.

            It can’t be denied – your ability to level these grievances today is due to whites NOT KILLING ALL BLACKS in 1865. You are punishing whites for not killing all blacks in 1865.

        • Q Ball

          This article, if true means the world is not fair. not the meritocracy we imagine. Its horrible that blacks have to work ten/hundred/thousand times as hard fighting their genes as other races, only to achieve the same outcome. How can we elevate the black people in the world?

          • Ryan Faulk

            Well you’re missing the point. If East Asians have better genes, why aren’t their countries better? I’m not trying to “justify white supremacy” but to respond to these attacks on whites.

            But with blacks, first off, in 1950 the population of Africa was ~200 million. It is now 1.11 billion. The situation has become absurd. You are saying that whites must pay because black people have come into existence.

          • Q Ball

            Actually East asia is quickly catching up and set to surpass the west, because they are not limited by ethical considerations.
            http://www.nature.com/news/chinese-scientists-genetically-modify-human-embryos-1.17378
            If anything I expect China to colonize mars before the west and to create the worlds first superhuman.

            Asian supremacy could be worse than white supremacy, hopefully not.

            And the countries lagged behind for obvious reasons.IQdoes not determine everything. Look at north korea vs south korea. both were dictatorships in the 1950s, yet only one prospered and turned into a democracy eventually. But same genetic potential.

          • dc.sunsets

            East Asian IQ mean is higher than Caucasian, but sadly that’s 1/2 the issue. Asian culture in general is too conformist to support the innovation we take for granted in Western Civ. Anecdotally, my kids in IT and engineering tell story after story about how far below US standards Chinese engineers operate. In the larger world, Japan’s spectacular fail on HD TV and the obsession China has with hacking & stealing the innovations of Western firms tell the same story.

            China has has civilization & technology for millennia but never developed actual science, and even now Asians (like everyone else) flood into the West to obtain the fruits of Western Civilization they can’t produce at home.

            There is no Western prosperity without Westerners predominant and running things.

          • Q Ball

            You are mistaken East Asia is now already more innovative than the west
            http://www.nytimes.com/2016/08/03/technology/china-mobile-tech-innovation-silicon-valley.html
            http://www.nature.com/news/chinese-scientists-genetically-modify-human-embryos-1.17378
            The myth that Chinese cant innovate is the west downfall. Its also because the west is sharing its wealth with the third world and being way too altruistic. The authoritarian nature instead of Asia is a great asset because it removes the disadvantages of the west model, like ethics, while keeping the advantages, like prosperity. You wont see China letting in masses of low IQ third-worlders, they are smarter than that.

            Remember Slaitor the traitor? The British never thought uncivilized americans could outcompete them.

          • Q Ball

            actually in many respects asia has surpassed the west
            http://www.unz.com/akarlin/sinotriumph/
            http://www.nytimes.com/2016/08/03/technology/china-mobile-tech-innovation-silicon-valley.html
            they are the cutting edge.
            In fact the silicon valley “white innovation engine”, is asian dominated now
            http://www.siliconvalleyoneworld.com/2015/04/20/demographers-asians-now-outnumber-whites-in-silicon-valley/
            so who says asians cant innovate is biased to overvaluing history instead of the future trend

            white ppl cannot compete, unless they braindrain asians from Asia. its funny. because then the future could be characterized possibly by two asian nations competing, but with different politics.

            cant stop the asian invasion
            http://www.strategic-culture.org/news/2016/10/11/eurasian-century-now-unstoppable.html

          • Q Ball

            Because they didnt stumble upon the framework of science until the Jews invented it. Europe had the luck of having the jews. 1% of world population and 200 Nobel prizes.

      • CanIGetaDrop?

        1. Universities also aren’t biased towards minorities, or foreigners, which is a myth. It’s also extremely difficult for foreigners to get visas to come into America, let alone get into an American college. They want people who meet the criteria of getting into the school. Of course, according to your ideology, it is inconceivable for a Black person to be more intelligent and qualified than a White person, so Blacks getting into college at all is attributed to affirmative action.

        2. Here are some very good articles about the drug war:

        How society has shifted its treatment of the Heroin epidemic (which mainly affects suburban Whites) vs. the Crack epidemic (which mainly affected inner-city Blacks and Latinos)
        http://www.cleveland.com/open/index.ssf/2016/02/heroin_vs_crack_society_shifts_in_its_treatment_of_addicts.html

        Race and the Drug War
        http://www.drugpolicy.org/race-and-drug-war
        “Although rates of drug use and selling are comparable across racial lines, people of color are far more likely to be stopped, searched, arrested, prosecuted, convicted and incarcerated for drug law violations than are whites.
        Higher arrest and incarceration rates for African Americans and Latinos are not reflective of increased prevalence of drug use or sales in these communities, but rather of a law enforcement focus on urban areas, on lower-income communities and on communities of color as well as inequitable treatment by the criminal justice system. We believe that the mass criminalization of people of color, particularly young African American men, is as profound a system of racial control as the Jim Crow laws were in this country until the mid-1960s.”

        3. African immigrants, in many cases, come from dirt poor families. Even still, Nigerian immigrants in particular have an education rate of 40%, which certainly isn’t low at all: http://www.tadias.com/10/15/2014/census-foreign-born-africans-most-educated-immigrants-in-u-s/

        4. IQ tests are notoriously unreliable: http://www.webmd.com/brain/news/20121218/iq-test-really-measure-intelligence

        Not only that, but these surveys tend to have poor representations of the groups surveyed.

        • Jeff

          He just debunked all your claims and the best you can do is to just repeat the same debunked claims. You are pathetic.

        • Jeff

          The article you cited on IQ tests being “notoriously unreliable” said nothing of the sort. You are either a troll or a blithering retard.

          • CanIGetaDrop?

            Literally the first three paragraphs were:

            “Single tests that measure intelligence quotient, or IQ, may become a thing of the past.

            A new study of more than 100,000 participants suggests that there may be at least three distinct components of intelligence. So you could not give a single, unified score for all of them.

            Researchers’ understanding of the complexities of the human brain has evolved, and so too has the notion of IQ, what it really means, and how it is most accurately captured.

            “There are multiple types of intelligence,” says researcher Adam Hampshire, PhD. He is a psychologist at the Brain and Mind Institute Natural Sciences Centre in London, Ontario, Canada. “It is time to move on to using a more comprehensive set of tests that can measure separate scores for each type of intelligence.””

          • Jeff

            None of that said that IQ tests are unreliable.

          • Gbaby

            Haha, you’re just getting into semantics. If you could read, you’d see that it’s what the article is saying.

          • Jeff

            Nowhere does that article say that IQ tests are invalid. I read the entire thing and it’s simply not there.

          • “There are multiple types of intelligence,” says researcher Adam Hampshire, PhD. He is a psychologist at the Brain and Mind Institute Natural Sciences Centre in London, Ontario, Canada. “It is time to move on to using a more comprehensive set of tests that can measure separate scores for each type of intelligence.””

            Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences was debunked in The Bell Curve.

            A new study of more than 100,000 participants suggests that there may be at least three distinct components of intelligence. So you could not give a single, unified score for all of them.

            Visio-spatial, verbal and the all-encompassing g.

            g has been empirically verified.

            https://notpoliticallycorrect.me/2016/05/11/arthur-jensens-method-of-correlated-vectors/

            https://notpoliticallycorrect.me/2016/05/18/more-g-denialism-and-more-gould-refuting/

        • Ryan Faulk

          Well I showed clear evidence of University bias toward blacks. Blacks get into Universities with worse scores. This is a trufax data thing; this is not a secret. It’s called “affirmative action”.

          And no, in the article I linked you on drug use, I showed that blacks actually do use illegal drugs at the same rate they are incarcerated. This is validated through urine tests and overdose rates which correspond to the incarceration rate.

          The only evidence that blacks use illegal drugs at the same rate whites do comes from surveys. Why would you use surveys when you could use real evidence instead? Especially when blacks have a super obvious reason to lie.

          The article you linked on IQ tests had nothing to do with the predictive validity or reliability of IQ tests. It just said some vague, unquantifiable fluff about “multiple intelligences”, but it did so without even mentioning “g” – which is the argument that all cognitive function is somewhat generalized, and thus any cognitive test in some sense measures this “general intelligence”.

          I don’t know why you’re bringing up Einstein. I agree, if I used Einstein as evidence that white people are smart, that would be a very, very dumb argument. But I didn’t. The race differences in intelligence is something we know from a broad range of studies and standardized test data.

          As for “poor representations”, how would you know? Here’s all the studies on the IQs of various races that I have compiled just on this site, and you can see how much all of the studies correspond with each other, and you can tell me what you thing the problems are:
          http://thealternativehypothesis.org/index.php/2016/04/20/the-iq-scores-of-different-groups/

          Moreover, you say “poor representation”, but you have precisely ZERO operational evidence of racial equality. The representation of the evidence of racial genetic intellectual equality that you present is precisely NOTHING.

          • CanIGetaDrop?

            “Well I showed clear evidence of University bias toward blacks. Blacks get into Universities with worse scores. This is a trufax data thing; this is not a secret. It’s called “affirmative action”.”

            Is this on average, or are you just making stupid generalizations?

            “And no, in the article I linked you on drug use, I showed that blacks actually do use illegal drugs at the same rate they are incarcerated. This is validated through urine tests and overdose rates which correspond to the incarceration rate.”

            Even though multiple sources show that Blacks and Whites use drugs at roughly the same rate, yet Blacks are incarcerated more. As if urine tests, which are super unreliable, are accurate measurements of drug use.

            “The only evidence that blacks use illegal drugs at the same rate whites do comes from surveys. Why would you use surveys when you could use real evidence instead? Especially when blacks have a super obvious reason to lie.”

            Because you have a “super obvious reason” to only use sources that back your narrative. For example, since you bring up overdose rates, you probably didn’t know that White adults ages 25-34 actually lead in drug overdose deaths: http://www.nytimes.com/2016/01/17/science/drug-overdoses-propel-rise-in-mortality-rates-of-young-whites.html

            They particularly lead in heroin deaths: http://www.usnews.com/news/blogs/data-mine/2015/08/19/the-heroin-epidemic-in-9-graphs

            “The article you linked on IQ tests had nothing to do with the predictive validity or reliability of IQ tests. It just said some vague, unquantifiable fluff about “multiple intelligences”, but it did so without even mentioning “g” – which is the argument that all cognitive function is somewhat generalized, and thus any cognitive test in some sense measures this “general intelligence”.”

            Because intelligence is made up of, and determined by, a variety of factors. IQ tests are flawed because they depend on one singular measurement of intelligence. Most standardized tests are flawed in this manner.

            “I don’t know why you’re bringing up Einstein. I agree, if I used Einstein as evidence that white people are smart, that would be a very, very dumb argument. But I didn’t. The race differences in intelligence is something we know from a broad range of studies and standardized test data.”

            Of course you missed my point. You said that Neil DeGrasse-Tyson is one man. If Whites have “bigger brains” and “higher IQs”, both of which, mind you, have both been discredited, then any or most White people could be Neil DeGrasse-Tyson, and every White person could be Albert Einstein.

            “As for “poor representations”, how would you know? Here’s all the studies on the IQs of various races that I have compiled just on this site, and you can see how much all of the studies correspond with each other, and you can tell me what you thing the problems are:”

            Because these studies were carried out years ago by White supremacists who sought to prove a point. They used poor representations of other groups, and the tests themselves are culturally biased.

          • Jeff

            None of that tells us how much each race does drugs. It is a fact that blacks lie about drugs more and are more likely to do things that get them noticed for using or selling drugs. There is no evidence for racism in drug arrests and that’s already been proven on this site.

          • Gbaby

            “It’s a fact that Blacks lie about drugs more…”

            More assumptions and generalizations not backed by anything.

          • Jeff

            Evidence was provided in this comment section. You’re just ignoring inconvenient facts.

          • Ryan Faulk

            It’s backed by randomized urine tests and ER admissions for drug overdose. Those two pieces of data match the incarceration rate.

            It is your idea that is backed by nothing, mere surveys.

          • The truth about racial differences in drug arrests:

            http://www.amren.com/archives/videos/race-and-drug-arrests-another-big-lie/

    • Hayus

      Whites are too busy being the likes of Steven Pinker to be an internet meme.

    • dc.sunsets

      The US military has used IQ tests for a century. Since you know better than they do about their utility, I’m sure they’d appreciate you setting them straight. As to job discrimination, you’ve got it backwards. US corporations move mountains to hire blacks, even marginally qualified ones, and promote blacks over whites. I saw it quite frequently while working at J&J, and Pfizer, etc. do it too. A black who is even marginally capable has the world at his (or especially her) feet during this equalist mania of trying to prove all people are equal (except when it comes to sports.)

    • ruralcounsel

      Consider that job discrimination is a product of those hiring being concerned about propensity for violence and criminal behavior ….

  • Hytyjin

    What should be done to counteract this problem?

  • Frontierland

    Very good document to share with normie disbelievers. Very thorough.

  • Cajean

    Really? Blacks have a genetic propensity for crime and poverty? “Poverty” is not even something that can be controlled by genes because it is a societal construct. I really hope no one takes this post seriously. This narrative takes us way back to a time when scientists and politicians were trying to use a similar narrative in order to justify racism. Please don’t believe this nonsense.

    • Ryan Faulk

      What is unserious is your assumption that they would be precisely the same. And by the heritability of poverty, we’re talking about the behaviors that lead to poverty.

      Lets start with some basic questions: do genes influence behavior? Can different people have different genes which cause differences in behavior? Can arbitrary groups of people have different genes which influence behavior on different average directions? Can these genes correspond, to some degree, to the traditional categories of race? The answer to all of these questions is “yes”.

      As for “justify racism”, it’s not about justifying anything. It’s about saying, specifically to black people in the United States, that they are not put upon, that they are not owed, and that they greatly benefited from the atlantic slave trade. That the differences between blacks and whites in the United States is mostly down to genetics, or entirely down to genetics depending on what you consider a group environmental difference.

      In fact it is the exact opposite; the presumption of genetic equality has caused outcome inequality to be seen as something bad happening to blacks and to a lesser extent hispanics. And this is then used to attack whites.

      • rawlsio

        I think you undermine your credibility when you say that the purpose of an ostensibly scientific analysis of this issue is “…about saying, specifically to black people in the United States, that they are not put upon…” I can’t think of a generous interpretation of those words that could possibly make them true, which makes your defense sound very much like reasoning motivated to reach your conclusion.

        But I don’t want to talk about that yet. What the article was missing for me was a more convincing presentation of the data describing genetic variations causing the identified (violence and poverty-related) behaviors within racial groups rather than across them. Many studies are cited and I assume that many (?) of them address behavioral variations within the “white” population that could be caused by varying levels of MAO-A, testosterone, IQ-related genes, etc. Without making these same-group behavioral variations more explicit, it’s very hard to untangle the complicated cultural factors (yes – there is “culture” and it does influence behavior to some degree) and will always lead to the suspicion that the genetic factors examined leave out important if not crucial components of the explanation.

        I think all fair-minded, scientifically literate people can start from the premise that humans are just bundles of genes that are expressed in us for historically contingent reasons that we as individuals have no control over. The deep truth about genetic explanations for behavioral variations among individuals is that the better and more complete the genetic explanations are, the less true and less relevant all the political, moral, religious and sociological explanations are. And what holds true for individuals must hold true for racial groups, since they are just sub-sets of individuals sorted according to a handful of genetically-determined traits that happen to occur more frequently in this group than in that one.

        The problem comes when people try to use genetic explanations as a reason to blame and to create blame-based social systems that end up punishing groups of people for the genes that happen to inhabit members of that group in somewhat greater frequency than the other group. It’s this irrational trick of the mind that moves us so quickly from explanation to blame to counter-productive “solution” that infects all conversations about race + genetics + any unattractive behavioral characteristic.

        Imagine if we decided that people with a genetic propensity for bad eyesight were morally inferior because they “failed to take care of their eyes” like the well-sighted people did, then concluded that the best solution is to gouge out their eyes as a way to discourage others from developing bad eyesight and as a way to protect ourselves from the dangerous mistakes people with poor eyesight make that could imperil the lives of our children. That’s essentially the way we’ve decided to use law enforcement and mass incarceration to deal with violence in this country, and it’s every bit as stupid and wasteful and counter-productive as gouging out eyes would be as a solution to bad eyesight. The difference is that several hundred years ago we invented glasses and then more recently contact lenses, which are two non-blame-based technologies that compensate for a genetic burden that otherwise makes the lives of many people much worse. But we haven’t yet mastered the relevant technologies that would give us similar control over the genetic propensities at work in the case of violence, so we’re stuck in a pointless debate between Donald Trump and BLM about when to gouge eyes, how many have been gouged, what we should use to gouge them… blah blah blah.

        If it’s true that genetic factors are the best explanation for the behaviors that lead to poverty and violence, then I think we are obliged to accept the full weight of that conclusion and to act accordingly. One immediate implication is that the genes causing these behaviors persist because they were adaptive at some point in our shared genetic past. They are a deep part of our heritage as a species and played some important role in getting our species to this point. (This is especially the case if, as suggested here, testosterone production is correlated with violent behavior, since it is also correlated with fertility.)

        It’s fine for us to conclude that we need to moderate the influence of these genes or to compensate for the effect of these genes because they have become maladaptive in modern society. But the WAY we choose to moderate and compensate for the impact of these genes is the crucial issue. It is a serious conclusion that involves a serious commitment among serious people to address a species-wide medical/genetic burden. The way we (eventually) addressed AIDS after we stopped blaming it on gay men. The way we addressed cholera after we stopped blaming it on “miasma”. The way we addressed epilepsy after we stopped blaming it on witches and devils.

        One thing you’re hearing when you read comments challenging the credibility of this article is fear. Fear that the enormity of your conclusion will not be matched by a seriousness of moral purpose in addressing the problem you are identifying. Fear that the conclusion will be politicized, summarized and ground down into a “policy proposal” that has all the gravity and nuance as a slogan on a hat at a Trump rally. The fear itself is an impediment to progress, but it’s real and it’s not going away as long as we live in a world where “isolated acts of terrorism by jihadist muslims” becomes “muslim war on our civilization” becomes “ban muslims and surveil mosques”. Or “jews don’t assimilate into German culture” becomes “jews can’t be trusted” becomes “the final solution.”

        Which takes me back to the top, where you say that the point of the article is “about saying to … black people in the United States”… yada yada yada. I’m not trying to be unfair, but that sounds like the goal here is to somehow absolve white people by proving that disparities in outcome can’t possibly be the result of racist white behavior.

        That does not sound like a very serious purpose, nor a highly defensible claim. We know there has been and is still racist behavior by whites in the US that has negative consequences for blacks (and lots of other non-white groups). The harm caused is primarily a consequence of white people being “in charge” of virtually all of the institutions in this society that help determine outcomes. That’s an historical contingency and I think we have every reason to believe that a different racial majority “in group” would treat its own historically-oppressed minorities equally badly.

        Because racism is real. It undoubtedly has a deep genetic basis attributable to some adaptive mechanism and is — like violence — part of our species’ shared heritage. And like violence, racism has become a behavioral burden in the modern world that we need to moderate and compensate for. Figuring out how to do that well is the serious task. One racial group trying to avoid responsibility for its genetically-based bad behavior by pointing out that another group exhibits a different genetically-based bad behavior … is not a very serious, it seems to me.

        • Hayus

          >Imagine if we decided that people with a genetic propensity for bad eyesight were morally inferior because they “failed to take care of their eyes” like the well-sighted people did, then concluded that the best solution is to gouge out their eyes as a way to discourage others from developing bad eyesight and as a way to protect ourselves from the dangerous mistakes people with poor eyesight make that could imperil the lives of our children. That’s essentially the way we’ve decided to use law enforcement and mass incarceration to deal with violence in this country, and it’s every bit as stupid and wasteful and counter-productive as gouging out eyes would be as a solution to bad eyesight. The difference is that several hundred years ago we invented glasses and then more recently contact lenses, which are two non-blame-based technologies that compensate for a genetic burden that otherwise makes the lives of many people much worse. But we haven’t yet mastered the relevant technologies that would give us similar control over the genetic propensities at work in the case of violence, so we’re stuck in a pointless debate between Donald Trump and BLM about when to gouge eyes, how many have been gouged, what we should use to gouge them… blah blah blah.

          So how did getting the cops away workout for Blacks since BLM acted up? Ever see those rising crime levels?

          >It’s fine for us to conclude that we need to moderate the influence of these genes or to compensate for the effect of these genes because they have become maladaptive in modern society. But the WAY we choose to moderate and compensate for the impact of these genes is the crucial issue. It is a serious conclusion that involves a serious commitment among serious people to address a species-wide medical/genetic burden. The way we (eventually) addressed AIDS after we stopped blaming it on gay men. The way we addressed cholera after we stopped blaming it on “miasma”. The way we addressed epilepsy after we stopped blaming it on witches and devils.

          Fag men are seriously overrepresented in HIV cases. Among other things.

          >One thing you’re hearing when you read comments challenging the credibility of this article is fear. Fear that the enormity of your conclusion will not be matched by a seriousness of moral purpose in addressing the problem you are identifying. Fear that the conclusion will be politicized, summarized and ground down into a “policy proposal” that has all the gravity and nuance as a slogan on a hat at a Trump rally. The fear itself is an impediment to progress, but it’s real and it’s not going away as long as we live in a world where “isolated acts of terrorism by jihadist muslims” becomes “muslim war on our civilization” becomes “ban muslims and surveil mosques”. Or “jews don’t assimilate into German culture” becomes “jews can’t be trusted” becomes “the final solution.”

          Muslims are noticeably overrepresented in terrorism and other violent crimes, among other behaviors such as support for Shariah Law. See here:

          http://thealternativehypothesis.org/index.php/2016/07/15/the-nice-france-terrorist-attack-islam-and-the-west/

          https://fanghornforest.wordpress.com/hate-facts/

          >Which takes me back to the top, where you say that the point of the article is “about saying to … black people in the United States”… yada yada yada. I’m not trying to be unfair, but that sounds like the goal here is to somehow absolve white people by proving that disparities in outcome can’t possibly be the result of racist white behavior.

          Please, Blacks have Affirmative Action, welfare, pandering in higher education, a mulatto president who supports rioting when a trial doesn’t go your way, and living standards above any Black prior to the 20th Century. Even in the 1800s by the Civil War Blacks were hardly better off in Africa.

          >That does not sound like a very serious purpose, nor a highly defensible claim. We know there has been and is still racist behavior by whites in the US that has negative consequences for blacks (and lots of other non-white groups).

          Oh, you mean how Black-on-White is higher than White-on-Black crime ( homicides, thefts, rapes)? Or how East Asians have higher incomes than loads of Whites, perform in education within the same ballpark as Whites (if not higher), and with South Asians have a not so minor STEM presence (including Silicon Valley)?

          >The harm caused is primarily a consequence of white people being “in charge” of virtually all of the institutions in this society that help determine outcomes. That’s an historical contingency and I think we have every reason to believe that a different racial majority “in group” would treat its own historically-oppressed minorities equally badly.

          “BLAH BLAH BLAME WHITEY”

          https://zombiemeditations.com/2016/04/28/calling-for-alliance/

          >Because racism is real. It undoubtedly has a deep genetic basis attributable to some adaptive mechanism and is — like violence — part of our species’ shared heritage. And like violence, racism has become a behavioral burden in the modern world that we need to moderate and compensate for. Figuring out how to do that well is the serious task. One racial group trying to avoid responsibility for its genetically-based bad behavior by pointing out that another group exhibits a different genetically-based bad behavior … is not very serious, it seems to me.

          Don’t you have a BLM chimpout to visit?

          • Bob Smith

            You proved @rawlsio’s point beautifully. The author of this piece should extend this study on the genetic predisposition of whites to be racist and elitist to varying degrees based on the amount of melanin in a non-whites skin.

          • Kris Polk

            If you actually got real evidence that ‘racist’ and ‘elitist’ behavior was caused by lack of melanin in white people, we wouldn’t dismiss it just because it hurt our feelings, so long as you had a consistent and meaningful operational definition for each of those two terms.

          • Bob Smith

            I meant the amount of racism and elitism of white people against non-white people being based on the varying degree of melanin. Open up a history book if you need evidence. Examples include the genocide of Native Americans, the Enslavement of Africans, Jim Crow to name a few. But regardless its foolish to connect that solely on genetic factors and although this article is an interesting read it is one sided and very misleading in that it does a terrible job at reiterating the environmental factors involved in behavior. Nice attempt by the author but any Joeblow psychology or neuroscience professor at a university would laugh at this article.

          • Kris Polk

            “Nice attempt by the author but any Joeblow psychology or neuroscience professor at a university would laugh at this article.”
            You can’t appeal to an authority if you can’t either cite that authority’s opinion or argue the case yourself and use authorities as a factual support.
            “Examples include the genocide of Native Americans, the Enslavement of Africans, Jim Crow to name a few”
            You haven’t demonstrated that Whites did anything more than other races did, though. Google the Taiping Rebellion, the Tianbao Rebellion, the expansion of the Zulu Empire under Shaka, or the Biafra War. See how easy this is?
            When making scientific claims one must be more specific.
            “solely on genetic”
            But they never attributed anything in this article solely to genetic factors.

            I understand if these arguments and claims are new to you and cause discomfort, but your objections are awfully vague.

  • Jeff

    I’m not disputing the data you have on race, poverty, and crime; but how is that data reconciled with this?

    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/hpnvv0812.pdf

    • Ryan Faulk

      Poor people are more violent. The genes that lead to behavior that make one violent also lead to behavior that makes one poor. This was made obvious in the article. My concern is how many other people, like you, didn’t get it.

      • Jeff

        No, I get it. Considering that the amount of blacks correlate with crime better than socioeconomic status, I just didn’t expect poor whites and poor blacks to have similar levels of criminality, and I definitely didn’t expect poor Hispanics to have lower rates of criminality than poor whites. However, looking at the study again, it seems like they only recorded victims and not perpetrators. This makes the study even more suspect when it says that poor people are more likely to be victimized by a stranger. All in all, this study doesn’t really seem to indicate much except how often each race of poor people are victimized.
        https://www.voat.co/v/NeoFAG/comments/966177

        • rawlsio

          Also note that the BJS study addresses rates of crime victimization, rather than rates of crime commission, so not really comparable.

          • rawlsio

            Sorry – just noticed that you self-corrected above. I just spent some time with the BJS study so was too quick to jump before reading to the end of your post. Better check my MAO-A levels checked…

  • JusttheFactswithEmotionalInten

    As an education spiritual young black man, i TOTALLY AGREE with this article. You want proof how messed up blacks are when left to their own devices, go to South Africa under the ANC and see statistically that over 25% of ALL BLACK MEN admit to rape. Think about that for one moment, 1 in 4 are rapist by their OWN confession.

    To the young black man in this blog talking about “job discrimination”, its not job discrimination in South Africa or Haiti, in fact, Haiti was the first free black run nation in modern times, and they proved a point over and over again Haiti is a literal hell hole with rape, crime, corruption, crushing poverty, lack of any type of normalcy, and the point is this:

    By in-large (excluding the higher educated productive class of successful blacks (the talented 10th)) blacks:
    * blacks cannot sustain a happy healthy growing civilization: (they lived in africa for thousands of years and a white engineering company has to come and dig water wells and build toilets and make paved roads)
    * blacks ARE more aggressive and they DO ruin neighborhoods because they ruined my own neighborhood
    * aside from the glaring facts of DNA differences, there is a spiritual difference as well, there is a such thing as a curse, and i believe that blacks (excluding the higher educated productive class of successful blacks (the talented 10th)) are cursed for not following God and the curse is thousands of years old.

    In the past, blacks DID rule the world from the nile, they had civilization, they had eduction, they had their right minds and walked up right internally, but something happened, they were arrogant and would not keep the commands of God, instead they worshipped the falcons in the Nile civilizations and rose up and did all sorts of evil in Gods sight, so God CURSED them with an unshakable curse upon them and their children FOREVER until they be destroyed and all nationals shall be astonished at the CURSE of God on them.

    Its astonishing, that immigrants come to usa without any government handouts and quickly get up over the blacks, case in point, poor poverty stricken indians from India come to USA on H1 passports and get jobs and engineers and quickly move to nice houses in the suburbs and raise families and live a nice decent life in America and they JUST GOT HERE and there are MILLIONS of INDIANS from INDIA who live in the USA that make over 100,000 a year. Yet blacks with their FREE education can’t pick up a book and read and learn how to code or program a computer.

    I’m done ranting, i do not feel hurt because i am biracial but the blacks have hurt God in the past by not walking up right before Him and God has gotten a name for himself among all nations by cursing the blacks and their generations over the whole face of the earth who hated him but still blessing a remnant of those who fear God and keep his commands.

    A message to my blessed white brothers and sisters
    YOU BETTER TAKE HEED, God exalted the whites above all other nationalities, for his own purposes, white people you best serve God who exalted you, don’t feel proud and arrogant and peaceful because of your riches, humble yourself before God so God doesn’t curse you as he did the blacks, return to your ways of Honoring God and pray for your black brother and sisters who are cursed because remember, approximately 4 thousand years ago, blacks did rule the earth from the Nile even to south America but God erased all memory of this because he is Holy.

    Amen

    • Jeff

      I don’t know if you’re a troll or just crazy, but I found this amusing. Thanks for the lulz.

      • JusttheFactswithEmotionalInten

        I’m not a troll and I’m not trying to be amusing I’m simply stating the facts there are a few enlightened African Brothers who are intelligent and their eyes are open. The power of civilization has been taken away from african-based Nations and peoples. Only when you have westernized highly educated peoples of color do you get any sort of success. But even this success is Not on par with those of other races. However there are some exceptions. Such as dr. Ben Carson… and there are many many other successes… but by and large there is a worldwide curse an african-based people of color. Our Bell Curve: Most are cursed some are mildly cursed and some are mildly successful and if you are highly successful.

        • Jeff

          I am a race realist, so I pretty much agree with you that races differ in average intelligence. However, this came about because of evolution, not because of some curse by God. Also, there was no time in history when blacks had some secret civilization that got whipped out from existence and memory. That’s just Afrocentric nonsense.

          • JusttheFactswithEmotionalInten

            Fact The Ancient Black Egyptians Educated the Greeks.

            1. The Effects of the Persian Conquest.

            A. Immigration restrictions against the Greeks are removed and Egypt is thrown open to Greek research.

            Owing to the practice of piracy, in which the Ionians and Carians were active, the Egyptians were forced to make immigration laws restricting the immigration of the Greeks and punishing their infringement by capital punishment, i.e., the sacrifice of the victim. Before the time of Psammitichus, the Greeks were not allowed to go beyond the coast of Lower Egypt, but during his reign and that of Amasis, those conditions were modified. For the first time in Egyptian history Ionians and Carians were employed as Mercenaries in the Egyptian Army (670 B.C.), interpretation was organized through a body of interpreters, and the Greeks began to gain useful information concerning the culture of the Egyptians.

            In addition to these changes, King Amasis removed the restrictions against the Greeks and permitted them to enter Egypt and settle in Naucratis. About this same time, i.e., the reign of Amasis, the Persians, through Cambyses invaded Egypt, and the whole country was thrown open to the researches of the Greeks.

            B. The Genesis of Greek Enlightenment.

            The Persian invasion, did not only provide the Greeks with ample research, but stimulated the creation of prose history in Ionia. Heretofore, the Greeks had little or no accurate knowledge of Egyptian culture: but their contact with Egypt resulted in the genesis of their enlightenment. (Ovid Fasti III 338; Herodotus Bk. II p. 113; Plutarch p. 380; Eratosthenes ap Strabo 801–802; Diogenes Bk. IX 49).

            p. 42

            C. Students from Ionia and the Islands of the Aegean visit Egypt for their Education.

            Just as in our modern times, countries like the United States, England, and France are attracting students from all parts of the world, on account of their leadership in culture; so was it in ancient times, Egypt was supreme in the leadership of civilization, and students from all parts, flocked to that land, seeking admission into her mysteries or wisdom system.

            The immigration of Greeks to Egypt for the purpose of their education, began as a result of the Persian invasion (525 B.C.), and continued until the Greeks gained possession of that land and access to the Royal Library, through the conquest of Alexander the Great. Alexandria was converted into a Greek city, a centre of research and the capital of the newly created Greek empire, under the rule of Ptolemies. Egyptian culture survived and flourished, under the name and control of the Greeks, until the edicts of Theodosius in the 4th century A.D., and that of Justinian in the 6th century A.D., which closed the Mystery Temples and Schools, as elsewhere mentioned. (Ancient Egypt by John Kendrick Bk. II p. 55; Sandford’s Mediterranean World p. 562; 570).

            Concerning the fact that Egypt was the greatest education centre of the ancient world which was also visited by the Greeks, reference must again be made to Plato in the Timaeus who tells us that Greek aspirants to wisdom visited Egypt for initiation, and that the priests of Sais used to refer to them as children in the Mysteries.

            As regards the visit of Greek students to Egypt for the purpose of their education, the following are mentioned simply to establish the fact that Egypt was regarded as the educational centre of the ancient world and that like the Jews, the Greeks also visited Egypt and received their education. (1) It is said that during the reign of Amasis, Thales who is said to have been born about 585 B.C., visited Egypt and was initiated by the Egyptian Priests into the Mystery System and science of the Egyptians. We are also told that during his residence

            p. 43

            in Egypt, he learnt astronomy, land surveying, mensuration, engineering and Egyptian Theology. (See Thales in Blackwell’s source book of Philosophy; Zeller’s Hist. of Phil.; Diogenes Laertius and Kendrick’s Ancient Egypt).

            (2) It is said that Pythagoras, a native of Samos, travelled frequently to Egypt for the purpose of his education. Like every aspirant, he had to secure the consent and favour of the Priests, and we are informed by Diogenes that a friendship existed between Polycrates of Samos and Amasis King of Egypt, that Polycrates gave Pythagoras letters of introduction to the King, who secured for him an introduction to the Priests; first to the Priest of Heliopolis, then to the Priest of Memphis, and lastly to the Priests of Thebes, to each of whom Pythagoras gave a silver goblet. (Herodotus Bk. III 124; Diogenes VIII 3; Pliny N. H., 36, 9; Antipho recorded by Porphyry).

            We are also further informed through Herodotus, Jablonsk and Pliny, that after severe trials, including circumcision, had been imposed upon him by the Egyptian Priests, he was finally initiated into all their secrets. That he learnt the doctrine of metempsychosis; of which there was no trace before in the Greek religion; that his knowledge of medicine and strict system of dietetic rules, distinguished him as a product of Egypt, where medicine had attained its highest perfection; and that his attainments in geometry corresponded with the ascertained fact that Egypt was the birth place of that Science. In addition we have the statements of Plutarch, Demetrius and Antisthenes that Pythagoras founded the Science of Mathematics among the Greeks, and that he sacrificed to the Muses, when the Priests explained to him the properties of the right angled triangle. (Philarch de Repugn. Stoic 2 p. 1089; Demetrius; Antisthenes; Cicero de Natura Deorum III, 36). Pythagoras was also trained in music by the Egyptian priests. (Kendrick’s Hist. of Ancient Egypt vol. I. p. 234).

            (3) According to Diogenes Laertius and Herodotus, Democritus is said to have been born about 400 B.C. and to

            p. 44

            have been a native of Abdera in Miletus. We are also told by Demetrius in his treatise on “People of the Same Name”, and by Antisthenes in his treatise on “Succession”, that Democritus travelled to Egypt for the purpose of his education and received the instruction of the Priests. We also learn from Diogenes and Herodotus that he spent five years under the instruction of the Egyptian Priests and that after the completion of his education, he wrote a treatise on the sacred characters of Meroe.

            In this respect we further learn from Origen, that circumcision was compulsory, and one of the necessary conditions of initiation to a knowledge of the hieroglyphics and sciences of the Egyptians, and it is obvious that Democritus, in order to obtain such knowledge, must have submitted also to that rite. Origen, who was a native of Egypt wrote as follows:—

            “Apud Aegyptios nullus aut geometrica studebat, aut astronomiae secreta remabatur, nisi circumcisione suscepta.” (No one among the Egyptians, either studied geometry, or investigated the secrets of Astronomy, unless circumcision had been undertaken).

            (4) Concerning Plato’s travels we are told by Hermodorus that at the age of 28 Plato visited Euclid at Megara in company with other pupils of Socrates; and that for the next ten years he visited Cyrene, Italy and finally Egypt, where he received instruction from the Egyptian Priests.

            (5) With regards to Socrates and Aristotle and the majority of pre-Socratic philosophers, history seems to be silent on the question of their travelling to Egypt like the few other students here mentioned, for the purpose of their education. It is enough to say, that in this case the exceptions have proved the rule, that ail students, who had the means, went to Egypt to complete their education. The fact that history fails to supply a fuller account of this type of immigration, might be due to some or all of the following reasons:

            (a) The immigration laws against the Greeks up to the time of King Amasis and the Persian Invasion, (b) Prose

            p. 45

            history was undeveloped among the Greeks during the period of their educational immigration to Egypt. (c) The Greek authorities persecuted and drove students of philosophy into hiding and consequently, (d) Students of the Mystery System concealed their movements.

            Let us remember that Anaxagoras was indicted and imprisoned; that he escaped and fled to his home in Ionia, that Socrates was indicted, imprisoned and condemned to death; and that both Plato and Aristotle fled from Athens under great suspicion (William Turner’s Hist. of Phil. p. 62; Plato’s Phaedo; Zeller’s Hist. of Phil. p. 84; 127; Roger’s Hist. of Phil. p. 76; William Turner’s Hist. of Phil. p. 126).

            2. The Effects of the Conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great.

            A. The Royal Library and Museum together with Temples and other Libraries are Looted.

            As elsewhere mentioned, it was an ancient custom of invading armies to loot libraries and temples in order to capture books and manuscripts, which were regarded as great treasures. A few instances would be enough to verify this custom: (a) we are informed that during the Persian Invasion beginning with Cambyses, the temples of Egypt were not only stripped of their gold and silver, but rifled for their ancient records. Every Egyptian Temple carried a secret library with secret manuscripts and books. (b) We are also informed that when Athens was captured by the Romans in 84 B.C. the library of books said to have belonged to Aristotle was also captured and taken to Rome. (William Turner’s Hist. of Phil. p. 128; John Kendrick’s Ancient Egypt vol. II p. 432).

            Just as in the invasion of Egypt by the Persians, the invading armies stripped the temples of their gold, silver and sacred books; and just as in the capture of Athens by the Romans Sulla carried off the only library of books which he found; so it is to be expected of Alexander the Great, in his invasion of Egypt. One of the first things that he and his companions

            p. 46

            and armies would do, would be to search for the treasures of the land and capture them. These were kept in temples and libraries and consisted of gold and silver out of which the gods and ceremonial vessels were made, and sacred books and, manuscripts kept both in libraries and in the “Holy of Holies” of Temples.

            It is my firm belief that this indeed was the great opportunity which Alexander gave Aristotle and enabled him and his pupils to carry off as many books as they wanted from the Royal Library and to convert it into a research centre. Apart from the Royal Library at Alexandria, there was also another famous library near by: The “Royal Library of Thebes”; “The Menephtheion”, which was founded by Pharaoh, Setei. The Menephtheion was completed by Rameses II; but little occurs in history about this greatest of Egyptian Royal Libraries.

            However, any invading army would first loot the Royal Library of Alexandria and then would turn their attention to the Menephtheion at Thebes. They would also visit the cities of Memphis and Heliopolis and likewise loot their libraries and temples. This was the ancient custom and certainly one of the ways in which the Greeks received their education from Egyptians. (Egyptian Mythology by Max Muller p. 187–189; 205; Diodorus 16, 51; Bunsen I p. 27; Ancient Egypt by John Kendrick vol. II 56; 432–433).

            It is therefore an erroneous belief that the Greeks, on Egyptian soil, and through their own native ability, set up a great university at Alexandria and turned out great scholars. On the other hand, since it is a well known fact that Egypt was the land of temples and libraries, we can see how comparatively easy it was for the Greeks to strip other Egyptian libraries of their books in order to maintain the new Library at Alexandria, after it had been already looted by Aristotle and his pupils. The Greeks (i.e., Alexander the Great, Aristotle’s school and the succeeding Ptolemies) converted the Royal Library of Alexandria into a research centre, by transferring

            p. 47

            [paragraph continues] Aristotle’s school and pupils from Athens to this great Egyptian Library, and therefore the students who studied there received instructions from Egyptian priests and teachers, until they died out. The difficulty of language and interpretation made it imperative for the Greeks to use Egyptian teachers.

            The Greeks did not carry culture and learning to Egypt, but found it already there, and wisely settled in that country, in order to absorb as much as possible of its culture.

            B. The Royal Library of Thebes: The Menephtheion is described. It was also looted by invading armies.

            But when we read a brief sketch of the magnificence of the Theban Royal Library; The Menephtheion, we even see a better picture and are bound to admit that Egypt was the store house of ancient culture and that that culture was preserved in the form of literature stored away in her great libraries and temples. Great as the Royal Library of Alexandria might have been, we see in the Theban Royal Library something far more magnificent and far more representative of the true greatness of our Ancient Egypt.

            On the left of the steps leading to the second court, there is still seen the pedestal of the enormous granite statue of Rameses; the largest, that ever existed in Egypt, according to Diodorus. Its height has been calculated at fifty-four feet, and its weight, at 887¼ tons; a marvel to the modern mind. The interior face of the wall of the pylon represents the wars of Rameses III. The Osiride pillars of the second court, are the monolithal figures, sixteen cubits in height, supplying the place of columns, and at the foot of the steps leading from the court to the next hall beyond, there were two sitting statues of the King. The head of one of these was of red granite, known by the name of “Young Memon”, was taken away by Belzoni, and is now a principal ornament of the British Museum.

            Beyond this are the remains of a hall 133 feet broad by 100 feet long, supported by 48 columns, twelve of which are

            p. 48

            thirty-two feet in height and 21 feet in circumference. On different parts of the columns, and the walls are represented acts of homage by the king to the principal Deities of the Theban Pantheon, and the gracious promises which they make him in return.

            In another sculpture the two chief Divinities of Egypt invest him with the emblems of military and civil dominion, i.e., the Scimitar, the Scourge and the Pedum. Beneath, the twenty-three sons of Rameses appear in procession, bearing the emblems of their respective high offices in the state, their names being inscribed above them. Nine smaller apartments, two of them still preserved, and supported by columns, lay behind the hall. On the jambs of the first of these apartments are sculptured Thoth: the Inventor of Letters, and the Goddess Saf, with the title of ‘Lady of Letters’; and ‘President of the Hall of Books’, accompanied the former with an emblem of the sense of sight, and the latter of hearing.

            There is no doubt that this is the “Sacred Library” which Diodorus describes as the inscribed “Dispensary of the Mind”. It had an astronomical ceiling, in which the twelve Egyptian months are represented, with an inscription from which important inferences have been drawn respecting the chronology of the reign of Rameses III.

            On the walls is a procession of priests, carrying the Sacred Arts, and in the next apartment, the last that now remains, the king is presenting offerings to the various Divinities. (Ancient Egypt by J. Kendrick Bk. I p. 128–131. Report of French Commission).

            C. Museum and the Library of Alexander were used as a University.

            The Museum and Library of Alexandria were so famous in ancient times, that we wonder why more information concerning this centre of learning, has not come down to us. A few references to authoritative sources might no doubt help to enlighten us on this matter.

            p. 49

            From Sedgwick’s and Tyler’s History of Science, chapter 5 pages 87–119, we learn that the subjugation of Egypt by Alexander the Great in 330 B.C. had checked the further development of Greek civilization on its native soil.

            That after the death of Alexander the Great in 323 B.C., his vast empire was divided among his generals, and that Alexandria, the new Egyptian capital fell to Ptolemy. That the city, barely ten years old, soon became the centre of the learned world, and that by 300 B.C., the Museum (i.e., the seat of the Muses), was founded, and became a veritable university of Greek learning.

            That to the Museum was attached a great library, with a dining hall and lecture rooms for professors, and this became a school of philosophers, mathematicians and astronomers. Here for the next 700 years, science had its chief abiding place.

            Here however, it should be remembered that the above statement of Sedgwick and Tyler is misleading, since the Greeks did not carry a civilization of their own to Egypt, but on the contrary found a very highly developed Egyptian culture, the survival of which was maintained by the use of Egyptian Priests and Scholars as teachers.

            D. A Military Policy of the Greeks to Commandeer Information From the Egyptians was put in operation.

            One of the military policies adopted by the Greek military authorities at Alexandria was the issue of commands to the leading Egyptian Priests for information concerning the Egyptian history, philosophy and religion. As a custom this is no less ancient than modern, since it is also a custom in modern times for victorious armies to confer with the men of science of an invaded country, in order to discover whether or not, there is anything new in the field of science, which they might possess. We would recall how at the end of World War II, the American scientists conferred with the Japanese scientists at Tokio. Accordingly, we are told that Ptolemy I Soter, in

            p. 50

            order to elicit the secrets of Egyptian wisdom or mystery system, ordered Manetho, the High Priest of the temple of Isis at Sebennytus in Lower Egypt, to write the philosophy, and the history of the religion of the Egyptians.

            Accordingly, Manetho published several volumes concerning these respective fields, and Ptolemy issued an order prohibiting the translation of these books which had to be kept on reserve in the Library, for instruction of the Greeks by the Egyptian Priests. Here it becomes quite clear that the first professors of the Alexandrine School were the Egyptian Priests, and that the Scholarchs and pupils of Aristotle’s transferred school, received their training directly from the Egyptian Priests. It is also well to note that the chief text books of the Alexandrine School were Manetho’s books.

            We are told by Apollodorus from whom Syncellus drew his information, that Ptolemy II ordered Eratosthenes, the Cyrenean (i.e., a black man and native of Cyrene) and librarian of the Alexandrine Library, to write a chronology of the Theban Kings, and that Eratosthenes did so with the aid of the Egyptian Hierophants at Thebes (Ancient Egypt by John Kendrick vol. II p. 81; Apollodorus; Syncellus; Clinton, Fasti Hellenici, sub anno).

            Furthermore, it became the custom during the Greek and Roman occupation to use the services of Egyptian Priests and Scholars, as professors at the Alexandrine School. We are told that during the reign of Theodosius (378–395 A.D.), the Egyptian Professor Horapollo wrote a system of the Egyptian hieroglyphics: The Hieroglyphica of Horapollo, which has been regarded as the best that has come down to modern times. We are also told that this professor taught not only at the Alexandrine School, but also at that of Constantinople.

            (John Kendrick’s Ancient Egypt Bk. I p. 242; Leeman’s Amstelod, 1935 translated by Cory).

            3. The Egyptians Were the First to Civilize the Greeks.

            Greece was first civilized by colonies from Egypt, then from

            p. 51

            [paragraph continues] Phoenicia and Thrace. These were under the government of wise men, who not only subdued the ferocity of an ignorant populace by civil institutions, but also cast about them the strong chain of religion and the fear of the gods. Whatever dogmas they had been taught in their respective countries, concerning things divine and human, they delivered to these newly formed societies, with the object of bringing them under the restraint of virtuous discipline. Phoroneus and Cecrops were Egyptians, Cadmus a Phoenician and Orpheus a Thracian, and each of them, through their colonies carried into Greece the religious and philosophical tenets of his respective country.

            The practice of teaching the doctrines of religion to people under the guise of myths originated from the Egyptians and was adopted by the Phoenicians and Thracians, and subsequently introduced to the Greeks.

            According to Strabo, it was not possible in ancient times to lead a promiscuous multitude to religion and virtue by philosophical harangues. This could be effected only by the aid of superstition, by prodigies and fables. The thunder bolt, the aegis, the trident, the spear, torches and snakes were the instruments made use of by the founders of States, to terrify the ignorant and vulgar into subjection. These references must speak for themselves.

            Cheops and Cecrops were the names which the Greeks used for the Egyptian Khufu, who belonged to the 4th Dynasty of the Egyptians or the pyramid age, i.e., 2800 B.C.

            (Strabo Bk. I; Brucker’s Historia Critica Philosophiae with translation by Wm. Enfield: Bk. II p. 62).

            4. Alexander Visits the Oracle of Ammon in the Oasis of Siwah.

            No discussion on Alexander’s invasion of Egypt would be complete without reference to his famous visit to the Oracle of Ammon, situated in the Oasis of Siwah. Alexander had placed a garrison in Pelusium, whence he marched through

            p. 52

            the desert along the eastern bank of the Nile to Heliopolis where he crossed the river to Memphis, where his fleet had been awaiting him, and where he was welcomed by the Egyptians and crowned as Pharaoh. Having sacrificed to Apis and other Gods, Alexander descended the Nile by the Canopic branch and set out on his journey to the Oracle of Ammon in the Oasis of Siwah. His route was along the coast of Libya, as far as Paraetonium, whence he marched through the desert to the Oasis of Siwah. What do we suppose was Alexander’s motive for visiting the Temple of Ammon? Perhaps a brief description of the religious and economic importance of Heliopolis, Memphis, Thebes and Ammonium might help us to determine what it was.

            In the first place these cities were strongholds of the Egyptian religion, where there were many rich temples, schools and Priests, and therefore were representative of the Egyptian religious life. In the second place these cities were centres of education, and after the Persian invasion, Greek students who travelled to Egypt for the purpose of their education, received their training from the Priests of one or all of these cities, as elsewhere mentioned.

            When Pythagoras went to Egypt, he carried a letter of introduction from Polycrates of Samos to King Amasis, who in turn gave him letters of introduction to the Priests of Heliopolis, Memphis, and Thebes. As centres of education, the temples and libraries of these cities contained very valuable books; and in the third place, these regions had previously been captured by the Persians for the very fact of their wealth. This should explain why they included these districts in their Satrapy which paid them an enormous annual tribute amounting to 700 talents of gold, together with the produce of the fisheries of Lake Moeris which amounted to a talent a day, during the six months that the water flowed in from the Nile; and a third part of that sum, during the afflux. In addition Egypt furnished 120 thousand medicini of corn as rations for the Persian troops who were stationed in the White Fort of Memphis.

            p. 53

            [paragraph continues] The equivalent of this tribute was 170 thousand pounds sterling, and shows the underlying motive not only of the Persian invading armies, but also of all invading armies of antiquity. In the case of Alexander there is no exception.

            According to history, the Persians were in occupation of Egypt, and Alexander having mustered superior forces, went there and drove them out and took possession himself. May I ask this question: was this a joke, or was there a motive? And if there was a motive, what else could it have been but that Alexander wanted the wealth in books, gold, silver, ivory, slaves, and tribute which the Persians were extorting from the unfortunate Egyptians?

            In ancient times, the Oracle of Ammon at Siwah was the most celebrated, and Heliopolis, Memphis and Thebes were representatives of the best of Egyptian culture.

            (John Kendrick’s Ancient Egypt Book II P. 433–435; Diodorus 15, 16. Herodotus Book III P. 124; Diogenes Laertius Book VIII; Timaeus of Plato; Pliny N. H. XXXVI 9; Antiphon recorded by Porphyry).

            Next: Chapter V: The Pre-Socratic Philosophers and the Teachings Ascribed to Them

          • Jeff

            Nice Gish Gallop, bruh. I’m not getting into a lengthy debate over this. Just know that know that you Afrocentrists are nuts.

          • JusttheFactswithEmotionalInten

            I am NOT an AfroCentrist, I am NOT even fond of most Africans per se or African Americans… Im NOT into African History or Black History. I just stated well-researched well-corroborated facts about past recorded events by leading historians and universities such as Cambridge. Your very quick to label a person and shut down factually proven dialog.

            Then you go on a personal attack calling a me who am a Highly Educated, Well Respected Man “nuts”.

            I will not stoop to your level of personal labels, I will however quote the sage of the ages, “And yee shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free”

          • Jeff

            Fine, I’ll check out that book. I don’t know what you think you’ve proven, though. If you’re not an Afrocentrist, then there’s nothing really to discuss.

          • Ryan Faulk

            You’re an afrocentrist. Nobody only believes only part of afrocentric kookery, it’s all or nothing.

          • G DANTE

            It is true the egyptians were advanced but the greeks also, so for the egyptians teaching the greeks could be try and vs versa. Saying the egyptians taught the greeks everything that they knew is ignorant, No one knows that. 90% of what scientists say is wrong, like the earth is millions of years old, black matter, the moon has no atmosphire etc.

          • JusttheFactswithEmotionalInten

            Regarding Evolution: God created life, life did not spontaneous arise from nothing.

            One question evolutionist cannot answer:
            “All” modern microbioligist now agree that a single living cell is absolutely staggering in complexity and each cell has an invisible main operating system that “regulates” stageringly complex sub operating systems such as the protien fabrication system, energy fabrication and production system, DNA error correction system, and at least 1 million x a million other systems and their subsystems.

            In fact it is agreed that just 1 cell is 1 million times more complex than a Boeing 747 Factory at Full Capacity.

            I want to make a note here that the Boeing 747 Factory is full of Engineers and technicians “manning” the factory. But what God has done with the cell is make it completely automated, meaning the cell is sooo staggeringly complex, its more complex than a 100% fully “automated” (without any man) boeing 747 factory.

            Take this observation that biologists cannot answer:

            When the DNA is being sequenced from the RNA there’s little particles that fly in unison in the human cell comparable to a tiny small “unmanned” plane or drone. This particle in perfect timing performes an astonishing feat: it flies into place, stops in midflight, attaches to the unzipped portion of the DNA molecule, then it flies in a complex manuver to loop around to “park”, then after a signal is recieved, this particle joins a flying procession of equally spaced “drones” who all release the unzipped portion of the DNA molecule in a backward reverse order. Finally, this particle comes to a halt and parks and then repeats the complete flying manover with simular DNA payload.

            When questioned about this glaringly complex thing that’s happening in the cell. Some microbiologists glaze over the details of this clearly observable technical miracle. They NEVER give EXACT DETAILS as to WHAT power controls: 1) the initial design and assembly of the flying “Micro Drone” particle. 2) the management of the fleet of
            flying “Micro Drone” particles
            3) the communication system of the fleet of flying “Micro Drone” particles.
            4) the navigation and flight path of flying “Micro Drone” particles.

            5) the hive brain of the flying “Micro Drone” particles.

            Microbiologist won’t dare answer any of these HIGHLY SPECIFIC questions because they don’t have the answer, instead they rely on vaque answers that dont really EXPLICITLY EXPLAIN the stageringly complex clearly observable actions of thes DNA transporting drone particles.

            Only God can create something that complex that makes microbiologists silently bow their heads in utter amazement at the shear power and infinent intelligence of our creator…”for we are fearfully and wonderfully made”

          • Jeff

            Creationism has been completely discredited. Same as Afrocentrism. If you want to learn about evolutionary biology, ask a scientist. All of your objections have already been answered.

          • JusttheFactswithEmotionalInten

            I am HIGHLY educated in Sciences including MicroBiology I am even published in the scientific journal on genefolding sequences relating to the United States Department of Health Genome Project. When I an educated microbiologist say thay we scientist CANNOT answer for the amazing complexity of the cell and there’s a growing consensus of us scientists who can only come up with the conclusion that it must be a creator. I will not argue with the less educated elements on this site who speak with emotion and conjecture an resort to name calling instead of citing research as I have done. Concerning the label Afrocentrist… again I’m highly educated in world history along with other highly educated historians such as Henry Louis Gates Jr and I submitted highy cooberrated well-researched facts that prove beyond any doubt that early Egypt rulers were infact very dark skinned broad shouldered highy intelligent desendants of an even more ancient but destroyed civilization of Atlantis. All Egyptian wall reliefs clearly sho black skinned rulers and braided hair black female queens. Even the university that recreated Queen nefertari acknowledges that she was of African descent with brown skin. Then if you visit South America they have huge statues of African descent called olmecs who were a highy advanced race of african decent who ruled Ancient south america. No one can dispute these facts. But seeing how my well cooberrated posts are quickly dismissed and skimmed over without any facts to counter my facts, i will just ignore this post replies from now on.

          • Ryan Faulk

            You aren’t any of those things.

          • JusttheFactswithEmotionalInten

            The university of Cambridge admits that ancient Egypt was Black African…Famous Art Pieces from Ancient Egypt prove they were Blacks

            Exhibit A: Musicians at a banquet. Mural from the tomb of Rekhmire, vizier under Thutmosis III (1490-1439 BCE) and Amenophis II (1439-1413 BCE). 18th Dynasty, New Kingdom, Egypt

          • Jeff

            Egyptians were not black. Anyone with a basic understanding of history knows this. Here’s a little theme song for you nutjobs.

    • Good points. Except, from what I understood who ruled from the Nile were not Blacks but quite a white population.

      And evolution, living in cold climate with long winters explains the differences better and more scientifically than God’s curse

      Additionally, I wonder: what is your percentage of white genes? Are you 100% African? Obama has 50% white genes which is one maior reason for his high intelligence.

      • Wally Wally

        (Because Amren has banned me from commenting, for some odd reason, I’m forced to respond here to a comment you made for the following amren article:“ex chicago police chief black lives matter emboldens criminals hamstrings police”)

        You said:

        “Other than being based on a lie, “Black Lives Matter” is to be blamed for thousands of Black Lives Lost.

        A. Alexander Minsky has requested you show an argument to back your claim of there being a “one to one correlation between BLM and a spike in homicides”. I’d be very interested in seeing such an argument. I hope it comes soon.

  • Mark Martinson
    • Yeah, the explanation is kind of humorous. Basically Lea and Chambers made a copy and paste error, and all the other pop scientists repeated it uncritically. 77 in the Chinese sample is the sample size, not the percentage. It’s still pretty high (40%), but there are other explanations for why East asians tend not to be as violent. MAOA is never presented as the monocause for violent crime.

  • Diane Dina

    Black preach about the past sins of slavery and tyranny today. There are many black nations. Name two where blacks are free.

  • Tirebiter

    Summary : niggers gonna be niggers.

    • Hebrewhelena

      Lol. Sad but true

  • Europeans aka “whites” commit the majority of the crime in the country, including the majority of the violent crime:

    https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-the-u.s/2014/crime-in-the-u.s.-2014/tables/table-43

    https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-the-u.s/2014/crime-in-the-u.s.-2014/tables/table-67

    Afrikans aka “blacks” aren’t 50% of the murderers. That’s not all homicides. It’s only those committed by those in the “race” category, which leaves out Hispanics and every other ethnicity. It’s only races, not ethnicities.

    Most gang-bangers are European. Chart on page 12:

    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/htus8008.pdf

    European women have more babies out of wedlock than anyone and contribute to 67% of babies born out of wedlock. Page 41:

    http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr64/nvsr64_12.pdf

    The actual percentage of Afrikan children in single-parent homes is 53.6% at best. 4.2% of the single fathers are Afrikan, compared to 3.7% for Europeans. XLS links of CH-2 and CH-3: http://www.census.gov/hhes/families/data/children.html

    The U.S. has over 6 million more European kids in single-parent homes than Afrikan kids (see above XLS links). If Europeans didn’t have kids out of wedlock, divorce, and abandon their kids, the total population of kids in single-parent and no-parent homes would drop by nearly 40%. By comparison, Afrikan kids account for 25% of those in single-parent homes. If single-parent homes are a burden to the U.S., Europeans are the drag of all groups.

    Europeans are 40% of those in prisons and jails. That’s the highest of all groups:

    http://static.prisonpolicy.org/images/pie2016_race.jpg

    http://www.prisonpolicy.org/reports/pie2016.html

    Europeans commit so much crime because they’re rarely held accountable. Europeans are 70-76% of the arrestees, but only 40% of those in prisons and jails. That kind of a rescission rate is unheard of for any other demographic. Look at all these European rapist that were set free:

    http://melanoidnation.org/why-are-so-many-white-male-rapists-avoiding-jail-time/

    Afrikans have plenty of self-control. Nearly all the athletes are Afrikan. Most obese and overweight people are European.

    Europeans have more psychopathy than anyone. They’re the majority of mass murderers, serial killers, murder-suicide perpetrators, and violent criminals:

    Chart on page 12:

    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/htus8008.pdf

    https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2015/03/27/nearly-80-percent-of-people-who-commit-murder-suicide-had-a-crisis-in-the-two-weeks-prior/

    Page 22:

    https://www.fbi.gov/file-repository/serialmurder-pathwaysforinvestigations-1.pdf/view

    Europeans commit rape, child molestation, and are owners of child porn at a rate above 80%, which is much higher than Afrikans and every other group. 2nd crime from the top and 9th the crime from the bottom of the charts:

    https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-the-u.s/2014/crime-in-the-u.s.-2014/tables/table-43

    https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-the-u.s/2014/crime-in-the-u.s.-2014/tables/table-67

    “While nearly 70% of those serving time for violent crimes against children were white, whites accounted for 40% of those imprisoned for violent crimes against adults.”

    http://www.yellodyno.com/statistics/statistics_child_molester.html

    And:

    https://www.rainn.org/sites/default/files/Race_or_Ethnicity_of_Perpetrator_052716.svg

    https://www.rainn.org/statistics/perpetrators-sexual-violence

    “Sex-related” stat in chart on page 12:

    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/htus8008.pdf

    We also know the pedophilia in the Catholic Church is well documented.

    Europeans are the majority of pedophiles, incest perpetrators, and bestiality perpetrators.

    Afrikans don’t get stressed and anxious as much because we’re strong-minded. Meanwhile, Europeans commit more suicide than anyone:

    Page 55: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr65/nvsr65_04.pdf

    CanIGetADrop already debunked the myth that Europeans are intellectually superior when he noted the multiple studies that have shown that Afrikan immigrants are the most educated group of people in the US.

  • Michel (1958) conducted the first experiment on self control on a sample of 53 children aged 7-9 living in Trinidad. He found Black children had less self-control than Asian children.

    Many people said that the difference was that negroes are impulsive and would settle for next to nothing if they could get it right away, as well as not working or preferring to work and they preferred to accept smaller things immediately. But the Indians were able to deprive themselves and able to postpone immediate gain for a bigger gain in the future. The black took the smaller reward if they could get it right away whereas the Indian waited if they could get a bigger reward in the future.

    They also say at the end of the paper that this has implications not only for the 2 ethnicities in the study but for further research for studies on relationships between personality variables and this type of behavior in our own culture.

    Mischel says:

    Before this relationship between presence of the father and preference for delayed, larger reinforcement can be generalized, it will of course be necessary to test other cultural groups in a similar experimental situation. The present research emphasized the relationship only between the “physical” presence of S’s father in the home and preference for delayed reinforcement issuing from another male social agent. In view of the obtained significant finding, the relationship between the “psychological” presence of the father (e.g., degree of identification) and this kind of behavior merits further investigation. Such research would seem especially relevant for a further understanding of impulsive behavior and “psychopathy.”

    Here is the full paper

    http://www.grad.umn.edu/sites/grad.umn.edu/files/experimental_study_in_psycholo_0.pdf

  • Hayus

    Question. What keeps marking my posts here as spam?

  • Now people are on here jumping on the Asian bandwagon because Asians are doing better than the Europeans. These tears are baffling.

  • Bob McGuire

    God it’s annoying to have to read the drivel written by africans. Without white people paying the bills and cleaning up the mess they leave behind every place on earth with more that 25% africans ends up a cesspit.

  • blackacidlizzard

    “Land, McCall, and Cohen (1990) ” link is broken, but it is available on the Wayback Machine.

    https://web.archive.org/web/20160420042931/http://www.udel.edu/soc/faculty/parker/SOCI836_S08_files/Landetal_AJS90.pdf