November 23, 2017

The Black-White Crime Gap Across Nations, Time, and Age

This article’s purpose is to act as a storage place for data showing the relative crime rates of Blacks around the world, at different ages, and at different times.

The United States

In the United States, Blacks account for a disproportionately high number of criminals.

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This has always been the case, but the degree of disproportionateness has fluctuated over time:

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Sources can be found in this excel sheet.

Racial differences in misconduct are known to start early. For instance, one report from the US Department of Education found that Black preschoolers are 3.6 times more likely to be suspended than white preschoolers and Black students are 2.3 times more likely than white students to be referred to law enforcement or arrested as a result of a school incident.

Another report, by an organization called the Civil Rights Data Collection, found that Black girls account for 20% of all female preschoolers and 54% of female preschoolers, who are suspended more than once. Black preschool children as a whole were found to be 3.6 times more likely than Whites to be suspended. Looking at all grades, Blacks were roughly 4 times as likely as Whites to be suspended and twice as likely to be expelled.

In 2012, a department of education analysis of over 75,000 schools found that blacks made up 18% of the student population, but 35% of those to be suspended once, 45% of those to be suspended more than once, and 39% of those who were expelled.

Other studies have looked at why it is that Black children get in trouble more. For instance, one study found that the black-white suspension gap was completely accounted for by controlling for past behavioral problems suggesting that the gap is not due to racial bias.

Another study looked at middle school suspensions and found that the racial gap in suspension rates persisted after SES was controlled for, and found that whites and blacks had the same chance of being suspended once they were sent to the office. This too suggests that these disparities are not due to bias.

Finally, data from the US Department of Education shows that in 2011 and 2012 black females accounted for 12% of elementary school suspensions while white girls only accounted for 2% of the suspensions. Researchers also found that darker skinned black girls are more likely to get in trouble that lighter skinned black girls. In particular, black girls with the darkest skin were three times as likely as black girls with the lightest skin to be suspended. Because skin color is a proxy for White admixture, this finding would be predicted based on a hereditarian view of racial differences.

Japan

Blacks also have high crime rates in Japan. Data from Japan reveals the following:

“Considering continents, the highest crime and offence rate is however held by the Africans (0.954%).

The Japanese crime rate is 0.340%, which is similar to the Asian average of 0.314%, but about 10 times higher than that of Western countries, with Oceanians at 0.0044%, Europeans at 0.042% and North Americans at 0.029%.”

England

In England, government data (Table 5.03) shows that Blacks make up around 14% of criminals even though Blacks only account for around 3.5% of their population:

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Canada and Israel

The following chart is from the Handbook of Crime Correlates, which is a gigantic book-length review of a huge number of correlates with crime. These are all the studies they could find on Black-White differences in violent crime rates:

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It is noteworthy that some of these studies are from Israel and Canada. It is also noteworthy that several of the US studies date back to the 19th century.

The World

The following data is from the World Bank. It shows the rate of intentional homicide per 100,000 people by region. As can be seen, the areas with the highest murder rates, Africa and Latin America & the Caribbean, are also the places with the higher Black populations.

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